Alexander the Great
Greek and Hellenistic culture
Virtue, faithfulness, courage, strength, and respect.
Self-control and avoiding displays of emotion.
Respect for traditions passed down from previous generations.
The virtues of men, since women were considered too weak to be virtuous.
They believed that some people were inherently superior to others and that society should be hierarchical.
They believed that all people were born equal and should be given a chance to prove themselves.
They believed that society should be divided into different orders based on status and that power should be shared equally among them.
They believed that aristocrats deserved high respect and that nothing was expected of them in return.
They exerted indirect political influence through their husbands.
They were expected to teach values, morals, and virtue to their children.
They were under the complete control of their husbands' patria potestas.
They could accumulate property and own businesses.
Client-patron relationships were supposed to endure over generations.
A patron's most important obligation was to support a client and his family if they got into legal difficulties.
Clients never had to lend money to their patrons.
A client had to aid his patron's campaigns for public office by swinging votes his way.
Learning effective public speaking was extremely important for boys and girls.
The Roman educational system reflected an admiration of Greek rhetoric and literature.
Most children were taught at home with wealthy parents hiring tutors for their sons.
Education prepared women to instill traditional social and moral values in their children.
Tarquin the Proud
It was created by the early kings of Rome.
It reflected the Roman principle that decisions should be thoroughly discussed with one's wisest friends.
Senators maintained a low public profile in keeping with the importance Roman tradition placed on humility.
It was a body of advisers chosen from the city's leading men to serve as an advisory council to government officials.
The elaborate garments of their magistrates.
Procedures for religious rituals.
Divining the will of the gods by examining the organs of slaughtered animals.
A republican form of government.
They stormed the forum, the city's public center.
They demonstrated in the streets of Rome, blocking commercial access for days if necessary.
They refused to pay their taxes.
They withdrew from the city to a temporary settlement and refused to perform military service.
The Tribal Assembly
The Plebeian Assembly
The Centuriate Assembly
Exiled the previous population.
Exterminated the previous population.
Exempted the conquered from taxes, admitted some to citizenship, and invited them to share in the booty of future conquests.
Sold their land to victorious generals, which strengthened the connection between Roman elites and rural life.
The wording of the treaty of alliance between Rome and Greece was open to both interpretations.
The Greeks and Romans failed to realize that basic words like freedom and friendship meant different things in their two societies.
The Romans thought that when Philip V of Macedonia became a client of Rome, all of his subjects became Roman clients; the Greeks thought Philip had voided his authority over them.
The Greeks did not believe in patron-client relationships and never came under Roman power.
He was a plebian who worked his way up the ladder of offices to become tribune in 133 B.C.E.
He overrode the Senate by having the plebeian assembly pass laws offering financial support to impoverished citizens.
Because of his reforms and his intention to stand for reelection as tribune, he and many of his followers were clubbed to death by his opponents in the Senate.
His brother Gaius proposed special courts to try senators for corruption.
His repeated election as a consul, which allowed him to amass a huge amount of power
His military campaigns, which stretched Roman resources to a critical level
His marriage to Caesar's daughter Julia
His reform of the entrance requirements for the army, which created armies more loyal to their commander than to the state
He was not a Roman citizen.
Triumphs were only awarded for foreign wars.
Pompey was too young and had never held public office.
Pompey had not killed the opposing general.
Caesar seduced his wife.
Caesar's daughter (and Pompey's wife) Julia died in childbirth.
Spartacus's rebellion weakened the state.
Caesar's ambitions led him to shame Roman values by commencing an affair with Queen Cleopatra.
Caesar's soldiers did not desert him even when their supplies ran out.
Caesar waged a civil war in Rome against the forces of Pompey.
Caesar began his military career against the Gauls.
Caesar demanded and was given a triumph at the early age of twenty-three.
The power of life and death over his children.
Power over his slaves.
Power over the property acquired by his children.
Power over his wife.
In total; completely
The way of the ancestors
Peace of the gods
Spirits who threatened households
Spirits of household fertility
Spirits of the ancestors
Spirits who ensured good harvests
Overseeing the household slaves
Accompanying her husband to dinner parties
Monitoring the care of her children
The flamen Iovis.
The pontifex maximus.
The pax deorum.
Romans and foreigners
Citizens and non-citizens
Patricians and plebeians
Quaestors and aediles
Owed special obligations to their former masters.
Were not granted citizenship.
Were forced to serve in the army.
Did not pass their free status on to their children.
The Twelve Tables
The pax deorum
The Republican Code
The Romans launched a counter-invasion of their enemy's homeland.
The Romans won a decisive battle outside the walls of Rome.
King Philip V of Macedonia joined the war on the side of the Romans.
The enemy's armies were weakened by a famine and plague.
He married the daughter of Caesar and joined his kingdom to Rome.
He surrendered to Rome after a prolonged war that had crippled his country.
He bequeathed his Asia Minor kingdom to Rome in his will.
He helped the Romans defeat Carthage during the Second Punic War.
A large-scale farm often operated by slaves
A foreign province governed by a representative of the Senate
A slum district in the city
A division of the Roman army
Because they backed any politician who promised to address their need for sustenance.
Because they threatened to back foreign enemies during campaigns of war.
Because the taxes instituted to support them were crippling to the Roman economy.
Because they continually attacked and murdered foreign slaves who deprived them of work.
It was composed of soldiers from Rome's foreign allies.
It was composed of plebeians who fought in the place of the wealthy patrons.
Its primary tie of loyalty was to its general rather than to the state.
It was tightly controlled by the Senate.
Listing political virtues for leaders in the Triumvirate.
Identifying lists of traitors and authorizing their killing.
Identifying citizens of any background eligible to serve as senators.
Expelling certain citizens from Rome and sending them into exile.
Success in war meant acquiring profits for common soldiers and commanders alike.
Poor soldiers felt stronger bonds of obligation to their generals than to the republic.
The traditional desire to achieve status worked both for and against political stability.
Former Roman generals were barred from holding the office of consul or tribune.
He defended the authority of the Senate.
His foreign victories added to the glory and wealth of Rome.
He gave generous amounts of money to the poor.
He granted clemency to many of his enemies, transforming them into clients.