Western Civ Chapter 4

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Western Civ Chapter 4

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  • 1. 
    The ___________, or away of the ancestors,a were tried and true values that had been handed down in Roman tradition.
    • A. 

      Virtus

    • B. 

      Lares

    • C. 

      Patria potestas

    • D. 

      Mos maiorum

    • E. 

      Penates

  • 2. 
    The legendary first king of Rome, ______, devised the plan to steal the Sabine women and make them Roman wives. 
    • A. 

      Alexander the Great

    • B. 

      Cicero

    • C. 

      Romulus

    • D. 

      Cato

    • E. 

      Gaius Gracchus

  • 3. 
    _________ was the chief deity of the Romans, corresponding to the Greek god Zeus. 
    • A. 

      Juno

    • B. 

      Romulus

    • C. 

      Vesta

    • D. 

      Capitoline

    • E. 

      Jupiter

  • 4. 
    The _______ tended the eternal flame that guarenteed the state's permanent existence and formed Rome's only female priesthood. 
    • A. 

      Lupercalias

    • B. 

      Vestal Virgins

    • C. 

      Lares

    • D. 

      Penates

    • E. 

      Sabines

  • 5. 
    The _______ festival honored the Italian deity of liberation and temporarily inverted the social order by having masters act as waiters to their slaves at a banquet.
    • A. 

      Lupercalia

    • B. 

      Auspices

    • C. 

      Veii

    • D. 

      Saturnalia

    • E. 

      Italia

  • 6. 
    The degree of influence of the  ____________ over the development of Rome is currently in considerable dispute. 
    • A. 

      Etruscans

    • B. 

      Greeks

    • C. 

      Egyptians

    • D. 

      Persians

    • E. 

      Gauls

  • 7. 
    According to legend, the kings of Rome were overthrown when _________was raped by the son of King Tarquin the Proud. 
    • A. 

      Tullia

    • B. 

      Livia

    • C. 

      Lucretia

    • D. 

      Cornelia

    • E. 

      Sabine

  • 8. 
    The ___________ were former consuls who were elected every five years to select new senators. 
    • A. 

      Quaestors

    • B. 

      Aediles

    • C. 

      Jurists

    • D. 

      Censors

    • E. 

      Tribunes

  • 9. 
    Senators with legal expertise offered advice as ___________ in legal cases, operating as private citizens rather than officials. 
    • A. 

      Quaestors

    • B. 

      Aediles

    • C. 

      Jurists

    • D. 

      Censors

    • E. 

      Tribunes

  • 10. 
    The ________ were elected by the plebeians to protect their interests against patrician domination. 
    • A. 

      Quaestors

    • B. 

      Aediles

    • C. 

      Jurists

    • D. 

      Censors

    • E. 

      Tribunes

  • 11. 
    The Romans had their bloodiest loss ever when Hannibal defeated them at ___________ during the Second Punic War. 
    • A. 

      Zama

    • B. 

      Latium

    • C. 

      Cannae

    • D. 

      Messana

    • E. 

      Numidia

  • 12. 
    The Romans finally won the Second Punic War when ____________ invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 202 B.C.E. 
    • A. 

      Julius Caesar

    • B. 

      Gaius Gracchus

    • C. 

      Gnaius Marius

    • D. 

      Scipio

    • E. 

      Plautus

  • 13. 
    Roman literature was largely inspired by __________________. 
    • A. 

      Egyptian culture

    • B. 

      Hebrew culture

    • C. 

      Carthaginian culture

    • D. 

      Etruscan culture

    • E. 

      Greek and Hellenistic culture

  • 14. 
    The great orator _____________ formed the doctrine of humanitas, which emphasized an appreciation for the uniqueness of each person. 
    • A. 

      Cato

    • B. 

      Cicero

    • C. 

      Terence

    • D. 

      Livy

    • E. 

      Fabius Pictor

  • 15. 
    _______ wrote poems that ridiculed politicians for their sexual behavior. 
    • A. 

      Cato

    • B. 

      Cicero

    • C. 

      Terence

    • D. 

      Catullus

    • E. 

      Fabius Pictor

  • 16. 
    The social-reforming Gracchi brothers were from the upper class and both served as ______________. 
    • A. 

      Latifundae

    • B. 

      Humanitas

    • C. 

      Populares

    • D. 

      Tribunes

    • E. 

      Optimates

  • 17. 
    The _________or knights were landowners who in the late republic were wealthy businessmen. 
    • A. 

      Populares

    • B. 

      Optimates

    • C. 

      Equites

    • D. 

      Tribunes

    • E. 

      Censors

  • 18. 
    Gaius Marius was most popular with the ___________. 
    • A. 

      Senate

    • B. 

      Optimates

    • C. 

      Gauls

    • D. 

      Proletarians

    • E. 

      Gracchus brothers

  • 19. 
    Sulla gained supreme power by putting down a rebellion in________. 
    • A. 

      North Africa

    • B. 

      Italy

    • C. 

      Egypt

    • D. 

      Greece

    • E. 

      Sicily

  • 20. 
    In 71 B.C.E. Pompey put down a massive slave rebellion led by __________ that involved 100,000 escaped slaves. 
    • A. 

      Regulus

    • B. 

      Accius

    • C. 

      Spartacus

    • D. 

      Masinissa

    • E. 

      Zama

  • 21. 
    All of the following describe personal qualities that Roman admired except:
    • A. 

      Virtue, faithfulness, courage, strength, and respect.

    • B. 

      Self-control and avoiding displays of emotion.

    • C. 

      Respect for traditions passed down from previous generations.

    • D. 

      The virtues of men, since women were considered too weak to be virtuous.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following best describes the Roman concept of authority and hierarchy? 
    • A. 

      They believed that some people were inherently superior to others and that society should be hierarchical.

    • B. 

      They believed that all people were born equal and should be given a chance to prove themselves.

    • C. 

      They believed that society should be divided into different orders based on status and that power should be shared equally among them.

    • D. 

      They believed that aristocrats deserved high respect and that nothing was expected of them in return.

  • 23. 
    Which of the following is not true about married women in Rome? 
    • A. 

      They exerted indirect political influence through their husbands.

    • B. 

      They were expected to teach values, morals, and virtue to their children.

    • C. 

      They were under the complete control of their husbands' patria potestas.

    • D. 

      They could accumulate property and own businesses.

  • 24. 
    The obligations required of patrons and clients are described by all of the following except:
    • A. 

      Client-patron relationships were supposed to endure over generations.

    • B. 

      A patron's most important obligation was to support a client and his family if they got into legal difficulties.

    • C. 

      Clients never had to lend money to their patrons.

    • D. 

      A client had to aid his patron's campaigns for public office by swinging votes his way.

  • 25. 
    All of the following are true of Roman educational practices except:
    • A. 

      Learning effective public speaking was extremely important for boys and girls.

    • B. 

      The Roman educational system reflected an admiration of Greek rhetoric and literature.

    • C. 

      Most children were taught at home with wealthy parents hiring tutors for their sons.

    • D. 

      Education prepared women to instill traditional social and moral values in their children.

  • 26. 
    Who according to legend was the last king of the Romans? 
    • A. 

      Romulus

    • B. 

      Claudius Pulcher

    • C. 

      Horatius

    • D. 

      Tarquin the Proud

  • 27. 
    All of the following accurately describe the Roman Senate except:
    • A. 

      It was created by the early kings of Rome.

    • B. 

      It reflected the Roman principle that decisions should be thoroughly discussed with one's wisest friends.

    • C. 

      Senators maintained a low public profile in keeping with the importance Roman tradition placed on humility.

    • D. 

      It was a body of advisers chosen from the city's leading men to serve as an advisory council to government officials.

  • 28. 
    • A. 

      The elaborate garments of their magistrates.

    • B. 

      Procedures for religious rituals.

    • C. 

      Divining the will of the gods by examining the organs of slaughtered animals.

    • D. 

      A republican form of government.

  • 29. 
    What was the tactic used by the plebeians to pressure the patricians into making concessions? 
    • A. 

      They stormed the forum, the city's public center.

    • B. 

      They demonstrated in the streets of Rome, blocking commercial access for days if necessary.

    • C. 

      They refused to pay their taxes.

    • D. 

      They withdrew from the city to a temporary settlement and refused to perform military service.

  • 30. 
    Which assembly became the republic's most important institution for making policy and passing laws? 
    • A. 

      The Tribal Assembly

    • B. 

      The Plebeian Assembly

    • C. 

      The Centuriate Assembly

    • D. 

      Jupiter's Assembly

  • 31. 
    Who sacked Rome in 387 B.C.E., providing only a temporary military setback but leaving the Romans fearful of foreign invasion? 
    • A. 

      The Etruscans

    • B. 

      The Greeks

    • C. 

      The Gauls

    • D. 

      The Carthaginians

  • 32. 
    After conquering Italian lands around Rome, authorities typically: 
    • A. 

      Exiled the previous population.

    • B. 

      Exterminated the previous population.

    • C. 

      Exempted the conquered from taxes, admitted some to citizenship, and invited them to share in the booty of future conquests.

    • D. 

      Sold their land to victorious generals, which strengthened the connection between Roman elites and rural life.

  • 33. 
    Where was the Romans' first province outside the Italian mainland? 
    • A. 

      Carthage

    • B. 

      Sicily

    • C. 

      Greece

    • D. 

      Spain

  • 34. 
    After the 196 B.C.E. Roman proclamation of the "freedom of the Greeks," why did the Greeks think they were free, while the Romans thought the Greeks were their clients? 
    • A. 

      The wording of the treaty of alliance between Rome and Greece was open to both interpretations.

    • B. 

      The Greeks and Romans failed to realize that basic words like freedom and friendship meant different things in their two societies.

    • C. 

      The Romans thought that when Philip V of Macedonia became a client of Rome, all of his subjects became Roman clients; the Greeks thought Philip had voided his authority over them.

    • D. 

      The Greeks did not believe in patron-client relationships and never came under Roman power.

  • 35. 
    In the Second Punic War, who led the Carthaginians in the bloodiest Roman loss in history at Cannae in 216 B.C.E.? 
    • A. 

      Hannibal

    • B. 

      Philip V

    • C. 

      Attalus III

    • D. 

      Masinissa

  • 36. 
    Which of the following statements does not accurately describe Tiberius Gracchus? 
    • A. 

      He was a plebian who worked his way up the ladder of offices to become tribune in 133 B.C.E.

    • B. 

      He overrode the Senate by having the plebeian assembly pass laws offering financial support to impoverished citizens.

    • C. 

      Because of his reforms and his intention to stand for reelection as tribune, he and many of his followers were clubbed to death by his opponents in the Senate.

    • D. 

      His brother Gaius proposed special courts to try senators for corruption.

  • 37. 
    What action of Gaius Marius had the most dire implications for Rome? 
    • A. 

      His repeated election as a consul, which allowed him to amass a huge amount of power

    • B. 

      His military campaigns, which stretched Roman resources to a critical level

    • C. 

      His marriage to Caesar's daughter Julia

    • D. 

      His reform of the entrance requirements for the army, which created armies more loyal to their commander than to the state

  • 38. 
    What was unusual about Pompey being rewarded the supreme honor of a triumph after the civil war in 83 B.C.E.? 
    • A. 

      He was not a Roman citizen.

    • B. 

      Triumphs were only awarded for foreign wars.

    • C. 

      Pompey was too young and had never held public office.

    • D. 

      Pompey had not killed the opposing general.

  • 39. 
    Pompey and Caesar cooperated until: 
    • A. 

      Caesar seduced his wife.

    • B. 

      Caesar's daughter (and Pompey's wife) Julia died in childbirth.

    • C. 

      Spartacus's rebellion weakened the state.

    • D. 

      Caesar's ambitions led him to shame Roman values by commencing an affair with Queen Cleopatra.

  • 40. 
    Which of the following statements about Caesar's military background is false
    • A. 

      Caesar's soldiers did not desert him even when their supplies ran out.

    • B. 

      Caesar waged a civil war in Rome against the forces of Pompey.

    • C. 

      Caesar began his military career against the Gauls.

    • D. 

      Caesar demanded and was given a triumph at the early age of twenty-three.

  • 41. 
    Patria potestas gave a father all of the following powers except
    • A. 

      The power of life and death over his children.

    • B. 

      Power over his slaves.

    • C. 

      Power over the property acquired by his children.

    • D. 

      Power over his wife.

  • 42. 
    What is meant by mos maiorum
    • A. 

      In total; completely

    • B. 

      The way of the ancestors

    • C. 

      Peace of the gods

    • D. 

      Majority rule

  • 43. 
    What were the Lares in Roman religion? 
    • A. 

      Spirits who threatened households

    • B. 

      Spirits of household fertility

    • C. 

      Spirits of the ancestors

    • D. 

      Spirits who ensured good harvests

  • 44. 
    Which of the following was expected of a wealthy Roman wife, but never of a Greek wife? 
    • A. 

      Overseeing the household slaves

    • B. 

      Managing property

    • C. 

      Accompanying her husband to dinner parties

    • D. 

      Monitoring the care of her children

  • 45. 
    The head of state religion and the ultimate authority on religious matters affecting government was: 
    • A. 

      The flamen Iovis.

    • B. 

      The pontifex maximus.

    • C. 

      The quaestor.

    • D. 

      The pax deorum.

  • 46. 
    What were the two orders in Roman society during the republic? 
    • A. 

      Romans and foreigners

    • B. 

      Citizens and non-citizens

    • C. 

      Patricians and plebeians

    • D. 

      Quaestors and aediles

  • 47. 
    In Rome, freed slaves: 
    • A. 

      Owed special obligations to their former masters.

    • B. 

      Were not granted citizenship.

    • C. 

      Were forced to serve in the army.

    • D. 

      Did not pass their free status on to their children.

  • 48. 
    What was Rome's first written law code? 
    • A. 

      The Twelve Tables

    • B. 

      The Plebiscite

    • C. 

      The pax deorum

    • D. 

      The Republican Code

  • 49. 
    The highest officials in the republican government of Rome were 
    • A. 

      Praetors.

    • B. 

      Censors.

    • C. 

      Consuls.

    • D. 

      Tribunes.

  • 50. 
    Which officials stopped actions that would harm plebeians and their property? 
    • A. 

      Praetors

    • B. 

      Censors

    • C. 

      Consuls

    • D. 

      Tribunes

  • 51. 
    Against what power did the Roman republic fight during the Punic Wars? 
    • A. 

      Parthia

    • B. 

      Carthage

    • C. 

      Macedonia

    • D. 

      Egypt

  • 52. 
    Which of the following turned the tide in the Romans' favor during the Second Punic War? 
    • A. 

      The Romans launched a counter-invasion of their enemy's homeland.

    • B. 

      The Romans won a decisive battle outside the walls of Rome.

    • C. 

      King Philip V of Macedonia joined the war on the side of the Romans.

    • D. 

      The enemy's armies were weakened by a famine and plague.

  • 53. 
    How did the king of Pergamum contribute to the expansion of Roman power? 
    • A. 

      He married the daughter of Caesar and joined his kingdom to Rome.

    • B. 

      He surrendered to Rome after a prolonged war that had crippled his country.

    • C. 

      He bequeathed his Asia Minor kingdom to Rome in his will.

    • D. 

      He helped the Romans defeat Carthage during the Second Punic War.

  • 54. 
    What was a latifundia
    • A. 

      A large-scale farm often operated by slaves

    • B. 

      A foreign province governed by a representative of the Senate

    • C. 

      A slum district in the city

    • D. 

      A division of the Roman army

  • 55. 
    Why were the displaced and rural poor who moved to Rome a dangerous element in Roman society? 
    • A. 

      Because they backed any politician who promised to address their need for sustenance.

    • B. 

      Because they threatened to back foreign enemies during campaigns of war.

    • C. 

      Because the taxes instituted to support them were crippling to the Roman economy.

    • D. 

      Because they continually attacked and murdered foreign slaves who deprived them of work.

  • 56. 
    Which of the following best describes a client army? 
    • A. 

      It was composed of soldiers from Rome's foreign allies.

    • B. 

      It was composed of plebeians who fought in the place of the wealthy patrons.

    • C. 

      Its primary tie of loyalty was to its general rather than to the state.

    • D. 

      It was tightly controlled by the Senate.

  • 57. 
    Proscription involved: 
    • A. 

      Listing political virtues for leaders in the Triumvirate.

    • B. 

      Identifying lists of traitors and authorizing their killing.

    • C. 

      Identifying citizens of any background eligible to serve as senators.

    • D. 

      Expelling certain citizens from Rome and sending them into exile.

  • 58. 
    The First Triumvirate included all of the following people except
    • A. 

      Julius Caesar

    • B. 

      Crassus

    • C. 

      Sulla

    • D. 

      Pompey

  • 59. 
    All of the following describe Roman society by the time of Sulla's death except
    • A. 

      Success in war meant acquiring profits for common soldiers and commanders alike.

    • B. 

      Poor soldiers felt stronger bonds of obligation to their generals than to the republic.

    • C. 

      The traditional desire to achieve status worked both for and against political stability.

    • D. 

      Former Roman generals were barred from holding the office of consul or tribune.

  • 60. 
    Which of the following was not one of the ways in which Julius Caesar gained support in Rome? 
    • A. 

      He defended the authority of the Senate.

    • B. 

      His foreign victories added to the glory and wealth of Rome.

    • C. 

      He gave generous amounts of money to the poor.

    • D. 

      He granted clemency to many of his enemies, transforming them into clients.