AP Bio Ch 12 Chromosome & Genes

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AP Biology Quizzes & Trivia

In chapter 12 of the AP Biology class we got to cover chromosomes and genes in the human body. A chromosome contains hundreds to thousands of genes. Take up the quiz below on this chapter and remind yourself on what we covered before the assessment test coming up next week.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Marfan's disease in humans, with its numerous effects, is an example of

    • A.

      Dominance modification.

    • B.

      Incomplete dominance.

    • C.

      Epistasis.

    • D.

      Pleiotropy.

    • E.

      Polygenic inheritance.

    Correct Answer
    D. Pleiotropy.
    Explanation
    Pleiotropy refers to a situation where a single gene has multiple effects on an organism. Marfan's disease is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems in the body, including the skeletal, cardiovascular, and ocular systems. This demonstrates pleiotropy because a single gene mutation leads to a wide range of symptoms and effects in different parts of the body.

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  • 2. 

    A classical example of multiple alleles is

    • A.

      Coat color spotting in cattle.

    • B.

      Height in garden peas.

    • C.

      Pink flowers in heterozygous snapdragons.

    • D.

      Coat color in rabbits.

    • E.

      Albinism in humans and animals.

    Correct Answer
    D. Coat color in rabbits.
    Explanation
    Coat color in rabbits is a classical example of multiple alleles. This means that there are more than two possible alleles that can determine the coat color in rabbits. Different combinations of these alleles can result in a variety of coat colors, such as black, brown, white, or spotted. This is in contrast to traits like height in garden peas or pink flowers in heterozygous snapdragons, which are determined by only two alleles. Albinism in humans and animals is also determined by a single allele, making it different from the example of coat color in rabbits.

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  • 3. 

    What causes Down syndrome?

    • A.

      The lack of pigment production

    • B.

      An extra chromosome 21

    • C.

      The presence of two different codominant alleles

    • D.

      Inability to produce normal connective tissue

    • E.

      The environment interacting with the genotype

    Correct Answer
    B. An extra chromosome 21
    Explanation
    Down syndrome is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21. Normally, individuals have two copies of chromosome 21, but individuals with Down syndrome have three copies. This extra genetic material disrupts the normal development and functioning of the body, leading to the characteristic physical and intellectual disabilities associated with the condition.

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  • 4. 

    What is the hereditary cause of type AB blood?

    • A.

      The lack of pigment production

    • B.

      An extra chromosome 21

    • C.

      The presence of two different codominant alleles

    • D.

      Inability to produce normal connective tissue

    • E.

      The environment interacting with the genotype

    Correct Answer
    C. The presence of two different codominant alleles
    Explanation
    The hereditary cause of type AB blood is the presence of two different codominant alleles. This means that an individual with type AB blood has inherited one A allele and one B allele from their parents. These alleles are codominant, meaning that neither one is dominant over the other, resulting in the expression of both A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells. This is why individuals with type AB blood have both A and B antigens and do not produce antibodies against either type.

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  • 5. 

    A human male has ____ chromosomes with ____ sex chromosomes.

    • A.

      46, XY

    • B.

      48, XY

    • C.

      46, XX

    • D.

      48, XX

    • E.

      48, YY

    Correct Answer
    A. 46, XY
    Explanation
    A human male has 46 chromosomes, with 2 sex chromosomes represented as XY. The number 46 refers to the total number of chromosomes present in a human cell, while XY indicates the specific combination of sex chromosomes found in males.

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  • 6. 

    Different pairs of recessive alleles can interfere with a biochemical pathway and thus produce albinism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Different pairs of recessive alleles can interfere with a biochemical pathway and disrupt the production of melanin, resulting in albinism. Albinism is a genetic condition characterized by the absence or reduction of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes. Inheritance of two copies of the recessive allele from both parents is necessary for albinism to occur. This interference with the biochemical pathway prevents the normal synthesis of melanin, leading to the characteristic features of albinism. Therefore, the statement "Different pairs of recessive alleles can interfere with a biochemical pathway and thus produce albinism" is true.

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  • 7. 

    A small number of recombinants will occur due to crossing over between linked genes on homologous chromosomes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Crossing over is a process that occurs during meiosis where genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes. This process can lead to the formation of recombinant chromosomes, which contain a combination of genes from both parents. When genes are linked, meaning they are close together on the same chromosome, crossing over between them is less likely to occur. Therefore, a small number of recombinants will occur due to crossing over between linked genes on homologous chromosomes. Hence, the statement is true.

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  • 8. 

    Trisomy occurs when a chromosome, usually an autosome, is lost during meiosis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Trisomy actually occurs when there is an extra copy of a chromosome, rather than a lost chromosome. It is a condition where an individual has three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the usual two. This can result in various genetic disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, the statement that trisomy occurs when a chromosome is lost during meiosis is incorrect.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
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  • Nov 10, 2008
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