1.
Using the word "data" to mean "transmittable and storable computer information" was first done in what year?
Correct Answer
C. 1946
Explanation
The word "data" was first used to refer to "transmittable and storable computer information" in the year 1946.
2.
In what year was the word "data processing" first used?
Correct Answer
C. 1954
Explanation
The word "data processing" was first used in the year 1954.
3.
Which of the following measurement scale is said to be measurements that do not have meaningful rank order among values, and permit any one-to-one transformation?
Correct Answer
A. Nominal
Explanation
Nominal measurement scale is considered to have measurements that do not have a meaningful rank order among values, and permit any one-to-one transformation. This means that the values in a nominal scale cannot be ranked or ordered in any meaningful way, and they can be transformed or re-labeled without changing the underlying data. In contrast, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales have a meaningful rank order among values and do not permit arbitrary transformations.
4.
Which of the following measurement scale is said to have imprecise differences between consecutive values, but have a meaningful order to those values, and permit any order-preserving transformation?
Correct Answer
B. Ordinal
Explanation
Ordinal measurement scale is said to have imprecise differences between consecutive values, but have a meaningful order to those values, and permit any order-preserving transformation. This means that the values can be ranked or ordered, but the differences between the values may not be equal or precise. Additionally, any order-preserving transformation can be applied to the values without affecting the meaningful order.
5.
Which of the following measurement scale is said to have meaningful distances between measurements defined, but the zero value is arbitrary (as in the case with longitude and temperature measurements in Celsius or Fahrenheit), and permit any linear transformation?
Correct Answer
C. Interval
Explanation
The interval measurement scale is said to have meaningful distances between measurements defined, but the zero value is arbitrary. This means that the values on this scale can be compared and the differences between them are meaningful, but there is no true zero point. Examples of interval scales include temperature measurements in Celsius or Fahrenheit, where the zero point is arbitrary and does not indicate the absence of temperature. Additionally, interval scales permit any linear transformation, meaning that the values can be multiplied or divided by a constant without changing the nature of the scale.
6.
Which of the following is defined as the amount by which an observation differs from its expected value?
Correct Answer
A. Statistical error
Explanation
Statistical error is defined as the amount by which an observation differs from its expected value. It represents the discrepancy between the observed data and the predicted or expected values. It is often used in statistical analysis to measure the accuracy of a model or estimate. Mean squared error, significant, and regression are not specifically defined as the amount by which an observation differs from its expected value.
7.
Another word for average - The sum of the data divided by the number of items in the data set.
Correct Answer
B. Mean
Explanation
The correct answer is "mean" because it is another word for average. The mean is calculated by finding the sum of all the data points and then dividing it by the number of items in the data set.
8.
Groups of numbers - This information goes on the x-axis of a histogram.
Correct Answer
B. Interval
Explanation
In a histogram, the x-axis represents the groups or intervals of numbers. Each interval represents a range of values, and the frequency of occurrence of those values is represented on the y-axis. Therefore, the correct answer is "interval" because it accurately describes the information that is plotted on the x-axis of a histogram.
9.
The middle number in a set of data that has been ordered least to greatest
Correct Answer
C. Median
Explanation
The median is the middle number in a set of data that has been ordered from least to greatest. It is found by arranging the data in ascending order and selecting the number that falls in the middle. The median is a measure of central tendency and is useful in determining the typical or average value in a dataset. Unlike the mean, the median is not affected by extreme values, making it a more robust measure in certain situations.
10.
Data that are grouped closely together.
Correct Answer
B. Cluster
Explanation
Cluster refers to a group of data points that are closely grouped together. In data analysis, clustering is a technique used to identify patterns and group similar data points together. Therefore, the correct answer is cluster.