Amniotic Fluid Questions: Quiz!

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Amniotic Fluid Questions: Quiz! - Quiz


Do you know anything about amniotic fluid? Could you pass this quiz? Amniotic fluid is a clear, soft yellow color that envelopes the unborn baby during pregnancy. The fluid is contained in the amniotic sac, and it protects the fetus and acts as a cushion for the growing fetus. It also provides nutrients and water for the baby. If you want to learn more about amniotic fluid, this quiz could be helpful to you.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Amniotic fluid consists of 98% ______________.

    Explanation
    Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds and protects the fetus in the womb. It is primarily composed of water, making up about 98% of its content. This fluid plays a crucial role in the development of the baby, providing cushioning and protection, regulating temperature, allowing movement, and aiding in the development of the respiratory and digestive systems. The high water content in amniotic fluid is essential for maintaining a healthy environment for the growing fetus.

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  • 2. 

    2% of amniotic fluid consists of...

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Enzymes

    • D.

      Urea

    • E.

      Hormones

    • F.

      Fecal cells

    • G.

      Vernix

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Proteins
    C. Enzymes
    D. Urea
    F. Fecal cells
    G. Vernix
    Explanation
    The amniotic fluid, which surrounds the developing fetus in the womb, contains various substances necessary for the baby's growth and development. Proteins are essential for cell growth and repair, while enzymes help with various metabolic processes. Urea is a waste product that is excreted by the kidneys and found in urine. Fecal cells may be present in the amniotic fluid due to the swallowing of fetal waste. Vernix is a waxy substance that protects the baby's skin. Therefore, the correct answer includes proteins, enzymes, urea, fecal cells, and vernix, as these substances are commonly found in the amniotic fluid.

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  • 3. 

    ________________ is a white waxy substance that covers the fetus' skin.

    Correct Answer(s)
    vernix
    Explanation
    Vernix is a white waxy substance that covers the fetus' skin.

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  • 4. 

    Vernix is secreted by the fetus' ________________ ___________________

    Correct Answer(s)
    sebaceous glands
    Explanation
    Vernix is a waxy substance that covers the skin of a fetus. It is secreted by the sebaceous glands, which are small glands in the skin that produce oil. These glands are present in the fetus and play a role in protecting the skin and keeping it moisturized. The vernix acts as a protective barrier for the fetus while in the amniotic fluid, preventing the skin from becoming waterlogged.

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  • 5. 

    Vernix may contain _________________ properties.

    Correct Answer(s)
    antibacterial
    Explanation
    Vernix, the waxy substance found on newborn babies' skin, has antibacterial properties. This means that it can help prevent the growth and spread of bacteria, reducing the risk of infections. The presence of antibacterial properties in vernix is important for the protection and well-being of the newborn, as it provides a natural defense against harmful bacteria that the baby may encounter after birth.

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  • 6. 

    ________________ may give amniotic fluid an echogenic appearance on sono.

    Correct Answer(s)
    vernix
    Explanation
    Vernix, a waxy substance found on the skin of newborn babies, can give the amniotic fluid an echogenic appearance on ultrasound. Echogenicity refers to the ability of a substance to reflect sound waves, and in this case, the vernix can cause the amniotic fluid to appear brighter or more reflective on the ultrasound image. This is a normal finding and is not indicative of any abnormality or pathology.

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  • 7. 

    Sono Appearance: Amniotic fluid is normally _______________ in the first and second trimesters.

    Correct Answer(s)
    anechoic
    Explanation
    In the context of sono appearance, anechoic refers to a characteristic of amniotic fluid during the first and second trimesters. Anechoic means that the fluid appears black or without echoes on the ultrasound image. This indicates that the fluid is clear and does not contain any solid structures or debris. Anechoic fluid is a normal finding during these stages of pregnancy and is important for the development and protection of the fetus.

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  • 8. 

    Sono Appearance:In third trimester, it is normal to see floating _____________ particles within the amniotic fluid. This is _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    echogenic, vernix
    Explanation
    During the third trimester of pregnancy, it is common to observe floating echogenic particles within the amniotic fluid. These particles are known as vernix. Vernix is a white, cheese-like substance that forms on the baby's skin to protect it from the amniotic fluid. It acts as a moisturizer and provides a barrier against infection. The presence of echogenic particles and vernix in the amniotic fluid is a normal and expected occurrence during this stage of pregnancy.

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  • 9. 

    Pathologic conditions such as bleeding into amniotic cavity or meconium staining may cause fluid to look ______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    echogenic
    Explanation
    Pathologic conditions such as bleeding into the amniotic cavity or meconium staining can cause the fluid to look echogenic. This means that the fluid appears brighter or more dense on ultrasound imaging. Echogenicity can be an indication of abnormality or disease in the amniotic fluid, and it may be necessary to further investigate and monitor the condition of the fetus in such cases.

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  • 10. 

    Check all functions of amniotic fluid-

    • A.

      Protection

    • B.

      Equalization of pressure

    • C.

      Maintains temperature

    • D.

      Allows movement

    • E.

      Lung maturity

    • F.

      Prevents adherence of membranes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Protection
    B. Equalization of pressure
    C. Maintains temperature
    D. Allows movement
    E. Lung maturity
    F. Prevents adherence of membranes
    Explanation
    Amniotic fluid serves several functions during pregnancy. It acts as a protective cushion for the fetus, providing a barrier against external shocks and injury. It also helps to equalize pressure inside the uterus, allowing the baby to move and develop properly. The fluid helps to maintain a stable temperature around the fetus, ensuring its comfort and well-being. It also allows the baby to move and exercise its muscles, promoting healthy development. Additionally, amniotic fluid plays a role in the maturation of the baby's lungs, as the fetus inhales and swallows the fluid, which helps in the development of respiratory functions. Lastly, the fluid prevents adherence of the fetal membranes, allowing them to move freely and preventing complications during delivery.

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  • 11. 

    Normal amniotic fluid volume has a ___________ range of normal.

    Correct Answer(s)
    wide
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "wide." This suggests that the range of normal amniotic fluid volume is broad or extensive. It implies that there is a significant variation in the amount of amniotic fluid considered to be within the normal range.

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  • 12. 

    Amniotic fluid varies from _________ml to ________ml at 13 weeks to ____________ml to ___________ ml at term. (#)

    Correct Answer(s)
    50, 100, 1000, 2000
    Explanation
    The amniotic fluid levels in the uterus change throughout pregnancy. At 13 weeks, the range of amniotic fluid volume is typically between 50ml and 100ml. As the pregnancy progresses, the amount of amniotic fluid increases, and at term (around 40 weeks), it can range from 1000ml to 2000ml.

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  • 13. 

    Relative amount of amniotic fluid greatest between _____(#) to ____(#) weeks

    Correct Answer(s)
    20, 35
    Explanation
    The relative amount of amniotic fluid is greatest between 20 and 35 weeks of pregnancy. During this period, the fetus undergoes rapid growth and development, leading to an increase in the amount of amniotic fluid. This fluid serves several important functions, including cushioning the fetus, maintaining a stable temperature, and allowing for fetal movement. After 35 weeks, the amount of amniotic fluid may start to decrease as the baby grows larger and takes up more space in the uterus.

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  • 14. 

    There are a number of different methods used to estimate the amount of amniotic fluid present.1. _______________ assessment (subjective)2. Single pocket measurement. The ________________ depth of the _____________ pocket of fluid is measured.<______(#)cm in the largest pocket indicates oligohydramnios. 3. AFI- stands for __________ _____________ ____________

    Correct Answer(s)
    visual, vertical, largest, 2, amniotic fluid index
    visual, vertical, largest, 2.0, amniotic fluid index
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "visual, vertical, largest, 2, amniotic fluid index". This method involves visually assessing the largest vertical pocket of amniotic fluid. If the largest pocket measures less than 2 cm, it indicates a condition called oligohydramnios. AFI stands for amniotic fluid index, which is a measurement of the total amount of amniotic fluid present.

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  • 15. 

    The amniotic fluid index is a widely used method. The ______________ vertical pocket of fluid is measured in each ______________ of the uterus and the sum of the measurements is recorded as the ________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    largest, quadrant, AFI
    Explanation
    The amniotic fluid index is a widely used method in which the largest vertical pocket of fluid is measured in each quadrant of the uterus and the sum of the measurements is recorded as the AFI (Amniotic Fluid Index).

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  • 16. 

    Generally, an AFI of less than ________(#) cm is considered to indicate ________________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    5.0, oligohydramnios
    5, oligohydramnios
    Explanation
    An AFI (Amniotic Fluid Index) is a measurement used to assess the amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus. A low AFI indicates oligohydramnios, which is a condition characterized by a decreased amount of amniotic fluid. In this case, an AFI of less than 5.0 cm or less than 5 is considered to indicate oligohydramnios.

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  • 17. 

    An AFI exceeding ______(#)cm is considered to indicate __________________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    22, polyhydramnios
    Explanation
    An AFI exceeding 22 cm is considered to indicate polyhydramnios. Polyhydramnios is a condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus. This condition can be detected through the measurement of the amniotic fluid index (AFI), which measures the depth of the amniotic fluid in the uterus. An AFI measurement above 22 cm suggests an abnormal increase in amniotic fluid levels, which may be indicative of various underlying conditions such as fetal abnormalities, maternal diabetes, or twin pregnancies.

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  • 18. 

    The fluid volume decreases after _____(#) weeks.

    Correct Answer(s)
    38
  • 19. 

    The amniotic fluid volume surrounding the fetus is maintained by a balance of several ___________ and ____________ factors.

    Correct Answer(s)
    fetal, maternal
    Explanation
    The amniotic fluid volume surrounding the fetus is maintained by a balance of several fetal and maternal factors. Fetal factors include fetal urine production, lung fluid production, and swallowing, while maternal factors include the transfer of fluid across the placenta and the reabsorption of fluid by the mother's body. Both the fetus and the mother play a crucial role in maintaining the appropriate amount of amniotic fluid for the well-being of the fetus.

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  • 20. 

    Altered amounts of fluid may be an indicator of ________________ fetal or maternal conditions.

    Correct Answer(s)
    abnormal
    Explanation
    Altered amounts of fluid may be an indicator of abnormal fetal or maternal conditions. This means that if there are changes in the amount of fluid present, it could suggest that there is something abnormal or unusual happening either with the fetus or the mother. These changes in fluid levels could be a sign of potential health issues or complications that need to be addressed and monitored.

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  • 21. 

    For the first 16 weeks, fluid is produced mainly by-

    • A.

      Placenta

    • B.

      Uterus

    • C.

      Amniotic membrane

    • D.

      Corpus luteum

    • E.

      Umbilical cord

    • F.

      Fetal skin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Placenta
    C. Amniotic membrane
    E. Umbilical cord
    F. Fetal skin
    Explanation
    During the first 16 weeks of pregnancy, the fluid is produced by multiple sources. The placenta plays a significant role in producing fluid as it provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus. The amniotic membrane also contributes to fluid production as it surrounds and protects the fetus. The umbilical cord, which connects the fetus to the placenta, is another source of fluid production. Additionally, the fetal skin plays a role in fluid production as it secretes a substance called vernix, which helps to moisturize and protect the skin.

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  • 22. 

    After 20 weeks, most of the fluid is produced by the ____________ ______________ ______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    fetal urinary system
    Explanation
    After 20 weeks of development, the fetal urinary system becomes the primary producer of fluid. This is because the kidneys of the fetus are fully developed and functional, allowing them to filter waste products and excess fluid from the blood. The urine produced by the fetal urinary system is then released into the amniotic sac, contributing to the majority of the fluid present at this stage of pregnancy.

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  • 23. 

    Amniotic fluid is recycled by ______________ _________________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    fetal swallowing
    Explanation
    Amniotic fluid is recycled by fetal swallowing. This is because the fetus swallows the amniotic fluid, which then passes through the digestive system. The nutrients and water in the fluid are absorbed by the fetus, while waste products are excreted back into the amniotic fluid. This process helps maintain the balance of the amniotic fluid and ensures that the fetus receives the necessary nutrients for development.

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  • 24. 

    If the fetus is unable to swallow amniotic fluid for any reason ->_________________

    Correct Answer(s)
    polyhydramnios
    Explanation
    If the fetus is unable to swallow amniotic fluid for any reason, it can lead to an excess accumulation of amniotic fluid in the uterus, a condition known as polyhydramnios. This can occur due to various reasons such as a blockage in the fetal gastrointestinal tract or a swallowing disorder. The inability to swallow the amniotic fluid disrupts the normal balance of fluid production and absorption, resulting in an increased amount of fluid in the amniotic sac. Polyhydramnios can have various implications for both the mother and the fetus and may require medical intervention.

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  • 25. 

    If there is an obstruction of urinary tract of renal function is absent ->_________________

    Correct Answer(s)
    oligohydramnios
    Explanation
    If there is an obstruction of the urinary tract and renal function is absent, it can lead to a condition called oligohydramnios. Oligohydramnios refers to a decreased amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the baby in the womb. This can occur when the baby's kidneys are not producing enough urine due to the obstruction in the urinary tract. The absence of renal function further contributes to the decreased production of urine and subsequently leads to oligohydramnios.

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  • 26. 

    Amniotic fluid is absorbed by fetal _______________ and ___________________ absorption.

    Correct Answer(s)
    swallowing, gastrointestinal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is swallowing and gastrointestinal absorption. During fetal development, the amniotic fluid is swallowed by the fetus, which then enters the gastrointestinal system. Once in the gastrointestinal tract, the nutrients and water present in the amniotic fluid are absorbed into the bloodstream for the fetus's nourishment and growth.

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  • 27. 

    Abnormalities of either the _________ tract or ___________ tract, or fetal swallowing can affect the AF volume.

    Correct Answer(s)
    GU, GI
    Explanation
    Abnormalities of either the GU (genitourinary) tract or GI (gastrointestinal) tract, or fetal swallowing can affect the amniotic fluid (AF) volume. This means that any issues or abnormalities in either the urinary or reproductive system, as well as the digestive system, can impact the amount of amniotic fluid present in the womb.

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  • 28. 

    Obstruction of the _________________, ________________, or impairment of swallowing may lead to polyhydramnios.

    Correct Answer(s)
    esophagus, duodenum
    Explanation
    Obstruction of the esophagus or duodenum can cause difficulty in swallowing, leading to an accumulation of amniotic fluid in the womb, known as polyhydramnios. This condition occurs when the fetus is unable to swallow and absorb the amniotic fluid properly. The obstruction in the esophagus or duodenum can be caused by various factors such as structural abnormalities, tumors, or inflammation.

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  • 29. 

    Diminished or absent urine output (renal agenesis, PCKD) or urinary tract obstruction leads to polyhydramnios.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    OLIGOhydramnios

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  • 30. 

    Oligohydramnios is considered when there is less than 500-1000 ml of fluid.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Oligohydramnios is a condition characterized by a low amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus in the womb. The statement correctly states that oligohydramnios is considered when there is less than 500-1000 ml of fluid. This range is generally accepted as the threshold for diagnosing oligohydramnios. Therefore, the answer "True" is correct.

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  • 31. 

    Oligohydramnios is associated with-

    • A.

      Renal agenesis

    • B.

      IUGR

    • C.

      Post- mature fetus

    • D.

      PROM

    • E.

      Fetal infection

    • F.

      Fetal demise

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Renal agenesis
    B. IUGR
    C. Post- mature fetus
    D. PROM
    E. Fetal infection
    F. Fetal demise
    Explanation
    Oligohydramnios refers to a condition where there is a decreased amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus. It can be associated with various complications during pregnancy. Renal agenesis, which is the absence of one or both kidneys, can lead to oligohydramnios as the kidneys play a crucial role in producing amniotic fluid. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can also cause oligohydramnios as the restricted growth of the fetus can result in decreased urine production and subsequently reduced amniotic fluid levels. Post-mature fetus, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), fetal infection, and fetal demise can all be potential causes of oligohydramnios as well.

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  • 32. 

    Indicators for oligohydramnios- DRIPP

    Correct Answer(s)
    Demise, Renal abnormalities, IUGR, PROM, Post-dates
    Explanation
    This answer provides a mnemonic, DRIPP, to remember the indicators for oligohydramnios. Each letter in the mnemonic represents a different indicator: D for Demise, R for Renal abnormalities, I for Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR), P for Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM), and P for Post-dates. These indicators can help healthcare professionals identify and diagnose oligohydramnios in pregnant women.

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  • 33. 

    The presence of both kidneys should be checked as well as their location. The renal pelvis, ureters and bladder should be checked for ______________. The ____________ and ______________ of both kidneys should also be documented.

    Correct Answer(s)
    distension, size, echogenicity
    Explanation
    During a medical examination, it is important to check the presence and location of both kidneys. In addition, the renal pelvis, ureters, and bladder should be examined for distension, which refers to any abnormal enlargement or swelling. The size and echogenicity of both kidneys should also be documented. Size refers to the dimensions of the kidneys, while echogenicity refers to the level of sound wave reflection within the kidneys, which can indicate the presence of abnormalities. By checking for distension, size, and echogenicity, healthcare professionals can assess the overall health and functioning of the kidneys.

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  • 34. 

    ______________(#) to _____________(#)ml of fluid or more is considered polyhydramnios.

    Correct Answer(s)
    2000, 3000
    Explanation
    Polyhydramnios is a condition characterized by an excessive amount of amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy. The given answer states that a volume of 2000 ml or more is considered polyhydramnios. This means that if the volume of amniotic fluid in the uterus measures 2000 ml or higher, it is indicative of polyhydramnios. Additionally, the answer also includes the value of 3000 ml, suggesting that this volume is also considered as polyhydramnios.

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  • 35. 

    Etiology of polyhydramnios-_____(#)% unknown, ____(#)% maternal causes, ____(#) fetal causes.

    Correct Answer(s)
    50, 20, 30
    Explanation
    Polyhydramnios refers to an excessive amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus during pregnancy. The etiology, or cause, of polyhydramnios is often unknown, accounting for 50% of cases. Maternal causes contribute to 20% of cases, which may include conditions such as gestational diabetes or maternal obesity. Fetal causes make up the remaining 30% and can include issues with the fetus's gastrointestinal or central nervous system, among others.

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  • 36. 

    Some maternal causes of polyhydramnios are ____________ and _____________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    diabetes, Rh sensitivity
    Explanation
    Polyhydramnios refers to excessive amniotic fluid during pregnancy. Diabetes can lead to polyhydramnios as high blood sugar levels can increase fetal urine production, resulting in more amniotic fluid. Rh sensitivity, also known as Rh incompatibility, occurs when a mother's blood type is Rh-negative and the baby's blood type is Rh-positive. This condition can cause the baby to produce excessive red blood cells, leading to polyhydramnios. Therefore, both diabetes and Rh sensitivity can be maternal causes of polyhydramnios.

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  • 37. 

    Some fetal causes of polyhydramnios are _____________, _______________ ______________ and risk for ________________ _________________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    hydrops, fetal anomalies, pre-term labor
    Explanation
    Polyhydramnios refers to an excessive accumulation of amniotic fluid during pregnancy. It can be caused by various fetal factors, including hydrops, fetal anomalies, and the risk for pre-term labor. Hydrops is a condition characterized by abnormal accumulation of fluid in the fetus, leading to swelling. Fetal anomalies refer to structural or functional abnormalities in the developing fetus. The risk for pre-term labor indicates the possibility of giving birth before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation. These factors can contribute to the development of polyhydramnios during pregnancy.

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  • 38. 

    Check all that apply to the sonographic evaluation of polyhydramnios.

    • A.

      Excessive quantity of fluid

    • B.

      Free floating free body

    • C.

      Accentuated fetal anatomy

    • D.

      Placenta appears thin due to fluid volume pressure

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Excessive quantity of fluid
    B. Free floating free body
    C. Accentuated fetal anatomy
    D. Placenta appears thin due to fluid volume pressure
    Explanation
    The sonographic evaluation of polyhydramnios includes checking for an excessive quantity of fluid, which indicates an abnormal increase in amniotic fluid volume. Free floating free body refers to the presence of debris or particles within the amniotic fluid. Accentuated fetal anatomy means that the image of the fetus appears more distinct and well-defined due to the increased fluid surrounding it. The placenta may appear thin due to the pressure exerted by the excessive fluid volume.

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  • 39. 

    Sonographic evaluation of polyhydramnios- It is important to evaluate-

    • A.

      Fetal head

    • B.

      Neck and mouth

    • C.

      Limbs

    • D.

      Upper GI tract (presence of stomach)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fetal head
    B. Neck and mouth
    D. Upper GI tract (presence of stomach)
    Explanation
    Polyhydramnios refers to an excessive amount of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus. The sonographic evaluation of polyhydramnios is important to assess various aspects of fetal development. Evaluating the fetal head is crucial to check for any abnormalities or malformations. Assessing the neck and mouth helps determine if there are any obstructions or anomalies that may contribute to the polyhydramnios. Examining the upper GI tract, specifically the presence of the stomach, is essential as it can indicate proper swallowing and digestion, which are important for fluid balance in the amniotic sac.

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