A61: Autonomics Of Head And Neck I

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Head And Neck Quizzes & Trivia

SGU Anatomy, Fall 2009 - Lecture 61: Autonomics of Head and Neck I
Questions taken from lecture given by Dr. B


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Sympathetic origin for the whole body is from spinal cord segments T1 to ___.

    Correct Answer
    l2
    Explanation
    The sympathetic origin for the whole body is from spinal cord segments T1 to L2. This means that the sympathetic nerves that control various bodily functions originate from these specific segments of the spinal cord. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, regulating heart rate, blood pressure, and other involuntary functions. The L2 segment is the last segment from which sympathetic nerves originate before they travel to their target organs.

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  • 2. 

    All preganglionic fibers must enter the ____ _____.

    Correct Answer
    sympathetic chain
    Explanation
    All preganglionic fibers must enter the sympathetic chain in order to synapse with postganglionic neurons. The sympathetic chain, also known as the paravertebral ganglia, is a chain of ganglia located on either side of the spinal cord. These ganglia are responsible for transmitting signals from the preganglionic fibers to the postganglionic fibers, which then innervate various target organs and tissues. Therefore, the sympathetic chain serves as a crucial relay station for the autonomic nervous system.

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  • 3. 

    The carotid arteries and their branches transmit the ___ fibers throughout the head and neck.

    • A.

      Preganglionic

    • B.

      Postganglionic

    Correct Answer
    B. Postganglionic
    Explanation
    The carotid arteries and their branches transmit the postganglionic fibers throughout the head and neck. Postganglionic fibers are the nerve fibers that originate from ganglia (clusters of nerve cell bodies) and carry signals away from the ganglia to their target organs or tissues. In the context of the head and neck, these postganglionic fibers play a crucial role in transmitting nerve signals to various structures, such as blood vessels, glands, and muscles, helping to regulate their functions.

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  • 4. 

    The origin of the cranial parasympathetic nerve III is located in the

    • A.

      Midbrain

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    A. Midbrain
    Explanation
    The cranial parasympathetic nerve III originates in the midbrain. This nerve, also known as the oculomotor nerve, controls the movement of certain eye muscles and regulates the size of the pupil. The midbrain is an important region of the brainstem that plays a role in various sensory and motor functions. It serves as a relay center for visual and auditory information and is involved in coordinating eye movements. Therefore, it makes sense for the cranial parasympathetic nerve III to originate in the midbrain, as it is closely associated with eye movement and pupil control.

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  • 5. 

    The origin of the cranial parasympathetic nerve VIIis located in the

    • A.

      Midbrain

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    B. Pons
    Explanation
    The cranial parasympathetic nerve VII, also known as the facial nerve, originates in the pons. The pons is a region in the brainstem that plays a crucial role in relaying signals between different parts of the brain and the spinal cord. It is responsible for controlling various functions, including facial movement, taste sensation, and tear production. Therefore, the correct answer is pons.

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  • 6. 

    The origin of the cranial parasympathetic nerve IX is located in the

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Midbrain

    • C.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    C. Medulla
    Explanation
    The cranial parasympathetic nerve IX, also known as the glossopharyngeal nerve, originates in the medulla. The medulla is the lower part of the brainstem, responsible for controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It is also involved in various cranial nerve functions, including the glossopharyngeal nerve, which innervates the tongue, throat, and certain glands. Therefore, the correct answer is medulla.

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  • 7. 

    The origin of the cranial parasympathetic nerve X is located in the

    • A.

      Medulla

    • B.

      Pons

    • C.

      Midbrain

    Correct Answer
    A. Medulla
    Explanation
    The cranial parasympathetic nerve X, also known as the vagus nerve, originates in the medulla. The medulla is a part of the brainstem that controls various autonomic functions, including the parasympathetic nervous system. It regulates involuntary actions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiratory rate. The vagus nerve plays a crucial role in transmitting parasympathetic signals to various organs in the body, promoting rest and relaxation responses. Therefore, the medulla is the correct location for the origin of the cranial parasympathetic nerve X.

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  • 8. 

    Autonomics supply glands, cardiac muscle, and ___ ____.

    Correct Answer
    smooth muscle
    Explanation
    Autonomics supply glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. This statement suggests that autonomics, which refer to the autonomic nervous system, are responsible for supplying or innervating various organs and tissues in the body. In this case, autonomics supply glands, cardiac muscle (found in the heart), and smooth muscle. Smooth muscle is a type of muscle found in the walls of organs and structures such as blood vessels, the digestive system, and the respiratory system. It is responsible for involuntary movements and contractions in these organs.

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  • 9. 

    The preganglionic parasympathetic nerve from CNVII to the pterygopalatine ganglion is the ___ ____ nerve.

    Correct Answer
    greater petrosal
    Explanation
    The preganglionic parasympathetic nerve that connects from cranial nerve VII (CNVII) to the pterygopalatine ganglion is known as the greater petrosal nerve. This nerve carries parasympathetic fibers and is responsible for innervating the lacrimal gland, nasal glands, and the mucous glands of the palate and nasal cavity. It also plays a role in controlling tear production and the secretion of nasal mucus.

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  • 10. 

    The preganglionic parasympathetic nerve from CNVII to the ____ ganglion are the chorda tympani and lingual nerve.

    Correct Answer
    submandibular
    Explanation
    The preganglionic parasympathetic nerves from CNVII (facial nerve) that innervate the submandibular ganglion are the chorda tympani and lingual nerve. These nerves carry parasympathetic fibers that control salivation and taste sensation in the submandibular region.

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  • 11. 

    The preganglionic parasympathetic nerve from CNIX to the otic ganglion is the ___ ____ nerve.

    Correct Answer
    lesser petrosal
    Explanation
    The preganglionic parasympathetic nerve that connects the cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve) to the otic ganglion is known as the lesser petrosal nerve. This nerve carries parasympathetic fibers that control the function of the otic ganglion, which is responsible for regulating salivary gland secretion and blood flow to the parotid gland. The term "lesser petrosal" refers to the location of the nerve, as it passes through the petrous part of the temporal bone.

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  • 12. 

    The postganglionic parasympathetic nerve from the submandibular ganglion is the ____ nerve.

    Correct Answer
    lingual
    Explanation
    The lingual nerve is the correct answer because it is the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve that originates from the submandibular ganglion. This nerve innervates the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, providing sensory information and controlling taste perception in this region.

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  • 13. 

    The postganglionic parasympathetic nerve from the ciliary ganglion is the ___ ____ nerve.

    Correct Answer
    short ciliary
    Explanation
    The postganglionic parasympathetic nerve that originates from the ciliary ganglion is referred to as the short ciliary nerve. This nerve is responsible for innervating the ciliary muscle and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the eye. It plays a crucial role in controlling the shape of the lens and the size of the pupil, thereby regulating visual focus and the amount of light entering the eye.

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  • 14. 

    The postganglionic parasympathetic nerve from the otic ganglion is the ___ nerve.

    Correct Answer
    auriculotemporal
    Explanation
    The postganglionic parasympathetic nerve from the otic ganglion is known as the auriculotemporal nerve. This nerve carries parasympathetic fibers that innervate the parotid gland, which is responsible for producing saliva. The auriculotemporal nerve also carries sensory fibers that provide sensation to the skin of the temple, external ear, and part of the scalp.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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