Digestive SySTEM Anatomy And Physiology Quiz Questions With Answers

Clinically Reviewed by Nicolette Natale
Nicolette Natale, DO (Medicine) |
Medicine
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Nicolette is an accomplished physician, research coordinator, and medical writer, boasting over 6 years of expertise in healthcare, research, psychology, and education. Her qualifications include a DO from Nova Southeastern University and BA degrees in English Literature and Psychology from the University of Miami. Nicolette is deeply involved in medical research and patient care, demonstrating a commitment to advancing the field of medicine.
, DO (Medicine)
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Digestive System Anatomy And Physiology Quiz Questions With Answers - Quiz

Do you know that anatomy and physiology are two related disciplines? Can you attempt this Digestive system anatomy and physiology quiz with informative questions and answers? This quiz demonstrates the relationship between body parts. Anatomy is an old science, and anatomy and physiology examine organisms' structure and function and their components. Physiology is the study of how the body functions and the study of the body as a whole. This quiz will support and teach you if you want to receive an A+ in anatomy and physiology.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?

    • A.

      Ingestion

    • B.

      Secretion

    • C.

      Mixing and propulsion

    • D.

      Absorption

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Mixing and propulsion
    Explanation
    The smooth muscle layer of the digestive system is responsible for the mixing and propulsion of food. This layer contracts and relaxes to move food along the digestive tract, allowing for the mechanical breakdown of food and the movement of food from one organ to another. Ingestion refers to the intake of food, secretion refers to the release of digestive enzymes and fluids, and absorption refers to the uptake of nutrients by the body. None of these processes specifically involve the smooth muscle layer.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following processes is the primary function of the mouth?

    • A.

      Ingestion

    • B.

      Secretion

    • C.

      Mixing and propulsion

    • D.

      Absorption

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Ingestion
    Explanation
    The primary function of the mouth is ingestion, which refers to the process of taking in food or drink through the mouth. The mouth is responsible for breaking down food into smaller pieces by chewing and mixing it with saliva. This process prepares the food for further digestion in the stomach and intestines. Therefore, ingestion is the correct answer as it accurately describes the main role of the mouth in the digestive system.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following processes is the primary function of the villi of the small intestine?

    • A.

      Ingestion

    • B.

      Secretion

    • C.

      Mixing and propulsion

    • D.

      Absorption

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Absorption
    Explanation
    The primary function of the villi of the small intestine is absorption. Villi are tiny finger-like projections that line the inner surface of the small intestine. They increase the surface area available for absorption of nutrients from digested food into the bloodstream. The villi contain blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that help transport the absorbed nutrients to the rest of the body. Therefore, absorption is the main process carried out by the villi of the small intestine.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid to soften food?

    • A.

      Teeth

    • B.

      Salivary glands

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Gallbladder

    • E.

      Pharynx

    Correct Answer
    B. Salivary glands
    Explanation
    The salivary glands produce a fluid called saliva, which helps to soften food. Saliva contains enzymes that begin the process of breaking down carbohydrates in the mouth, making it easier to chew and swallow food. Additionally, saliva helps to lubricate the food, making it easier to pass through the esophagus and into the stomach. Therefore, the salivary glands play a crucial role in the digestion process by producing a fluid that softens food.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?

    • A.

      Teeth

    • B.

      Salivary glands

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Gallbladder

    • E.

      Pharynx

    Correct Answer
    C. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver produces a fluid called bile, which functions to emulsify dietary fats. Bile contains bile salts that break down large fat molecules into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and making it easier for enzymes to digest them. This process of emulsification aids in the absorption of fats in the small intestine. The liver plays a crucial role in the digestion and metabolism of fats in the body.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following accessory organs stores bile?

    • A.

      Teeth

    • B.

      Salivary glands

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Gallbladder

    • E.

      Pharynx

    Correct Answer
    D. Gallbladder
    Explanation
    The gallbladder is the correct answer because it is an accessory organ that stores bile. Bile is produced by the liver and then stored in the gallbladder until it is needed to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when fatty foods are consumed, helping to break down the fats into smaller molecules for easier digestion. The teeth, salivary glands, liver, and pharynx are not involved in the storage of bile.

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  • 7. 

    This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels.

    • A.

      Mucosa

    • B.

      Lamina propria

    • C.

      MALT

    • D.

      Muscularis

    • E.

      Epithelium

    Correct Answer
    B. Lamina propria
    Explanation
    The lamina propria is the correct answer because it is a layer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels. This layer is located within the mucosa, which is the innermost layer of the GI tract. The lamina propria provides support and nourishment to the epithelium, which is the layer of cells that lines the GI tract. It also plays a role in immune defense through the presence of lymphoid tissue.

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  • 8. 

    This layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid.

    • A.

      Serosa

    • B.

      Submucosa

    • C.

      Muscularis

    • D.

      Mucosa

    • E.

      MALT

    Correct Answer
    A. Serosa
    Explanation
    The serosa is the outermost layer of the digestive tract and it functions by secreting a lubricating fluid. This fluid helps to reduce friction and allows for smooth movement of the digestive organs. The serosa also provides protection to the underlying layers and helps to anchor the organs in place.

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  • 9. 

    These are composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response.

    • A.

      Mucosa

    • B.

      Lamina propria

    • C.

      MALT

    • D.

      Submucosa

    • E.

      Serosa

    Correct Answer
    C. MALT
    Explanation
    MALT stands for Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, which is a collection of lymphatic nodules found in the mucosa layer of various organs, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. MALT plays a crucial role in the immune response by trapping and destroying pathogens that enter these organs. It contains specialized immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that help recognize and eliminate foreign substances. Therefore, MALT is composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response.

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  • 10. 

    Why do emotions such as anger or fear slow digestion?

    • A.

      Because they stimulate the parasympathetic nerves supplying the GI tract

    • B.

      Because they stimulate the somatic nerves that supply the GI tract

    • C.

      Because they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract

    • D.

      They do not affect digestion.

    • E.

      Because all emotions are controlled by the vagus nerve

    Correct Answer
    C. Because they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract
    Explanation
    Emotions such as anger or fear can activate the sympathetic nerves that supply the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which diverts blood flow away from non-essential functions like digestion and towards the muscles and organs needed for immediate action. This redirection of blood flow can slow down digestion, as less blood and energy are available for the digestive processes. Therefore, emotions like anger or fear can have a direct impact on the stimulation of sympathetic nerves, leading to a slowdown in digestion.

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  • 11. 

    This portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm.

    • A.

      Greater omentum

    • B.

      Falciform ligament

    • C.

      Lesser omentum

    • D.

      Mesentery

    • E.

      Mesocolon

    Correct Answer
    B. Falciform ligament
    Explanation
    The falciform ligament is a thin, crescent-shaped fold of peritoneum that attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm. It helps to stabilize the liver in its position within the abdominal cavity. The greater omentum is a large apron-like fold of peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach and covers the intestines, providing protection and insulation. The lesser omentum connects the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach. The mesentery attaches the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall, while the mesocolon attaches the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall.

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  • 12. 

    This portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines.

    • A.

      Greater omentum

    • B.

      Falciform ligament

    • C.

      Lesser omentum

    • D.

      Mesentery

    • E.

      Mesocolon

    Correct Answer
    E. Mesocolon
    Explanation
    The mesocolon is a fold of the peritoneum that attaches the colon to the posterior abdominal wall. It contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves that supply the colon. This structure is responsible for carrying these vessels to the intestines, aiding in their proper functioning. The greater omentum, falciform ligament, lesser omentum, and mesentery are also peritoneal structures, but they have different functions and are not primarily responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines.

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  • 13. 

    In the mouth, this runs posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx.

    • A.

      Uvulva

    • B.

      Palatoglossal arch

    • C.

      Palatopharyngeal arch

    • D.

      Parotid glands

    • E.

      Sublingual glands

    Correct Answer
    C. Palatopharyngeal arch
    Explanation
    The palatopharyngeal arch is a structure that runs posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx in the mouth. It forms part of the boundary between the oral cavity and the pharynx. The uvula is a small, fleshy projection at the back of the soft palate and does not run posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx. The palatoglossal arch is a fold of tissue that extends from the soft palate to the base of the tongue and also does not run posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx. The parotid glands are salivary glands located in front of the ears and are not related to the pharynx. The sublingual glands are salivary glands located under the tongue and are not related to the pharynx.

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  • 14. 

    In the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with

    • A.

      Gingivae

    • B.

      Cementum

    • C.

      Periodontal ligament

    • D.

      Pulp

    • E.

      Root

    Correct Answer
    C. Periodontal ligament
    Explanation
    The periodontal ligament is a specialized connective tissue that lines the tooth sockets in the mouth. It plays a crucial role in anchoring the tooth to the surrounding bone, providing support and stability. It also helps to absorb the forces generated during chewing and biting. The periodontal ligament contains collagen fibers that attach to both the cementum on the tooth root and the alveolar bone, creating a strong connection. Additionally, the ligament contains blood vessels, nerves, and cells responsible for maintaining the health of the surrounding tissues.

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  • 15. 

    Deciduous molars are replaced by

    • A.

      Bicuspids

    • B.

      Molars

    • C.

      Incisors

    • D.

      Canines

    • E.

      Wisdom teeth

    Correct Answer
    A. Bicuspids
    Explanation
    Deciduous molars are the primary teeth that are eventually replaced by permanent teeth. In this case, deciduous molars are replaced by bicuspids, which are also known as premolars. Bicuspids are the teeth that come after the canines and before the molars. They have two cusps or points on their biting surface and are responsible for chewing and grinding food. Therefore, bicuspids are the correct answer as they are the permanent teeth that replace deciduous molars.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following contains skeletal muscle?

    • A.

      Upper oesophageal sphincter

    • B.

      Lower oesophageal sphincter

    • C.

      Serosa

    • D.

      Submucosa

    • E.

      Periodontal ligament

    Correct Answer
    A. Upper oesophageal sphincter
    Explanation
    The upper oesophageal sphincter contains skeletal muscle. This muscle is under voluntary control and helps to regulate the movement of food from the mouth to the esophagus.

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  • 17. 

    How many phases of deglutition are there?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      5

    • E.

      8

    Correct Answer
    B. 3
    Explanation
    There are three phases of deglutition, or swallowing. The first phase is the oral phase, where the tongue pushes the food to the back of the mouth. The second phase is the pharyngeal phase, where the food is propelled through the pharynx and into the esophagus. The final phase is the esophageal phase, where the food is transported through the esophagus and into the stomach.

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  • 18. 

    This structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage.

    • A.

      Cardia

    • B.

      Fundus

    • C.

      Pylorus

    • D.

      Rugae

    • E.

      Sphincter

    Correct Answer
    D. Rugae
    Explanation
    The rugae refers to the folds or wrinkles present in the stomach lining. These folds allow the stomach to expand and stretch, providing greater distension for food storage. When food enters the stomach, the rugae can unfold and accommodate the increased volume. This increased distensibility of the stomach helps in the storage and digestion of food.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following secrete gastric acid?

    • A.

      Mucous cells

    • B.

      Parietal cells

    • C.

      Chief cells

    • D.

      Serosa cells

    • E.

      Chyme cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Parietal cells
    Explanation
    Parietal cells secrete gastric acid. These cells are found in the lining of the stomach and are responsible for producing hydrochloric acid, which helps in the digestion of food. The acid also plays a role in killing bacteria and other pathogens that may be present in the stomach. Additionally, parietal cells produce intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

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  • 20. 

    This cell secretes the hormone that promotes the production of gastric acid.

    • A.

      Neck cell

    • B.

      Chief cell

    • C.

      G cell

    • D.

      Chyme cell

    • E.

      Parietal cell

    Correct Answer
    C. G cell
    Explanation
    The G cell secretes the hormone gastrin, which stimulates the production of gastric acid in the stomach. Gastrin acts on the parietal cells, which are responsible for producing gastric acid. Therefore, the G cell plays a crucial role in promoting the production of gastric acid.

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  • 21. 

    This is the heaviest internal organ of the body.

    • A.

      Heart

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Pancreas

    • D.

      Large intestine

    • E.

      Thyroid

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver is the heaviest internal organ of the body. It is responsible for various important functions such as detoxification, metabolism, and production of bile. It plays a crucial role in filtering and processing blood from the digestive tract before it is circulated to the rest of the body. The liver also stores vitamins, minerals, and glycogen, and produces important proteins necessary for blood clotting. Its weight and size make it the largest glandular organ in the body.

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  • 22. 

    This is the principle bile pigment.

    • A.

      Stercobilin

    • B.

      Bilirubin

    • C.

      Biliverdin

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      A, B, and C

    Correct Answer
    B. Bilirubin
    Explanation
    Bilirubin is the correct answer because it is the main bile pigment produced from the breakdown of heme in red blood cells. It is then transported to the liver where it is conjugated and excreted into the bile. Bilirubin gives bile its characteristic yellow color and plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats.

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  • 23. 

    Brunner's glands secrete

    • A.

      Mucus

    • B.

      An acidic juice

    • C.

      An alkaline juice

    • D.

      Mucus and acidic juice

    • E.

      Mucus and alkaline juice

    Correct Answer
    E. Mucus and alkaline juice
    Explanation
    Brunner's glands, located in the duodenum of the small intestine, are responsible for secreting mucus and alkaline juice. Mucus helps to lubricate and protect the lining of the intestine, while the alkaline juice helps to neutralize the acidic chyme that enters the duodenum from the stomach. This combination of mucus and alkaline juice helps to create a favorable environment for the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

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  • 24. 

    What is A pointing to?

    • A.

      Lumen

    • B.

      MALT

    • C.

      Mucosa

    • D.

      Submucosa

    • E.

      Muscularis

    Correct Answer
    B. MALT
    Explanation
    MALT stands for Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, which is a component of the immune system located in the mucosa of various organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. A is pointing to MALT, indicating that the question is asking about the specific tissue being referred to.

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  • 25. 

    Which layer contains the lamina propria?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    The lamina propria is a layer of connective tissue that is found in the mucous membranes of various organs, including the digestive tract and respiratory system. Layer B is the correct answer because it is typically the layer that contains the lamina propria.

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  • 26. 

    This consists of calcified connective tissue.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      E

    • D.

      F

    • E.

      G

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    Calcified connective tissue refers to the hard, mineralized tissue that makes up structures like bones and teeth. Option B is the only choice that represents a calcified connective tissue, as the other options (A, E, F, G) do not pertain to connective tissue or calcification. Therefore, option B is the correct answer.

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  • 27. 

    What is F pointing to?

    • A.

      Pulp cavity

    • B.

      Cementum

    • C.

      Root canal

    • D.

      Alveolar bone

    • E.

      Gingival sulcus

    Correct Answer
    B. Cementum
    Explanation
    F is pointing to the cementum. The cementum is a specialized connective tissue that covers the root of a tooth, providing protection and anchoring the tooth to the surrounding bone. It is located between the pulp cavity, which contains the nerves and blood vessels of the tooth, and the alveolar bone, which supports the tooth in the jaw. The gingival sulcus is the space between the tooth and the surrounding gums, and the root canal is the space inside the root of the tooth.

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  • 28. 

    What is "I" pointing to?

    • A.

      Greater curvature

    • B.

      Lesser curvature

    • C.

      Body

    • D.

      Fundus

    • E.

      Cardia

    Correct Answer
    D. Fundus
    Explanation
    "I" is pointing to the fundus. The fundus refers to the upper portion of the stomach, which is located above the body and below the esophagus. It is the area where the food is initially stored and where the gastric glands are located. Therefore, "I" is pointing to the fundus of the stomach.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following cells secrete mucus?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    Cell B secretes mucus.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following cells secretes gastrin?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    Correct Answer
    E. E
    Explanation
    Cell E secretes gastrin.

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Nicolette Natale |DO (Medicine) |
Medicine
Nicolette is an accomplished physician, research coordinator, and medical writer, boasting over 6 years of expertise in healthcare, research, psychology, and education. Her qualifications include a DO from Nova Southeastern University and BA degrees in English Literature and Psychology from the University of Miami. Nicolette is deeply involved in medical research and patient care, demonstrating a commitment to advancing the field of medicine.

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  • Jul 16, 2024
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    Nicolette Natale
  • Apr 24, 2012
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