Anatomy Chapter 5 Test Review

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Anatomy Quizzes & Trivia

Test over chapter five in anatomy that covers tissues.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are tissues?

    • A.

      Groups of organs with a common function

    • B.

      Layers or groups of similar cells with a common function

    • C.

      Cells that connect membranes

    • D.

      Cells that converge and fuse

    Correct Answer
    B. Layers or groups of similar cells with a common function
    Explanation
    Tissues are layers or groups of similar cells with a common function. This means that tissues consist of cells that have similar structures and perform similar tasks, working together to carry out a specific function in the body. These cells are organized in layers or groups, allowing them to efficiently perform their specialized functions.

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  • 2. 

    What are intercellular junctions?

    • A.

      Sites of union between cells

    • B.

      Join cells that form sheetlike layers

    • C.

      Cells interconnected by tubular junctions

    • D.

      Cells linked by plasma

    Correct Answer
    A. Sites of union between cells
    Explanation
    Intercellular junctions are sites of union between cells. These junctions allow cells to physically connect with each other, forming strong connections that help to maintain the structural integrity of tissues. Intercellular junctions play a crucial role in various cellular processes, such as cell signaling, communication, and coordination. They also help to regulate the passage of molecules and ions between cells, ensuring proper tissue function.

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  • 3. 

    What is a tight junction?

    • A.

      Cells are interconnected by tubular channels

    • B.

      Rivets skin cells, enabling them to form a reinforced structural unit

    • C.

      Where the membranes of adjacent cels converge and fuse

    • D.

      Junction formed by joint ligaments

    Correct Answer
    C. Where the membranes of adjacent cels converge and fuse
    Explanation
    A tight junction is a junction where the membranes of adjacent cells converge and fuse. This junction forms a barrier that prevents the leakage of molecules and ions between cells, ensuring the integrity and function of the tissue. Tight junctions are found in various tissues, such as the epithelial lining of the intestine, where they play a crucial role in maintaining the selective permeability of the tissue and controlling the movement of substances across the cell layer.

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  • 4. 

    What is a desmosome?

    • A.

      A type of intercellular junction that rivets skin cells, enabling them to form a reinforced structural unit

    • B.

      Membranes of adjacent cells converge and fuse

    • C.

      Cells are joined together by tight ligaments

    • D.

      Cells are interconnected by tubular channels

    Correct Answer
    A. A type of intercellular junction that rivets skin cells, enabling them to form a reinforced structural unit
    Explanation
    A desmosome is a type of intercellular junction that rivets skin cells together, allowing them to form a strong and reinforced structural unit. This junction helps to provide stability and resistance to mechanical stress, ensuring that the cells remain tightly connected and form a cohesive layer.

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  • 5. 

    The cell membranes  of certain other cells  are interconnected by tubular channels called....

    Correct Answer
    gap junctions
    Explanation
    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow for direct communication and exchange of molecules between adjacent cells. These channels are formed by proteins called connexins, which create a pore-like structure connecting the cytoplasm of two cells. Gap junctions are essential for coordinating the activities of cells in tissues and organs, enabling the rapid transmission of electrical signals and the transport of small molecules and ions. They are found in various cell types, including cardiac muscle cells, neurons, and epithelial cells, facilitating synchronized contractions, neuronal signaling, and the coordination of epithelial barrier function.

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  • 6. 

    What is the study of tissues?

    Correct Answer
    histology
    Explanation
    Histology is the study of tissues. It involves examining the microscopic structure of tissues and organs to understand their composition, organization, and function. This field of study helps in diagnosing diseases, understanding the development and functioning of organs, and advancing medical research. Histologists use various techniques, such as staining and microscopy, to analyze tissues and identify abnormalities or changes in their cellular components. By studying histology, scientists and medical professionals gain valuable insights into the structure and function of different tissues, which is crucial for understanding the human body and developing effective treatments for diseases.

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  • 7. 

    What are the four major types of tissues in the human body?

    • A.

      Epithelial

    • B.

      Connective

    • C.

      Cancerous

    • D.

      Muscle

    • E.

      Nervous

    • F.

      Alvolia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Epithelial
    B. Connective
    D. Muscle
    E. Nervous
    Explanation
    The four major types of tissues in the human body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Epithelial tissue covers the surfaces of organs and lines body cavities, providing protection and absorption. Connective tissue supports and connects different body parts, such as bones, tendons, and ligaments. Muscle tissue is responsible for movement and can be categorized into three types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Nervous tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, and is responsible for transmitting and receiving signals.

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  • 8. 

    Epithelial tisses are found...

    • A.

      On the outside of the body

    • B.

      Throughout the body

    • C.

      In the stomach

    • D.

      Covering the heart

    Correct Answer
    B. Throughout the body
    Explanation
    Epithelial tissues are found throughout the body. Epithelial tissues form the outer layer of the skin, lining of the organs, and the inner lining of blood vessels and cavities. They play a crucial role in protecting underlying tissues, absorbing nutrients, and secreting substances. Therefore, epithelial tissues can be found in various locations within the body, not just on the outside or in specific organs like the stomach or heart.

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  • 9. 

    What does epithelium do?

  • 10. 

    Epithelium always has a what exposed to the outside or internally to an open space?

    • A.

      Blood vessel

    • B.

      Cavity

    • C.

      Free surface

    • D.

      Cell

    Correct Answer
    C. Free surface
    Explanation
    Epithelium is a type of tissue that lines the surfaces of organs and body cavities. It always has a free surface, which is exposed either to the outside of the body or internally to an open space. This free surface allows the epithelial cells to interact with their environment and perform various functions such as absorption, secretion, and protection. The other options, such as blood vessel, cavity, and cell, do not accurately describe the characteristic feature of epithelium.

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  • 11. 

    What is the basement membrane?

    • A.

      Membrane that eliminates excretory wastes

    • B.

      Membrane that covers the base of hair follicles

    • C.

      Membrane that packs cells tightly together

    • D.

      A nonliving layer the anchors the epithelium to underlying connective tissue

    Correct Answer
    D. A nonliving layer the anchors the epithelium to underlying connective tissue
    Explanation
    The basement membrane is a nonliving layer that anchors the epithelium to underlying connective tissue. It provides structural support and acts as a barrier between different tissue types. It helps to maintain the integrity of the epithelial layer and allows for proper functioning of the tissues.

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  • 12. 

    What is something that epithelial tissue lacks?

    Correct Answer
    blood vessels
    Explanation
    Epithelial tissue lacks blood vessels. Epithelial tissue is a type of tissue that covers the surfaces of the body, including the skin and lining of organs. It is responsible for protection, absorption, and secretion. Since epithelial tissue is located on the outer surfaces of the body and organs, it does not require direct blood supply. Instead, it receives nutrients and oxygen through diffusion from nearby blood vessels in the connective tissue beneath it.

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  • 13. 

    Epithelial cells ...blank....divide

    Correct Answer
    readily
    Explanation
    Epithelial cells readily divide. This means that they have a high capacity for cell division and can reproduce quickly. This characteristic is important for the maintenance and repair of epithelial tissues, as well as for the growth and development of organs and organisms. The ability of epithelial cells to divide readily allows for the replacement of damaged or lost cells, ensuring the proper functioning and integrity of the epithelial tissue.

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  • 14. 

    Epithelial cells are tightly packed.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Epithelial cells are tightly packed to form a protective layer that covers the surfaces of organs and lines body cavities. This close arrangement allows them to provide a barrier against pathogens, regulate the movement of substances, and facilitate absorption and secretion. The tight packing of epithelial cells is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of the tissues they compose.

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  • 15. 

    How are epithelial cells classified?

    • A.

      According to the shape and number of layers of cells

    • B.

      According to the arrangement and color cells

    • C.

      According to the shape and color cells

    • D.

      According to the arrangement and number of layers of cells

    Correct Answer
    A. According to the shape and number of layers of cells
    Explanation
    Epithelial cells are classified according to the shape and number of layers of cells. This classification system helps to categorize different types of epithelial tissues based on their structural characteristics. The shape of the cells can be squamous (flat and scale-like), cuboidal (cube-shaped), or columnar (column-shaped). The number of layers can be simple (single layer) or stratified (multiple layers). By combining these two criteria, epithelial cells can be classified into various types, such as simple squamous, stratified cuboidal, or pseudostratified columnar, among others. This classification is important in understanding the function and location of different epithelial tissues in the body.

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  • 16. 

    Which one classifies squamous tissue?

    • A.

      Epithelial cells composed of elongated cells

    • B.

      Epithelial tissues composed of cubelike cells

    • C.

      Epithelial tissues composed of thin, flattened cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Epithelial tissues composed of thin, flattened cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "epithelial tissues composed of thin, flattened cells." Squamous tissue is a type of epithelial tissue that is characterized by its thin and flattened cells. These cells are arranged in a single layer and have a scale-like appearance, hence the name "squamous." This type of tissue can be found in areas such as the lining of blood vessels, lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.

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  • 17. 

    Epithelium composed of a single layer of cells is stratified

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    epithelium composed of a single layer of cells is simple. epithelium composed of two or more layers of cells is said to be stratified

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  • 18. 

    Describe simple squamous epithelium

  • 19. 

    Describe simple cuboidal epithelium

  • 20. 

    Describe simple columnar epithelium

  • 21. 

    Describe pseudostratified columnar epithelium

  • 22. 

    Describe stratified squamous epithelium

  • 23. 

    Describe stratified cuboidal epithelium

  • 24. 

    Describe stratified columnar epithelium

  • 25. 

    Describe transitional epithelium

  • 26. 

    Describe glandular epithelium

  • 27. 

    What is an exocrine gland?

    • A.

      Gland that secretes is products into tissue fluid or blood

    • B.

      A gland that secretes its products into ducts that open onto surfaces

    Correct Answer
    B. A gland that secretes its products into ducts that open onto surfaces
    Explanation
    An exocrine gland is a gland that releases its products into ducts that open onto surfaces. This means that the gland's secretions are not directly released into the bloodstream or tissue fluid, but instead are transported through ducts to be released onto surfaces such as the skin or the lining of the digestive tract. This allows the secretions to have a more localized effect and to be directed to specific areas where they are needed.

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  • 28. 

    What does a simple gland do

    • A.

      Communicates with the surface by means of a duct that does not branch before reaching the glandular cells or secretory portion

    • B.

      Has a duct that branches repeatedly before reaching the secretory portion.

    Correct Answer
    A. Communicates with the surface by means of a duct that does not branch before reaching the glandular cells or secretory portion
    Explanation
    A simple gland communicates with the surface by means of a duct that does not branch before reaching the glandular cells or secretory portion. This means that the gland has a single duct that directly connects the surface to the glandular cells or secretory portion without any branching. This allows for a more direct and efficient transfer of substances from the gland to the surface.

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  • 29. 

    What is a tubular gland?

    • A.

      Gland whose terminal portions form saclike dilations

    • B.

      A gland that consists of epithelial-lined tubes

    Correct Answer
    B. A gland that consists of epithelial-lined tubes
    Explanation
    A tubular gland is a type of gland that is made up of epithelial-lined tubes. These tubes are responsible for secreting various substances such as hormones, enzymes, or other fluids. The gland's structure consists of these tubes that are lined with epithelial cells, which help in the production and transportation of the secreted substances. This type of gland is commonly found in the body and plays a crucial role in various physiological processes.

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  • 30. 

    A merocrine gland is a gland that releases fluid products by exocytosis

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A merocrine gland is a type of gland that releases its fluid products by exocytosis. This means that the gland cells package their secretions into vesicles and release them outside the cell through fusion of the vesicle membrane with the cell membrane. This process allows for controlled and precise release of the glandular products. Therefore, the statement "a merocrine gland is a gland that releases fluid products by exocytosis" is true.

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  • 31. 

    Glands that lose small portions of their glandular cells bodies during secretion are called....

    Correct Answer
    apocrine glands
    Explanation
    Apocrine glands are the glands that lose small portions of their glandular cell bodies during secretion. These glands are found in areas such as the armpits and genital region. Unlike other glands, apocrine glands release their secretions along with small portions of their own cells, which contain proteins and lipids. This process results in a thicker and more viscous secretion compared to other types of glands.

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  • 32. 

    Glands that release entire cells are called....

    Correct Answer
    holocrine glands
    Explanation
    Holocrine glands are glands that release entire cells. These glands produce and secrete their products by the rupture and disintegration of entire cells, which then become part of the secretion. This mode of secretion is different from other types of glands, such as merocrine glands that release secretions through exocytosis or apocrine glands that release portions of cells. Holocrine glands are found in the sebaceous glands of the skin, where they release sebum, an oily substance that helps lubricate and protect the skin and hair.

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  • 33. 

    Most exocrine secretory cells are what?

    Correct Answer
    merocrine
    Explanation
    Most exocrine secretory cells are merocrine. This means that these cells release their secretions through exocytosis, where the secretory vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space. This is the most common mode of secretion in exocrine glands, including the salivary glands, sweat glands, and pancreas. Unlike other modes of secretion, such as apocrine or holocrine, merocrine secretion does not involve the loss of cellular components during secretion.

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  • 34. 

    Serous fluid---

    • A.

      Typically watery

    • B.

      Has a high concentration of enzymes

    • C.

      Is thick

    • D.

      Is secreted by serous cells

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Typically watery
    B. Has a high concentration of enzymes
    D. Is secreted by serous cells
    Explanation
    Serous fluid is typically watery in nature, meaning it has a thin consistency and a high water content. It also contains a high concentration of enzymes, which are proteins that help facilitate chemical reactions in the body. Serous fluid is secreted by serous cells, which are specialized cells found in various organs and tissues throughout the body.

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  • 35. 

    Mucus is rich in the mucin.

    Correct Answer(s)
    glycoprotein
    Explanation
    Mucus is a slimy substance that is produced by various tissues in the body. It serves as a protective barrier and lubricant in many organs and systems. Mucin is the main component of mucus and is responsible for its gel-like consistency. Mucin is a type of glycoprotein, meaning it is a protein molecule that is attached to sugar molecules. This glycoprotein structure gives mucus its unique properties, allowing it to trap and remove foreign particles and pathogens from the body. Therefore, the correct answer is glycoprotein.

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  • 36. 

    Cells in the inner linings of the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems secrete abundant serous fluid.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cells in the inner lings of the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems secrete abundant mucus.

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  • 37. 

    Epithelial tissues comprise much of the body and are the most abundant type of tissue by weight.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Connective tissues comprise much of the body and are the most abundant type of tissue by weight.

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  • 38. 

    What do connective tissues do?

  • 39. 

    Connective tissues are farther apart than cells and the have an abundance of

    Correct Answer
    epithelial, extracellular matrix
    Explanation
    Connective tissues are composed of cells that are spaced farther apart compared to other tissues. These cells are surrounded by an abundant extracellular matrix, which is a complex mixture of proteins and carbohydrates. The extracellular matrix provides structural support, mechanical strength, and flexibility to the connective tissues. Additionally, connective tissues also contain epithelial cells, which are specialized cells that line the surfaces of organs and structures in the body. These epithelial cells play a role in protecting and secreting substances in the connective tissues.

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  • 40. 

    What is extracellular matrix composed of?

  • 41. 

    What does the ground substance do (in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue)?

    • A.

      Secrete serous fluid

    • B.

      Reside in the specific connective tissue for an extended period

    • C.

      Move through and appear in tissues temporarily, usually in response to infection or injury

    • D.

      Binds, supports, and provides a medium through which substances may be transferred between the blood and cels of the tissue

    Correct Answer
    D. Binds, supports, and provides a medium through which substances may be transferred between the blood and cels of the tissue
    Explanation
    The ground substance in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue binds, supports, and provides a medium through which substances may be transferred between the blood and cells of the tissue. It acts as a filler between cells and fibers, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules. It also provides structural support and helps to maintain the shape and integrity of the tissue.

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  • 42. 

    What is a fixed cell?

    • A.

      A cell the moves through and appears in tissues temporarily, usually in response to infection or injury

    • B.

      A cell that resides in the specific connective tissue for an extended period

    • C.

      A cell that engulfs a whole other cell

    • D.

      A cell that has a fixed mass

    Correct Answer
    B. A cell that resides in the specific connective tissue for an extended period
    Explanation
    A fixed cell is a type of cell that remains in a specific connective tissue for a long period of time. Unlike cells that move through tissues temporarily in response to infection or injury, fixed cells have a more permanent residence in the connective tissue. They play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of the tissue, such as producing and secreting extracellular matrix components or regulating the immune response.

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  • 43. 

    What is a fibroblast?

  • 44. 

    What are macrophages?

  • 45. 

    What are mast cells?

  • 46. 

    Fibroblasts produce what three types of connective tissue fibers?

    • A.

      Collagenous, urethrar, and reticular

    • B.

      Elastic, reticular, and adipose

    • C.

      Collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers

    • D.

      Elastic, adipose, and elastin

    Correct Answer
    C. Collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers
    Explanation
    Fibroblasts are cells that are responsible for producing the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. The extracellular matrix is composed of various fibers that provide structural support and elasticity to the tissue. Collagenous fibers are thick and strong, providing tensile strength to the tissue. Elastic fibers are stretchable and allow tissues to recoil after being stretched. Reticular fibers are thin and form a network-like structure, providing support to organs and tissues. Therefore, the correct answer is collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers.

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  • 47. 

    This describes what type of connective tissue fiber: They are thick threads of the protein collagen, are grouped in long, parallel bundles, and they are flexible but only slightly elastic. they have great tensile strength, so they are important components of body parts that hold structures together, such as ligaments and tendons

    • A.

      Reticular fibers

    • B.

      Collagenous fibers

    • C.

      Elastic fibers

    Correct Answer
    B. Collagenous fibers
    Explanation
    Collagenous fibers are the correct answer because they are thick threads of the protein collagen, which are grouped in long, parallel bundles. These fibers are flexible but only slightly elastic, and they have great tensile strength. Collagenous fibers are important components of body parts that hold structures together, such as ligaments and tendons.

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  • 48. 

    This describes what type of connective tissue fiber? These fibers branch, forming complex networks in various tissues. they are weaker than collagenous fibers but elastic (they are easily stretched or deformed and will resume their original lengths and shapes when the force acting upon them is removed). they are common in body parts normally subjected to stretching, such as the vocal cords and air passages of the respiratory system. they are sometimes called yellow fibers, because tissues amply supplied with them appear yellowish.

    • A.

      Collagenous fibers

    • B.

      Elastic fibers

    • C.

      Reticular fibers

    Correct Answer
    B. Elastic fibers
    Explanation
    Elastic fibers are a type of connective tissue fiber that branch and form complex networks in various tissues. They are weaker than collagenous fibers but have the ability to stretch or deform and then return to their original lengths and shapes when the force acting upon them is removed. Elastic fibers are commonly found in body parts that are subjected to stretching, such as the vocal cords and air passages of the respiratory system. They are sometimes referred to as yellow fibers because tissues that have a high concentration of elastic fibers appear yellowish in color.

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  • 49. 

    This describes what kind of connective tissue fiber? They are thin collagenous fibers. They are highly branched , form delicate supporting networks in a variety of tissues including those in the spleen.

    • A.

      Collagenous fibers

    • B.

      Reticular fibers

    • C.

      Elastic fibers

    Correct Answer
    B. Reticular fibers
    Explanation
    Reticular fibers are thin collagenous fibers that are highly branched and form delicate supporting networks in various tissues, including the spleen. They provide structural support and help to form the framework for other cells and tissues to attach to.

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  • 50. 

    Specialized connective tissues include which of the following

    • A.

      Cartilage

    • B.

      Collagen

    • C.

      Bone

    • D.

      Blood

    • E.

      Elastin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cartilage
    C. Bone
    D. Blood
    Explanation
    Specialized connective tissues refer to tissues that have unique functions and structures. Cartilage is a specialized connective tissue that provides support and flexibility to joints. Bone is another specialized connective tissue that provides structural support and protects internal organs. Blood is a connective tissue that transports oxygen, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body. These tissues have specific characteristics and functions that distinguish them from other types of connective tissues.

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