Whap Ch. 5-8 Review

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Whap Ch. 5-8 Review - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following was primarily a philosophical movement, rather than a religion focusing on the supernatural?

    • A. 

      Judaism

    • B. 

      Zoroastrianism

    • C. 

      Confucianism

    • D. 

      Buddhism

    Correct Answer
    C. Confucianism
    Explanation
    Confucianism was primarily a philosophical movement rather than a religion focusing on the supernatural. It originated in ancient China and was based on the teachings of Confucius, who emphasized moral values, social harmony, and ethical behavior. Confucianism focused on the importance of personal and societal development, proper conduct, and the cultivation of virtues. While it did include some religious elements, such as ancestor worship, Confucianism primarily emphasized ethical teachings and practical guidance for living a virtuous life, making it more of a philosophical movement than a religion centered around the supernatural.

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  • 2. 

    All EXCEPT which of the following statements is true of the religious and philosophical traditions that developed in Eurasia in the centuries surrounding 500 B.C.E.?

    • A. 

      All sought to define a single source of order and meaning in the universe

    • B. 

      All elevated the value of humankind.

    • C. 

      All reacted in some way to an earlier polytheism.

    • D. 

      All emphasized personal moral or spiritual transformation

    Correct Answer
    B. All elevated the value of humankind.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All elevated the value of humankind." This statement is not true of the religious and philosophical traditions that developed in Eurasia in the centuries surrounding 500 B.C.E. While these traditions did seek to define a single source of order and meaning in the universe, react to earlier polytheism, and emphasize personal moral or spiritual transformation, they did not necessarily elevate the value of humankind. Some traditions, such as Buddhism, emphasized the impermanence and insignificance of individual existence.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following cultural traditions did NOT develop in China during the "age of warring states"?

    • A. 

      Confucianism

    • B. 

      Daoism

    • C. 

      Legalism

    • D. 

      Buddhism

    Correct Answer
    D. Buddhism
    Explanation
    Buddhism did not develop in China during the "age of warring states". Buddhism originated in India and was introduced to China several centuries later, during the Han Dynasty. The "age of warring states" refers to a period in Chinese history before the unification of China, when different states were constantly at war with each other. During this time, Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism were the dominant philosophies that developed in China.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following statements is the best definition of the Chinese philosophy known as Legalism?

    • A. 

      Legalists believed that social harmony could be created and maintained by clearly spelling out laws and strictly enforcing them through rewards and punishments.

    • B. 

      Legalists believed that the way to create social harmony was by strict adherence to moral "laws" that people would be taught to obey voluntarily.

    • C. 

      Legalists believed that the laws of China were handed down from heaven, and that divine forces would destroy those who did not follow them.

    • D. 

      Legalists believed that the best way to provide social harmony was by creating a wide popular consensus to legislate and enforce laws

    Correct Answer
    A. Legalists believed that social harmony could be created and maintained by clearly spelling out laws and strictly enforcing them through rewards and punishments.
  • 5. 

    Confucius believed that it was possible to restore social harmony in all EXCEPT which of the following ways?

    • A. 

      Superiors should provide a good moral example to their inferiors

    • B. 

      People should meditate on nature as the key means to restore their sense of balance with the world.

    • C. 

      Elites should receive a broad liberal arts education as the key to moral improvement.

    • D. 

      Superiors should cultivate benevolence or nobility of heart as the essential ingredient of a peaceful society.

    Correct Answer
    B. People should meditate on nature as the key means to restore their sense of balance with the world.
    Explanation
    Confucius believed in the restoration of social harmony through various means. According to his teachings, superiors should set a good moral example for their inferiors, elites should receive a broad liberal arts education to improve their morals, and superiors should cultivate benevolence or nobility of heart for a peaceful society. However, Confucius did not emphasize meditation on nature as a means to restore balance with the world. Therefore, the correct answer is that people should not meditate on nature as the key means to restore their sense of balance with the world.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following statements best expresses Confucian sentiments about women?

    • A. 

      Although women are weaker than men physically, the two sexes are intellectually equal.

    • B. 

      Women are subordinate to their husbands, but they are equal to their brothers and other family members of their own generation.

    • C. 

      Women should maintain modesty and always yield to others.

    • D. 

      Women should be veiled and strictly secluded at all times.

    Correct Answer
    C. Women should maintain modesty and always yield to others.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that according to Confucian sentiments, women should maintain modesty and always yield to others. This aligns with Confucian beliefs that emphasize hierarchical relationships and the importance of social harmony. Women are expected to be submissive and prioritize the needs and desires of others, particularly men. This view reflects the traditional gender roles and expectations within Confucianism, where women are expected to be obedient and fulfill their societal roles as daughters, wives, and mothers.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is NOT an effect that Confucianism had on Chinese culture?

    • A. 

      Thanks to Confucianism, elite Chinese culture was essentially nonreligious in character.

    • B. 

      The Confucian-based examination system allowed some social mobility for talented young men who were able to afford an education.

    • C. 

      Confucianism stressed that emperors should rule justly and provide for the material needs of their people.

    • D. 

      Confucianism encouraged individualistic and natural behavior among the elite.

    Correct Answer
    D. Confucianism encouraged individualistic and natural behavior among the elite.
    Explanation
    Confucianism did not encourage individualistic and natural behavior among the elite. Instead, it emphasized the importance of social harmony, hierarchy, and adherence to societal norms. Confucianism promoted the idea of filial piety, respect for authority, and the cultivation of virtues such as benevolence, righteousness, and propriety. It emphasized the collective well-being of society over individual desires and advocated for strict adherence to social roles and responsibilities. Therefore, the statement that Confucianism encouraged individualistic and natural behavior among the elite is incorrect.

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  • 8. 

    Belief in an underlying and unchanging principle that governs all natural phenomena is central to which of the following cultural traditions?

    • A. 

      Daoism

    • B. 

      Zoroastrianism

    • C. 

      Confucianism

    • D. 

      Buddhism

    Correct Answer
    A. Daoism
    Explanation
    Daoism is a cultural tradition that emphasizes the belief in an underlying and unchanging principle that governs all natural phenomena. This principle, known as the Dao, is seen as the source of all things and the ultimate reality. Daoism teaches that by aligning oneself with the Dao, individuals can achieve harmony with nature and find balance in their lives. This belief in a fundamental and unchanging principle sets Daoism apart from other cultural traditions such as Zoroastrianism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between Daoism and Confucianism, as understood by Chinese elites?

    • A. 

      Daoism is an offshoot of Confucianism that develops the mystical elements inherent in Confucius' teachings

    • B. 

      Daoism and Confucianism were usually in strict opposition to each other, and people could not practice both simultaneously

    • C. 

      Daoism and Confucianism were regarded as complementary rather than contradictory.

    • D. 

      Most Confucians despised Daoism as a meaningless superstition

    Correct Answer
    C. Daoism and Confucianism were regarded as complementary rather than contradictory.
    Explanation
    Daoism and Confucianism were regarded as complementary rather than contradictory. This means that Chinese elites saw these two philosophies as harmonious and believed that they could be practiced together. They did not view them as opposing or conflicting ideologies. This understanding suggests that Daoism and Confucianism could coexist and even enhance each other's teachings, rather than being in strict opposition or despising one another.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following statements about the Upanishads is TRUE?

    • A. 

      They form a body of works that seek to probe the inner meaning of the earlier Vedas.

    • B. 

      They put a priority on introspection instead of external ritual.

    • C. 

      They were a response to discontent, as Brahmins claimed too much wealth and privilege through their control of Vedic rituals.

    • D. 

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The Upanishads are a collection of texts that aim to explore the deeper significance of the earlier Vedas. They prioritize introspection and inner reflection over external rituals. Additionally, they were a response to the discontent caused by Brahmins who had accumulated excessive wealth and privilege through their control of Vedic rituals. Therefore, all of the given statements about the Upanishads are true.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following cultural traditions is most concerned with the imperfection and impermanence of human life?

    • A. 

      Buddhism

    • B. 

      Hinduism

    • C. 

      Confucianism

    • D. 

      Daoism

    Correct Answer
    A. Buddhism
    Explanation
    Buddhism is most concerned with the imperfection and impermanence of human life. The core teachings of Buddhism revolve around the concept of suffering and the impermanence of all things. Buddhists believe that life is characterized by suffering due to the imperfections and impermanence of existence. They seek to attain enlightenment and liberation from suffering by understanding and accepting the transient nature of human life. Buddhism emphasizes the importance of letting go of attachments and desires in order to find peace and liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

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  • 12. 

    Buddhism shares all EXCEPT which of the following teachings with Hinduism?

    • A. 

      The concept of karma and rebirth

    • B. 

      The need for individuals to take responsibility for their own spiritual development

    • C. 

      The practice of meditation

    • D. 

      The hope for final release from the cycle of rebirth

    Correct Answer
    B. The need for individuals to take responsibility for their own spiritual development
    Explanation
    Buddhism shares all the teachings mentioned in the options with Hinduism, except for the need for individuals to take responsibility for their own spiritual development. While Hinduism emphasizes the individual's responsibility in seeking spiritual growth and liberation, Buddhism focuses more on the concept of non-self and the idea that liberation can be achieved through the Eightfold Path and the guidance of a teacher or guru.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following statements best explains the position of women as classical Buddhist nuns?

    • A. 

      Buddhist nuns, like secular Indian women, remained under the strong patriarchal authority of their father or other male head of family

    • B. 

      Women lived in double monasteries with men, where they were expected to tend to the household needs of the male monks while also devoting themselves to meditation.

    • C. 

      The position of Buddhist women was better than that of women in Hinduism, but they were still restricted and subordinated to men.

    • D. 

      Buddhist nuns were recognized to have full spiritual equality with men, and they could serve in positions of authority over both men and women.

    Correct Answer
    C. The position of Buddhist women was better than that of women in Hinduism, but they were still restricted and subordinated to men.
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that although the position of Buddhist women was considered better than that of women in Hinduism, they were still subject to restrictions and subordination to men. This suggests that while there may have been some degree of improvement in the status of women within Buddhism compared to Hinduism, they were still not granted full equality or autonomy. This aligns with the historical context of patriarchal societies where women were often marginalized and controlled by male authority figures.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is NOT a difference between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism?

    • A. 

      Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism venerates the Buddha as a god

    • B. 

      Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism holds that spiritually developed people (bodhisattvas) help others to reach nirvana, instead of emphasizing that individuals were on their own.

    • C. 

      Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism became a popular religion of salvation

    • D. 

      Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism instituted a formal priesthood whose rituals were meant to help people reach nirvana

    Correct Answer
    D. Unlike Theravada, Mahayana Buddhism instituted a formal priesthood whose rituals were meant to help people reach nirvana
    Explanation
    Mahayana Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism have several differences, but one of the differences is that Mahayana Buddhism instituted a formal priesthood with rituals aimed at assisting people in attaining nirvana. In Theravada Buddhism, there is no such formal priesthood or specific rituals dedicated to helping individuals reach nirvana.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following was never an important element in Hinduism?

    • A. 

      Intense introspection in an effort to understand the meaning behind traditional rituals

    • B. 

      Retreat from the world to an organized, communal religious life

    • C. 

      Intense adoration and identification with a particular deity through song, prayer, and ritual

    • D. 

      Elaborate rituals performed by a hereditary priestly caste

    Correct Answer
    B. Retreat from the world to an organized, communal religious life
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Retreat from the world to an organized, communal religious life." This is because in Hinduism, there is a strong emphasis on the concept of samsara, which is the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Therefore, Hinduism encourages individuals to actively engage with the world and fulfill their duties and responsibilities rather than retreating from it. Intense introspection, intense adoration and identification with a deity, and elaborate rituals performed by a hereditary priestly caste are all important elements in Hinduism.

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  • 16. 

    All EXCEPT which of the following religions foretells a savior figure who will restore either individuals or the world itself to purity and peace?

    • A. 

      Daoism

    • B. 

      Zoroastrianism

    • C. 

      Mahayana Buddhism

    • D. 

      Christianity

    Correct Answer
    A. Daoism
    Explanation
    Daoism is the correct answer because it does not foretell a savior figure who will restore either individuals or the world itself to purity and peace. Daoism focuses on the concept of the Dao, which is the natural way of the universe, and emphasizes living in harmony with nature and finding balance within oneself. It does not involve the belief in a specific savior figure or the idea of restoring purity and peace.

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  • 17. 

    Which cultural tradition is particularly noted for its emphasis on logic and the relentless questioning of received wisdom, without giving much of a role to the gods?

    • A. 

      Confucian philosophy

    • B. 

      Greek philosophy

    • C. 

      Daoism

    • D. 

      Zoroastrianism

    Correct Answer
    B. Greek philosophy
    Explanation
    Greek philosophy is particularly noted for its emphasis on logic and the relentless questioning of received wisdom, without giving much of a role to the gods. Greek philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle sought to understand the world through rational inquiry and critical thinking, focusing on human reason rather than divine intervention. They challenged traditional beliefs and sought to find logical explanations for natural phenomena and human behavior. This emphasis on logic and skepticism towards traditional beliefs distinguishes Greek philosophy from other cultural traditions mentioned in the options.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following comparisons between the teachings of Jesus and the Buddha is NOT true?

    • A. 

      More than the Buddha, Jesus actively engaged with the supernatural, both by talking about God and by working miracles

    • B. 

      Jesus was much more concerned with the poor and oppressed than was the Buddha

    • C. 

      Only Jesus stressed love of others as a central teaching

    • D. 

      Unlike Jesus, the Buddha died peacefully after a long life of public preaching.

    Correct Answer
    C. Only Jesus stressed love of others as a central teaching
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is that only Jesus stressed love of others as a central teaching. This means that the other three statements are true. Jesus did actively engage with the supernatural, talking about God and working miracles. He was also more concerned with the poor and oppressed compared to the Buddha. Additionally, unlike Jesus, the Buddha died peacefully after a long life of public preaching.

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  • 19. 

    All EXCEPT which of the following helped early Christianity spread in the Roman Empire?

    • A. 

      Paul's message that Jesus' message was for everyone, not just Jews, and that converts did not need to follow Jewish rituals

    • B. 

      The widespread popularity of monotheism as a religious concept in the Roman Empire

    • C. 

      Christianity's good reputation for the care its followers gave to one another

    • D. 

      Reports of impressive miracles

    Correct Answer
    B. The widespread popularity of monotheism as a religious concept in the Roman Empire
    Explanation
    The widespread popularity of monotheism as a religious concept in the Roman Empire did not help early Christianity spread because Christianity was seen as a departure from traditional Roman polytheism. The Romans were tolerant of different religions as long as they did not challenge the authority of the state, so the concept of monotheism would not have made Christianity more appealing to them.

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  • 20. 

    Like the First Civilizations, those of the classical era

    • A. 

      Lacked sharp distinctions along class lines

    • B. 

      Were patriarchal in organization

    • C. 

      Rarely included slaves

    • D. 

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Were patriarchal in organization
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "were patriarchal in organization". This means that, similar to the First Civilizations, the civilizations of the classical era were organized in a patriarchal manner, where men held most of the power and authority in society. This can be seen in various classical civilizations, such as Ancient Greece and Rome, where men dominated political, social, and economic spheres, while women had limited rights and were often confined to domestic roles.

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  • 21. 

    China was unique in the ancient world in the extent to which

    • A. 

      Slaveholding defined the society.

    • B. 

      Its social organization was shaped by the actions of the state

    • C. 

      The caste system defined its social structure.

    • D. 

      Women were allowed a role in public life.

    Correct Answer
    B. Its social organization was shaped by the actions of the state
    Explanation
    China was unique in the ancient world because its social organization was shaped by the actions of the state. Unlike other ancient societies where social structure was defined by factors like slaveholding or caste system, China's social structure was primarily influenced by the actions and policies of the ruling state. The state played a significant role in determining the social hierarchy, regulating relationships between different classes, and promoting the values and norms of the society. This centralized control over social organization sets China apart from other ancient civilizations.

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  • 22. 

    Chinese state officials

    • A. 

      Lacked social prestige despite their central role in government.

    • B. 

      Served the emperor but were primarily loyal to their own families and regions

    • C. 

      Took examinations and were chosen for official positions on the basis of their performance during the Han dynasty.

    • D. 

      Were a hereditary class chosen because of their birth and wealth.

    Correct Answer
    C. Took examinations and were chosen for official positions on the basis of their performance during the Han dynasty.
    Explanation
    During the Han dynasty, Chinese state officials were selected based on their performance in examinations. This system allowed individuals from various backgrounds and regions to have the opportunity to serve in government positions based on merit rather than birth or wealth. Despite their central role in government, these officials lacked social prestige as their loyalty was primarily towards their own families and regions.

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  • 23. 

     The Chinese state opposed the growth of a landlord class in control of large landed estates because

    • A. 

      In some cases wealthy landlords could raise their own military forces that might challenge the authority of the emperor

    • B. 

      The rebel Wang Mang, who usurped the emperor's authority in 8 C.E., did so by allying with the landlord class against the emperor and peasants.

    • C. 

      The government did not wish to become too dependent on the taxation of a few wealthy landlords for its revenues

    • D. 

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. In some cases wealthy landlords could raise their own military forces that might challenge the authority of the emperor
    Explanation
    The Chinese state opposed the growth of a landlord class in control of large landed estates because wealthy landlords could raise their own military forces that might challenge the authority of the emperor. This would pose a threat to the stability and control of the state. By preventing the concentration of power in the hands of a few wealthy landlords, the government aimed to maintain its authority and ensure the overall well-being of the empire.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following statements concerning Chinese merchants is false?

    • A. 

      The cultural elite viewed Chinese merchants as unproductive, making a shameful profit from selling the work of others

    • B. 

      Early in the Han dynasty merchants were prohibited from taking civil service exams or holding public office.

    • C. 

      The government sometimes forced merchants to loan large sums of money to the state.

    • D. 

      State officials and landlords ostracized Chinese merchants, having no relationships with them despite the potential for profit

    Correct Answer
    D. State officials and landlords ostracized Chinese merchants, having no relationships with them despite the potential for profit
    Explanation
    Chinese merchants were not ostracized by state officials and landlords. In fact, they had relationships with them despite the potential for profit.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following was NOT a shared feature of the social organizations of India and China in the classical era?

    • A. 

      In both, birth determined social status for most people

    • B. 

      In both, sharp distinctions and great inequalities characterized the social order

    • C. 

      In both, there was little social mobility for the vast majority of the population.

    • D. 

      In both, priority was given to religious status and ritual purity.

    Correct Answer
    D. In both, priority was given to religious status and ritual purity.
    Explanation
    In the social organizations of India and China in the classical era, birth determined social status for most people, sharp distinctions and great inequalities characterized the social order, and there was little social mobility for the vast majority of the population. However, the priority given to religious status and ritual purity was not a shared feature between the two societies.

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  • 26. 

    In India, all EXCEPT which of the following factors play a role in defining the caste system?

    • A. 

      The interaction of culturally different peoples

    • B. 

      Gender, with distinct male and female castes

    • C. 

      Social differences

    • D. 

      Economic differences

    Correct Answer
    B. Gender, with distinct male and female castes
    Explanation
    The caste system in India is primarily defined by social and economic differences, as well as the interaction of culturally different peoples. However, gender does not play a role in defining the caste system, as there are no distinct male and female castes.

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  • 27. 

    The Brahmin, Kshatriya, and Vaisya varnas were distinct from the Sudra varna in that

    • A. 

      Only the Sudras were allowed to hear or repeat the Vedas

    • B. 

      Only the Sudras were believed to be of Aryan descent.

    • C. 

      Only the Brahmin, Kshatriya, and Vaisya were believed to be "twice born."

    • D. 

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Only the Brahmin, Kshatriya, and Vaisya were believed to be "twice born."
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "only the Brahmin, Kshatriya, and Vaisya were believed to be 'twice born'." This means that these three varnas were considered to have a higher spiritual status and were allowed to undergo a second birth through an initiation ceremony called Upanayana. This ceremony marked their entrance into adulthood and their eligibility to study the Vedas and perform religious rituals. The Sudras, on the other hand, were not believed to be "twice born" and were therefore excluded from these privileges.

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  • 28. 

    Once the system of jatis in India was established,

    • A. 

      Individual jatis were locked into an unchanging hierarchy in relation to other jatis.

    • B. 

      Individuals within a jati regularly raised their social status by growing wealthy enough to join other jatis

    • C. 

      An individual jati could raise its standing in relation to other jatis in the local hierarchy by acquiring land or wealth.

    • D. 

      No individual could be expelled from his or her jati.

    Correct Answer
    C. An individual jati could raise its standing in relation to other jatis in the local hierarchy by acquiring land or wealth.
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that in the system of jatis in India, an individual jati could improve its social standing in the local hierarchy by acquiring land or wealth. This implies that social mobility was possible within the jati system, as individuals had the opportunity to raise their status by accumulating wealth or property. This explanation highlights the dynamic nature of the jati system, where jatis could strive to improve their position in relation to other jatis through economic achievements.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following features of the First Civilizations may have contributed to the development of slavery?

    • A. 

      Large-scale warfare in which prisoners were taken

    • B. 

      Patriarchal relationships between men and women

    • C. 

      Class inequalities based on great differences in privately owned property

    • D. 

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above features of the First Civilizations may have contributed to the development of slavery. Large-scale warfare in which prisoners were taken would have provided a ready source of slaves. Patriarchal relationships between men and women may have led to the subjugation of certain groups, making them more susceptible to enslavement. Class inequalities based on great differences in privately owned property could have created a system where the wealthy elite could own slaves as a symbol of their wealth and power.

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  • 30. 

    Race was a major factor in the system of slavery in

    • A. 

      Han dynasty China.

    • B. 

      Classical Greece and Rome

    • C. 

      The Americas after European colonization

    • D. 

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The Americas after European colonization
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Americas after European colonization. Race played a significant role in the system of slavery in the Americas after European colonization. European colonizers brought African slaves to work on plantations and in mines, and their race was used as a justification for their enslavement. Slavery based on race became deeply ingrained in the social, economic, and legal systems of the Americas during this time period. In contrast, while slavery existed in both Han dynasty China and classical Greece and Rome, it was not primarily based on race.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is NOT true of slavery in classical China?

    • A. 

      A relatively large percentage, perhaps as much as one-third of the total population, were slaves.

    • B. 

      Convicted criminals and their families were among the earliest slaves in Han dynasty China.

    • C. 

      Impoverished or indebted peasants might sell their children into slavery.

    • D. 

      Slaves never became a major source of labor for agriculture or manufacturing

    Correct Answer
    A. A relatively large percentage, perhaps as much as one-third of the total population, were slaves.
    Explanation
    In classical China, a relatively large percentage, perhaps as much as one-third of the total population, being slaves is NOT true. While slavery did exist in classical China, it was not as prevalent as one-third of the population. Slavery was not a major source of labor for agriculture or manufacturing, but it did involve convicted criminals and their families as slaves, as well as impoverished or indebted peasants selling their children into slavery.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is true of slavery in classical India?

    • A. 

      Indian civilization was economically dependent on slavery

    • B. 

      Religious writings and secular law provided no protection for slaves

    • C. 

      Slaves could own property and earn money in their spare time

    • D. 

      Unlike China, criminals were not enslaved in India

    Correct Answer
    C. Slaves could own property and earn money in their spare time
    Explanation
    In classical India, slaves were allowed to own property and earn money in their spare time. This suggests that slavery in India was not solely based on economic dependence but also allowed some level of autonomy for slaves. Unlike in China, where criminals were enslaved, this was not the case in India. Religious writings and secular law, however, did not provide any protection for slaves, indicating that they were still considered a lower class in society.

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  • 33. 

    In classical Athens

    • A. 

      The growth of democracy was accompanied by the simultaneous growth of slavery on a mass scale

    • B. 

      A slave who was freed by his or her master became a citizen of the city-state.

    • C. 

      Slaves made up no more than 3 percent of the total population.

    • D. 

      Slavery was criticized by the greatest of the Greek philosophers, including Aristotle, and was ultimately outlawed in society as a whole.

    Correct Answer
    A. The growth of democracy was accompanied by the simultaneous growth of slavery on a mass scale
    Explanation
    The growth of democracy in classical Athens coincided with a significant increase in slavery. As the city-state embraced democratic principles, the number of slaves also rose substantially. Interestingly, when a slave was freed by their master, they would become a citizen of Athens. Despite this, slaves still constituted only a small proportion of the overall population, accounting for no more than 3 percent. It is worth noting that even the renowned Greek philosophers, such as Aristotle, criticized slavery, and eventually, it was abolished throughout society.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following was a feature of slavery in the Roman world?

    • A. 

      Roman slaves were employed exclusively as agricultural labor on the estates of the rich.

    • B. 

      Slaves made up a substantial portion of the population, including perhaps 33 to 40 percent of the population in the Italian heartland of the empire.

    • C. 

      The triumph of Christianity in the Roman Empire brought an end to the practice of slavery

    • D. 

      Slaves were primarily drawn from Africa, and slavery was associated with blackness.

    Correct Answer
    B. Slaves made up a substantial portion of the population, including perhaps 33 to 40 percent of the population in the Italian heartland of the empire.
    Explanation
    During the Roman world, slavery was a common practice and slaves constituted a significant portion of the population. It is estimated that in the Italian heartland of the empire, slaves made up around 33 to 40 percent of the population. This indicates that slavery was widespread and had a significant impact on Roman society. The other options are incorrect as they do not accurately reflect the nature of slavery in the Roman world.

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  • 35. 

    In classical civilizations

    • A. 

      Upper-class women had a tendency to live less restricted lives than lower-class women.

    • B. 

      Women in general experienced fewer restrictions compared to those living in pastoral societies.

    • C. 

      Public life in general was a male domain, while women's roles took place mostly in domestic settings

    • D. 

      Patriarchy was only present in Rome and China.

    Correct Answer
    C. Public life in general was a male domain, while women's roles took place mostly in domestic settings
    Explanation
    In classical civilizations, women in general experienced fewer restrictions compared to those living in pastoral societies. Public life was predominantly dominated by men, while women's roles were mostly confined to domestic settings. This suggests that women had limited opportunities for involvement in public affairs and were expected to focus on their household duties. This pattern was not limited to a specific civilization but was a general trend in classical societies.

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  • 36. 

    In the centuries following the fall of the Han dynasty, Chinese women

    • A. 

      Found themselves restricted to a greater degree than ever before because of the cultural influence of the nomadic peoples who conquered much of northern China.

    • B. 

      Were removed from positions as priests, nuns, and reclusive mediators in Daoist movements

    • C. 

      Benefited from the growing influence of Buddhism, which provided some women with an alternative to family life in Buddhist monasteries.

    • D. 

      Were encouraged by the writings of Ban Zhao to be more assertive in their relationships with men.

    Correct Answer
    C. Benefited from the growing influence of Buddhism, which provided some women with an alternative to family life in Buddhist monasteries.
    Explanation
    During the period after the fall of the Han dynasty, Chinese women experienced increased restrictions due to the cultural influence of nomadic conquerors. However, they also benefited from the growing influence of Buddhism, which offered them an alternative to traditional family life. Some women were able to join Buddhist monasteries, providing them with opportunities for education, spiritual growth, and independence. This allowed them to escape the constraints of their societal roles and pursue a different path in life.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following distinguished the experience of women in Sparta from that of women in Athens?

    • A. 

      Upper-class women in Sparta were more strictly confined to the home than those in Athens.

    • B. 

      In Sparta women married men who were about their own age

    • C. 

      Athenian women were able to participate in their democratic government, whereas Spartan women were unable to participate in their oligarchic government.

    • D. 

      In Athens elite women were strongly encouraged to learn to read and write

    Correct Answer
    B. In Sparta women married men who were about their own age
    Explanation
    In Sparta, women married men who were about their own age. This distinguished the experience of women in Sparta from that of women in Athens because in Athens, women typically married men who were much older than them. This age difference in marriage practices would have had an impact on the dynamics and power dynamics within the households and the overall roles and responsibilities of women in each society.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following was NOT a civilization of the classical era?

    • A. 

      The kingdom of Axum

    • B. 

      The Roman Empire

    • C. 

      The Niger River valley civilization

    • D. 

      The Sumerian civilization

    Correct Answer
    D. The Sumerian civilization
    Explanation
    The Sumerian civilization was indeed a civilization of the classical era. It emerged in Mesopotamia around 4500 BCE and is considered one of the earliest civilizations in history. They developed a sophisticated system of writing known as cuneiform, built monumental architecture such as ziggurats, and made significant contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and literature. Therefore, the correct answer is The Sumerian civilization.

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  • 39. 

    In the classical era, the continents had an unequal population distribution. Which of the following is the correct ranking by population, from most to least populous?

    • A. 

      Eurasia, Central/South America, Africa, North America, Australia/Oceania

    • B. 

      Central/South America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia/Oceania, North America

    • C. 

      Eurasia, Africa, Central/South America, North America, Australia/Oceania

    • D. 

      Africa, Eurasia, Central/South America, North America, Australia/Oceania

    Correct Answer
    C. Eurasia, Africa, Central/South America, North America, Australia/Oceania
    Explanation
    In the classical era, Eurasia had the highest population, followed by Africa, Central/South America, North America, and Australia/Oceania. This is supported by historical evidence of civilizations and empires in Eurasia and Africa having larger populations and more advanced societies compared to the Americas and Australia/Oceania during that time period.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following regions did not have any pastoral societies in the classical era?

    • A. 

      The Americas

    • B. 

      Sub-Saharan Africa

    • C. 

      Europe

    • D. 

      Central Asia

    Correct Answer
    A. The Americas
    Explanation
    During the classical era, pastoral societies were characterized by their reliance on domesticated animals for their livelihoods. The Americas did not have any pastoral societies during this time period because they did not have large domesticated animals like cattle, sheep, or goats that could support a pastoral way of life. Instead, the indigenous peoples of the Americas relied on agriculture, hunting, and gathering for their sustenance. Therefore, the absence of pastoral societies in the Americas during the classical era is due to the lack of suitable domesticated animals.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following regions had the least productive agriculture, thanks to poorer and less fertile soils caused by the rapid breakdown of humus?

    • A. 

      Europe

    • B. 

      North America

    • C. 

      Sub-Saharan Africa

    • D. 

      China

    Correct Answer
    C. Sub-Saharan Africa
    Explanation
    Sub-Saharan Africa had the least productive agriculture due to poorer and less fertile soils caused by the rapid breakdown of humus. Humus is an essential component of soil that provides nutrients to plants. The rapid breakdown of humus in Sub-Saharan Africa's soils resulted in decreased fertility, making it difficult for agriculture to thrive in the region. This led to lower agricultural productivity compared to Europe, North America, and China, which had more fertile soils and higher agricultural yields.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following statements is NOT true about the classical kingdom of Meroë?

    • A. 

      The monarchy was open to women

    • B. 

      Meroitic culture was completely derived from that of Egypt

    • C. 

      Meroitic cities had specialized crafts, including a particularly strong ironworking industry

    • D. 

      Meroë had extensive long-distance trading connections.

    Correct Answer
    B. Meroitic culture was completely derived from that of Egypt
    Explanation
    The statement that Meroitic culture was completely derived from that of Egypt is NOT true about the classical kingdom of Meroë. While there were certainly influences from Egypt, Meroitic culture had its own distinct characteristics and developments. The Meroitic language, for example, was not derived from Egyptian but had its own unique script. Additionally, Meroitic art and architecture also had distinct features that set it apart from Egyptian culture.

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  • 43. 

     Which of the following provided the economic foundation for the kingdom of Axum?

    • A. 

      Mining and export of precious metals, especially gold

    • B. 

      Axum's excellent position commanding the entrance to the Red Sea, which the Axumites exploited as intermediaries in trade between the Mediterranean world and Asia

    • C. 

      Axum's highly productive agriculture, using plows, unlike most of Africa in the period

    • D. 

      Privileged trade status with the Mediterranean world after the kings of Axum converted to Christianity

    Correct Answer
    C. Axum's highly productive agriculture, using plows, unlike most of Africa in the period
    Explanation
    Axum's highly productive agriculture, using plows, unlike most of Africa in the period, provided the economic foundation for the kingdom of Axum. This means that the kingdom relied on its advanced agricultural techniques, such as the use of plows, to produce a surplus of food and sustain its economy. Unlike other regions in Africa during that time, Axum's agricultural practices allowed it to have a stable and productive economy, which contributed to its success as a kingdom.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following was NOT a reason for the decline of the kingdom of Axum?

    • A. 

      Conquest by the newly established Islamic empire in the seventh century C.E

    • B. 

      The rise of Islam, which altered trade routes in a way not favorable to Axum

    • C. 

      Soil exhaustion, which lessened agricultural prosperity

    • D. 

      Erosion brought on by extensive deforestation, as the land was stripped of trees to fuel the iron industry, which lessened agricultural productivity

    Correct Answer
    A. Conquest by the newly established Islamic empire in the seventh century C.E
    Explanation
    The decline of the kingdom of Axum was not caused by the conquest by the newly established Islamic empire in the seventh century C.E. The rise of Islam, which altered trade routes, soil exhaustion, and erosion caused by extensive deforestation were the reasons for the decline.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following civilizations of Africa is distinctive because of the apparent absence of a state structure?

    • A. 

      Axum

    • B. 

      Meroë

    • C. 

      Mali

    • D. 

      The Niger River valley civilization

    Correct Answer
    D. The Niger River valley civilization
    Explanation
    The Niger River valley civilization is distinctive because of the apparent absence of a state structure. This means that unlike the other civilizations listed, the Niger River valley civilization did not have a centralized government or a formal state organization. This could have been due to various reasons such as a more decentralized system of governance, a lack of strong political institutions, or a different social and cultural structure that did not require a state.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following statements best describes the spread of the Bantu peoples to southern and eastern Africa?

    • A. 

      The Bantu were originally invited into small African states as mercenaries and guest workers, but they eventually seized control of those states.

    • B. 

      The Bantu, thanks to their skill in metallurgy, were well-armed and quickly able to conquer their neighbors.

    • C. 

      The Bantu spread was a slow movement of peoples, often just a few families at a time.

    • D. 

      It was Bantu language and culture that spread, rather than Bantu people themselves, as neighbors emulated highly successful Bantu ways.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Bantu spread was a slow movement of peoples, often just a few families at a time.
    Explanation
    The Bantu spread was a slow movement of peoples, often just a few families at a time. This suggests that the migration of the Bantu people was not characterized by large-scale invasions or conquests, but rather by smaller groups gradually moving and settling in new areas. This explanation implies that the Bantu migration was a gradual and peaceful process, with families and communities gradually expanding their territories and influence over time.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following was NOT an advantage that Bantu-speaking migrants had over gatherer-hunters?

    • A. 

      The Bantu had political structures that made it possible for them to organize large armies and seize land from the gatherer-hunters.

    • B. 

      The Bantu knew how to work iron and thus could produce better tools and weapons than the people they displaced or absorbed.

    • C. 

      The Bantu brought diseases to which the gathering and hunting peoples they encountered had little immunity.

    • D. 

      The Bantu were farmers and thus could support more people in a smaller area than the gatherer-hunters could

    Correct Answer
    A. The Bantu had political structures that made it possible for them to organize large armies and seize land from the gatherer-hunters.
    Explanation
    The Bantu had political structures that made it possible for them to organize large armies and seize land from the gatherer-hunters. This answer suggests that the advantage of political structures and military organization allowed the Bantu to conquer and take over land from the gatherer-hunters. The other options mention advantages that the Bantu had over the gatherer-hunters, such as their knowledge of ironworking, ability to produce better tools and weapons, bringing diseases to which the gatherer-hunters had little immunity, and being farmers who could support more people in a smaller area.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following points was NOT a part of Mesoamerica's common culture?

    • A. 

      Agriculture, focusing especially on maize, beans, peppers, and squash

    • B. 

      Market exchange

    • C. 

      Human sacrifice

    • D. 

      During most periods, the existence of a single state that unified the region

    Correct Answer
    D. During most periods, the existence of a single state that unified the region
    Explanation
    During most periods, the existence of a single state that unified the region was not a part of Mesoamerica's common culture. This means that Mesoamerica did not have a centralized political authority that governed the entire region throughout its history. Instead, Mesoamerica was characterized by the presence of multiple independent city-states and kingdoms that often competed with each other for power and resources.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following is a cultural achievement of the Maya?

    • A. 

      Creation of an elaborate writing system that included both pictographs and phonetic or syllabic elements

    • B. 

      A mathematical system that included the concept of zero and place notation

    • C. 

      Creation of elaborate public spaces, including temples, pyramids, and palaces

    • D. 

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The Maya achieved all of the options listed. They developed an elaborate writing system that combined pictographs and phonetic or syllabic elements, allowing them to record their history and communicate complex ideas. They also had a sophisticated mathematical system that included the concept of zero and place notation, which was a significant advancement for the time. Additionally, they created impressive public spaces, such as temples, pyramids, and palaces, showcasing their architectural and engineering skills.

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  • 50. 

    In their political organization, the Maya were most like

    • A. 

      Classical Greece

    • B. 

      The Roman Empire

    • C. 

      The Niger Valley civilization

    • D. 

      The kingdom of Axum

    Correct Answer
    A. Classical Greece
    Explanation
    The Maya were most like classical Greece in their political organization. Both civilizations had a decentralized political structure with city-states that were independent and had their own rulers. They also had a similar system of government where power was shared among a group of elite individuals rather than being concentrated in the hands of a single ruler. Additionally, both civilizations had a strong emphasis on religion and the arts, and placed a high value on intellectual pursuits.

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