Weather Final Practice Quiz (Exam 1)

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Questions: 47 | Attempts: 157

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Weather Quizzes & Trivia

Quiz of previous exam questions that may possibly be on the final - trying to memorize the answers.  


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    On the average, about what percentage of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface?

    • A.

      70%

    • B.

      30%

    • C.

      15%

    • D.

      5%

    • E.

      50%

    Correct Answer
    E. 50%
    Explanation
    On average, about 50% of the solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reaches the earth's surface. This is because various factors such as reflection, absorption, and scattering of sunlight by the atmosphere and clouds result in a portion of the energy being lost or redirected away from the surface. Therefore, only half of the solar energy is able to penetrate through the atmosphere and reach the earth's surface.

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  • 2. 

    A supercooled cloud droplet refers to a droplet whose temperature is below

    • A.

      +10 degrees c

    • B.

      -20 degrees c

    • C.

      0 degrees c

    • D.

      -40 degrees c

    • E.

      -10 degrees c

    Correct Answer
    C. 0 degrees c
    Explanation
    A supercooled cloud droplet refers to a droplet whose temperature is below 0 degrees c. Supercooling occurs when water remains in a liquid state below its freezing point due to the absence of nucleation sites for ice crystal formation. In the case of cloud droplets, they can exist as supercooled liquid droplets even at temperatures below freezing, until they come into contact with ice nuclei or other freezing agents. Therefore, a supercooled cloud droplet would have a temperature below 0 degrees c.

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  • 3. 

    During the ice crystal process of rain formation

    • A.

      The cloud must be a cumuliform cloud

    • B.

      Only ice crystals need to be present in a cloud

    • C.

      The temperature in the cloud must be -40 degrees or below

    • D.

      Ice crystals grow larger at the expense of surrounding liquid cloud droplets

    Correct Answer
    D. Ice crystals grow larger at the expense of surrounding liquid cloud droplets
    Explanation
    Ice crystals grow larger at the expense of surrounding liquid cloud droplets during the ice crystal process of rain formation. This means that as the ice crystals grow, they absorb the moisture from the liquid cloud droplets, causing them to evaporate and contribute to the growth of the ice crystals. This process continues until the ice crystals become heavy enough to fall as raindrops.

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  • 4. 

    A rising parcel of air that does not exchange heat with its surroundings is referred to as

    • A.

      Forced lifting

    • B.

      An adiabatic process

    • C.

      Isothermal ascent

    • D.

      Advection

    Correct Answer
    B. An adiabatic process
    Explanation
    An adiabatic process refers to a rising parcel of air that does not exchange heat with its surroundings. In this process, the temperature of the parcel changes due to the expansion or compression of the air as it rises or sinks. The lack of heat exchange allows the parcel to change temperature solely based on the work done on or by the air. Therefore, an adiabatic process accurately describes a rising parcel of air that does not exchange heat with its surroundings.

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  • 5. 

    A temperature of 27 degrees c would be equal to what temperature on the Kelvin scale?

    • A.

      300k

    • B.

      0k

    • C.

      100k

    • D.

      27k

    • E.

      270k

    Correct Answer
    A. 300k
    Explanation
    The Kelvin scale is an absolute temperature scale where 0 Kelvin represents absolute zero, the point at which all molecular motion ceases. To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, we add 273.15 to the Celsius temperature. Therefore, to convert 27 degrees Celsius to Kelvin, we add 273.15 to get 300.15 Kelvin, which can be rounded to 300 Kelvin.

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  • 6. 

    The flat top of a thunderstorm about 30,000 feet or 10km high would mark the top of the

    • A.

      Atmosphere

    • B.

      Troposphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Stratosphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Troposphere
    Explanation
    The correct answer is troposphere. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, extending from the surface up to about 10 kilometers in altitude. It is where weather phenomena occur, including thunderstorms. The flat top of a thunderstorm at about 30,000 feet or 10 kilometers high would indicate the upper boundary of the troposphere.

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  • 7. 

    The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled liquid droplet is called

    • A.

      Accretion

    • B.

      Condensation

    • C.

      Spontaneous nucleation

    • D.

      Deposition

    Correct Answer
    A. Accretion
    Explanation
    The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled liquid droplet is called accretion. This process occurs when the ice crystal or snowflake comes into contact with the supercooled droplet, causing the droplet to freeze onto the crystal's surface, gradually increasing its size. Accretion is an important process in the formation of larger precipitation particles such as snowflakes or graupel.

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  • 8. 

    If very cold air is brought indoors and warmed with no change in its moisture content, the saturation vapor pressure of this air will ______ and the relative humidity of this air will ______

    • A.

      Decrease, decrease

    • B.

      Increase, decrease

    • C.

      Increase, increase

    • D.

      Decrease, increase

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase, decrease
    Explanation
    When very cold air is brought indoors and warmed with no change in its moisture content, the saturation vapor pressure of the air will increase. This is because as the temperature increases, the air molecules gain more energy and move faster, leading to an increase in the rate of evaporation. However, the relative humidity of the air will decrease. This is because the amount of moisture in the air remains the same, but the warmer air can hold more moisture before reaching saturation. Therefore, the ratio of the actual amount of moisture in the air to the maximum amount it can hold (relative humidity) decreases.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is considered a variable gas in the earth's atmosphere?

    • A.

      Nitrogen

    • B.

      Oxygen

    • C.

      Carbon dioxide

    • D.

      Argon

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon dioxide
    Explanation
    Carbon dioxide is considered a variable gas in the earth's atmosphere because its concentration can vary depending on various factors such as human activities, natural processes, and climate change. Unlike nitrogen and oxygen, which make up the majority of the atmosphere and have relatively stable concentrations, carbon dioxide levels can fluctuate significantly over time. Additionally, carbon dioxide plays a crucial role in the greenhouse effect and is a key driver of climate change.

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  • 10. 

    In clear weather the air next to the ground is usually ______ than the air above during the night , and _______ than the air above during the day

    • A.

      Warmer, warmer

    • B.

      Warmer, colder

    • C.

      Colder, colder

    • D.

      Colder, warmer

    Correct Answer
    D. Colder, warmer
    Explanation
    During the night, the ground loses heat and cools down faster than the air above it. This causes the air next to the ground to be colder than the air above. During the day, the ground absorbs heat from the sun and becomes warmer than the air above it. Therefore, the air next to the ground is colder during the night and warmer during the day.

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  • 11. 

    The earth's radiation is often referred to as _______ radiation, while the sun's radiation is often referred to as _______ radiation

    • A.

      Longwave, shortwave

    • B.

      Shortwave, shortwave

    • C.

      Shortwave, longwave

    • D.

      Longwave, longwave

    Correct Answer
    A. Longwave, shortwave
    Explanation
    The earth's radiation is often referred to as longwave radiation because it primarily consists of infrared radiation, which has longer wavelengths. On the other hand, the sun's radiation is often referred to as shortwave radiation because it consists of mostly visible light and ultraviolet radiation, which have shorter wavelengths.

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  • 12. 

    When the air temperature increases, the saturation vapor pressure will

    • A.

      Increase

    • B.

      Vary over an increasingly broad range of values

    • C.

      Decrease

    • D.

      Remain the same

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase
    Explanation
    When the air temperature increases, the saturation vapor pressure will increase. This is because warmer air has the ability to hold more moisture, leading to an increase in the amount of water vapor that can be present in the air. As the temperature rises, the molecules in the air move faster and have more energy, allowing them to escape from the liquid phase and enter the gas phase more easily. This results in an increase in the saturation vapor pressure, which is the maximum amount of water vapor that can exist in equilibrium with liquid water at a given temperature.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is generally true at night?

    • A.

      The earth emits and absorbs energy at equal rates

    • B.

      The earth does not absorb any energy

    • C.

      The earth does not emit any energy

    • D.

      The earth emits more energy than it absorbs

    Correct Answer
    D. The earth emits more energy than it absorbs
    Explanation
    At night, the earth emits more energy than it absorbs. This is because during the day, the earth receives energy from the sun in the form of sunlight, which heats up the earth's surface. At night, there is no sunlight, so the earth's surface cools down and radiates heat back into the atmosphere. This process of radiating heat is known as terrestrial radiation. Therefore, the earth emits more energy than it absorbs at night.

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  • 14. 

    The amount of forced exerted over an area of surface is called

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      Density

    • C.

      Weight

    • D.

      Pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. Pressure
    Explanation
    Pressure is the correct answer because it refers to the amount of force applied over a given area. It is a measure of how much force is distributed per unit of surface area. Temperature, density, and weight are not directly related to the amount of force exerted over an area, making them incorrect options.

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  • 15. 

    In a volume of air near the earth's surface, _______ occupies 78%, and _____ nearly 21%

    • A.

      Hydrogen, helium

    • B.

      Hydrogen, oxygen

    • C.

      Nitrogen, water vapor

    • D.

      Nitrogen, oxygen

    • E.

      Oxygen, hydrogen

    Correct Answer
    D. Nitrogen, oxygen
    Explanation
    In a volume of air near the earth's surface, nitrogen occupies 78%, and oxygen nearly 21%. This is because nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, making up the majority of the air we breathe. Oxygen is the second most abundant gas, and together with nitrogen, they make up the majority of the composition of the air we breathe.

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  • 16. 

    The rate at which the temperature changes inside a rising (or descending) parcel of saturated air is called

    • A.

      The environmental lapse rate

    • B.

      The latent heat release rate

    • C.

      The moist adiabatic lapse rate

    • D.

      The dry adiabatic lapse rate

    Correct Answer
    C. The moist adiabatic lapse rate
    Explanation
    The moist adiabatic lapse rate refers to the rate at which the temperature changes inside a rising or descending parcel of saturated air. This rate takes into account the release of latent heat due to condensation or evaporation of water vapor within the parcel. As the parcel rises, it expands and cools, causing the water vapor to condense and release heat, which partially offsets the cooling. This results in a slower rate of temperature decrease compared to the dry adiabatic lapse rate, which does not consider the effects of water vapor. Therefore, the correct answer is the moist adiabatic lapse rate.

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  • 17. 

    If an air parcel initially has a temperature of 20 degrees c, what is the temperature of the parcel after lifting it a distance of 2 kilometers at the dry adiabatic rate?

    • A.

      15 degrees c

    • B.

      40 degrees c

    • C.

      -5 degrees c

    • D.

      20 degrees c

    • E.

      0 degrees c

    Correct Answer
    E. 0 degrees c
    Explanation
    As the air parcel is lifted at the dry adiabatic rate, it undergoes adiabatic cooling. This means that the temperature of the parcel decreases by 1 degree Celsius for every 100 meters of ascent. Since the parcel is lifted 2 kilometers (or 2000 meters), the temperature would decrease by 20 degrees Celsius. Therefore, the final temperature of the parcel would be 20 degrees Celsius minus 20 degrees Celsius, which equals 0 degrees Celsius.

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  • 18. 

    The collision and coalescence precipitation process involves

    • A.

      Droplets of various sizes

    • B.

      Condensation nucli and ice nucli

    • C.

      Condensation nucli and ice crystals

    • D.

      Ice crystals and supercooled droplets

    Correct Answer
    A. Droplets of various sizes
    Explanation
    The collision and coalescence precipitation process involves droplets of various sizes. This means that during this process, different-sized droplets collide and merge together to form larger droplets. This is one of the mechanisms by which precipitation occurs in the atmosphere. As the droplets collide and coalesce, they become larger and heavier, eventually falling to the ground as rain or other forms of precipitation.

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  • 19. 

    Cloud condensation nuclei are classified as 

    • A.

      Greenhouse gases

    • B.

      Fog

    • C.

      Noble gases

    • D.

      Aerosols

    Correct Answer
    D. Aerosols
    Explanation
    Cloud condensation nuclei are tiny particles in the atmosphere that provide a surface for water vapor to condense onto, forming clouds. They are not classified as greenhouse gases, fog, or noble gases. Instead, they are classified as aerosols, which are small solid or liquid particles suspended in the air. These aerosols play a crucial role in cloud formation and can have significant impacts on Earth's climate and weather patterns.

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  • 20. 

    The nitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere is removed by

    • A.

      A process involving soil bacteria

    • B.

      None of these

    • C.

      Plant photosynthesis

    • D.

      Decaying organic matter

    Correct Answer
    A. A process involving soil bacteria
    Explanation
    Nitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere is removed through a process involving soil bacteria. These bacteria, known as nitrogen-fixing bacteria, convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants, such as ammonium or nitrate. This process is called nitrogen fixation and is crucial for the nitrogen cycle, as it provides a vital source of nitrogen for plants and other organisms. Plant photosynthesis and decaying organic matter are not directly involved in the removal of nitrogen gas from the atmosphere.

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  • 21. 

    If the environmental lapse rate is 8 degrees c per kilometer and the moist adiabatic rate is 6 degrees per kilometer, the atmosphere is

    • A.

      Stable

    • B.

      Neutral

    • C.

      Unstable

    Correct Answer
    C. Unstable
    Explanation
    The environmental lapse rate refers to the rate at which temperature decreases with increasing altitude in the atmosphere. In this case, the environmental lapse rate is 8 degrees Celsius per kilometer. On the other hand, the moist adiabatic rate refers to the rate at which temperature decreases with increasing altitude when air is saturated with water vapor. Here, the moist adiabatic rate is 6 degrees Celsius per kilometer. Since the environmental lapse rate is greater than the moist adiabatic rate, it indicates that the atmosphere is unstable. This means that the air parcels in the atmosphere will continue to rise and cool at a faster rate than the surrounding environment, leading to the formation of clouds and potentially unstable weather conditions.

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  • 22. 

    The process of condensation and freezing

    • A.

      Do not affect the temperature of their surroundings

    • B.

      Both release sensible heat into the environment

    • C.

      Both absorb sensible heat from the environment

    • D.

      Do not involve energy transport

    Correct Answer
    B. Both release sensible heat into the environment
    Explanation
    Both condensation and freezing are processes that involve a change in state of a substance from a gas or liquid to a solid. During these processes, energy is released in the form of sensible heat into the surrounding environment. This is because when a substance condenses or freezes, the molecules slow down and come closer together, releasing energy in the process. Therefore, both condensation and freezing release sensible heat into the environment.

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  • 23. 

    At any given time, the atmosphere contains the equivalent of _____ globally distributed precipitation

    • A.

      40 inches (101.6 cm)

    • B.

      4 inches (10.2 cm)

    • C.

      1 inch (2.5 cm)

    • D.

      2 inches (5.1 cm)

    • E.

      20 inches (50.8 cm)

    Correct Answer
    C. 1 inch (2.5 cm)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1 inch (2.5 cm). This means that if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall as precipitation, it would cover the entire Earth's surface with a layer of water that is 1 inch (2.5 cm) deep. This demonstrates the vastness and volume of water vapor present in the atmosphere, even though it may not always be visible or in the form of precipitation.

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  • 24. 

    Incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer because

    • A.

      The cold dense air lowers the intensity of the sun's rays

    • B.

      The sun's rays slant more and spread their energy over a larger area

    • C.

      There is a decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere

    • D.

      The earth is furthest from the sun

    Correct Answer
    B. The sun's rays slant more and spread their energy over a larger area
    Explanation
    In winter, the sun's rays slant more as they reach the middle latitudes. This means that the rays have to travel through a larger portion of the Earth's atmosphere, which results in more scattering and spreading of the energy. As a result, the intensity of the sun's rays decreases, leading to less incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes during winter compared to summer.

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  • 25. 

    Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by the

    • A.

      Conduction of heat through the interior of the earth

    • B.

      Concentration of earth's magnetic field lines at the poles

    • C.

      Release of latent heat to the atmosphere when polar ice melts

    • D.

      Circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans

    • E.

      The insulating properties of snow

    Correct Answer
    D. Circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans
    Explanation
    The polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive from the sun, which would make them progressively colder each year. However, this is prevented by the circulation of heat by the atmosphere and oceans. The movement of air and water currents helps to distribute heat from warmer regions towards the poles, balancing out the heat loss and preventing further cooling. This circulation system plays a crucial role in maintaining the relatively stable temperatures in the polar regions.

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  • 26. 

    The difference between "moist" and "dry" adiabatic rates is due to the fact that

    • A.

      Latent heat is released by a rising parcel of saturated air

    • B.

      Saturated air is always unstable

    • C.

      An unsaturated air parcel expands more rapidly than a saturated air parcel

    • D.

      Moist air weighs less than dry air

    Correct Answer
    A. Latent heat is released by a rising parcel of saturated air
    Explanation
    When a parcel of saturated air rises, it expands and cools. As it cools, the water vapor in the air condenses, releasing latent heat. This release of latent heat warms the surrounding air, causing the saturated air parcel to cool at a slower rate compared to a dry air parcel. This is why the moist adiabatic rate is lower than the dry adiabatic rate, resulting in a difference between the two rates.

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  • 27. 

    As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will

    • A.

      Increase and become equal to the air temperature

    • B.

      Remain the same

    • C.

      Increase

    • D.

      Decrease

    Correct Answer
    B. Remain the same
    Explanation
    When the air temperature increases without any addition of water vapor, the amount of moisture in the air remains constant. The dew point is the temperature at which the air becomes saturated and condensation occurs. Since there is no change in the moisture content of the air, the dew point will also remain the same.

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  • 28. 

    If an air parcel initially has a temperature of 10 degrees c, what is the temperature of the parcel after lifting it a distance of 1 kilometer at a moist adiabatic rate of 7 degrees c per kilometer?

    • A.

      0 degrees c

    • B.

      3 degrees c

    • C.

      7 degrees c

    • D.

      -7 degrees c

    • E.

      17 degrees c

    Correct Answer
    B. 3 degrees c
    Explanation
    As the air parcel is lifted at a moist adiabatic rate of 7 degrees c per kilometer, after lifting it a distance of 1 kilometer, the temperature of the parcel will decrease by 7 degrees c. Therefore, the temperature of the parcel will be 10 degrees c - 7 degrees c = 3 degrees c.

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  • 29. 

    A knowledge of air stability is important because

    • A.

      It determines seasonal weather patterns

    • B.

      It determines the vertical motion of air

    • C.

      It determines the movement of high pressure areas

    • D.

      It determines the direction of movement of storms

    Correct Answer
    B. It determines the vertical motion of air
    Explanation
    A knowledge of air stability is important because it determines the vertical motion of air. Understanding air stability helps in predicting atmospheric conditions and weather patterns. It allows meteorologists to determine how air masses will move and interact with each other, which in turn affects the development of storms and the formation of weather systems. By studying air stability, scientists can better understand the behavior of the atmosphere and make more accurate forecasts.

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  • 30. 

    The word "weather" is defined as

    • A.

      The average of the weather elements

    • B.

      Any type of falling precipitation

    • C.

      The climate of a region

    • D.

      The condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place

    Correct Answer
    D. The condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place." This definition of "weather" refers to the current state of the atmosphere, including factors such as temperature, humidity, wind, and precipitation. It is different from the concept of climate, which refers to long-term weather patterns in a specific region.

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  • 31. 

    Water vapor is

    • A.

      Another name for fog

    • B.

      A cloud of small water droplets

    • C.

      A gas

    • D.

      A cloud of small ice crystals

    Correct Answer
    C. A gas
    Explanation
    Water vapor is a gas that is formed when water evaporates. It is invisible to the naked eye and is the gaseous state of water. Water vapor plays a crucial role in the Earth's climate system as it is a greenhouse gas and contributes to the greenhouse effect. It can also condense to form clouds or fog when it cools down and reaches its dew point. However, in its pure form, water vapor is a gas consisting of individual water molecules.

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  • 32. 

    The order of the layers of the atmosphere from lowest to highest is

    • A.

      Thermosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, troposphere

    • B.

      Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, thermosphere

    • D.

      Stratosphere, troposphere, thermosphere, mesosphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
    Explanation
    The layers of the atmosphere are arranged in a specific order based on their altitude from the Earth's surface. The troposphere is the lowest layer, closest to the surface, where weather events occur. Above the troposphere is the stratosphere, which contains the ozone layer and protects the Earth from harmful UV radiation. The mesosphere is the next layer, where meteors burn up upon entry into the atmosphere. Finally, the thermosphere is the highest layer, where the temperature increases significantly due to the absorption of solar radiation. Therefore, the correct order is troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.

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  • 33. 

    Heat energy is taken from the environment, cooling the air when 

    • A.

      Freezing occurs

    • B.

      Evaporation occurs

    • C.

      Deposition occurs

    • D.

      Condensation occurs

    Correct Answer
    B. Evaporation occurs
    Explanation
    Evaporation is the process by which a liquid turns into a gas, and it requires heat energy. When evaporation occurs, heat energy is taken from the environment, cooling the air. This is because the liquid molecules gain energy from the surroundings to overcome the attractive forces and escape into the gas phase. As a result, the remaining liquid and the surrounding air become cooler.

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  • 34. 

    A dim, water sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of _____ clouds

    • A.

      Cumulonimbus

    • B.

      Cirrostratus

    • C.

      Nimbostratus

    • D.

      Stratocumulus

    • E.

      Altostratus

    Correct Answer
    E. Altostratus
    Explanation
    A dim, water sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of altostratus clouds. Altostratus clouds are mid-level clouds that are typically gray or blue-gray in color and cover the sky like a sheet. They are often associated with stable weather conditions and can indicate the approach of a warm front or an area of persistent light rain or drizzle. The dim, water sun visible through the cloud layer suggests that the clouds are not thick enough to completely block out the sun, which is a characteristic of altostratus clouds.

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  • 35. 

    The combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is approximately 

    • A.

      4 percent

    • B.

      90 percent

    • C.

      50 percent

    • D.

      10 percent

    • E.

      30 percent

    Correct Answer
    E. 30 percent
    Explanation
    The combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere refers to the amount of sunlight that is reflected back into space. A higher albedo means more sunlight is reflected, while a lower albedo means more sunlight is absorbed. An albedo of 30 percent suggests that 30 percent of the incoming sunlight is reflected back into space, while the remaining 70 percent is absorbed by the earth and its atmosphere.

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  • 36. 

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect is due primarily to the fact that

    • A.

      Nitrogen and oxygen transmit visible radiation

    • B.

      Oxygen and ozone absorb ultraviolet radiation

    • C.

      Cloud formation releases latent heat energy

    • D.

      Carbon dioxide and water vapor absorb infrared radiation

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbon dioxide and water vapor absorb infrared radiation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is carbon dioxide and water vapor absorb infrared radiation. The atmospheric greenhouse effect is primarily caused by the ability of certain gases, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, to trap and absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface. These gases act like a blanket, allowing sunlight to pass through the atmosphere and warm the Earth, but preventing some of the heat from escaping back into space. This process leads to an increase in the Earth's temperature, known as global warming.

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  • 37. 

    The earth's atmosphere is divided into layers based on changes in the vertical profile of

    • A.

      Air pressure

    • B.

      Air temperature

    • C.

      Air density

    • D.

      Wind speed

    Correct Answer
    B. Air temperature
    Explanation
    The earth's atmosphere is divided into layers based on changes in air temperature. As we move higher in the atmosphere, the temperature changes in different ways. The lowest layer, called the troposphere, is where weather occurs and temperature decreases with altitude. Above the troposphere is the stratosphere, where temperature increases with altitude due to the presence of the ozone layer. Beyond the stratosphere, the temperature decreases again in the mesosphere and thermosphere. These temperature variations create distinct layers in the atmosphere, each with its own characteristics and importance for different atmospheric processes.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules

    • A.

      Pressure

    • B.

      Density

    • C.

      Heat

    • D.

      Temperature

    Correct Answer
    D. Temperature
    Explanation
    Temperature provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. As temperature increases, the average speed of the molecules also increases. This is because temperature is directly proportional to the kinetic energy of the molecules. Therefore, temperature is a measure of the average speed of air molecules.

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  • 39. 

    In the Northern Hemisphere, this day has the fewest hours of daylight

    • A.

      Summer solstice

    • B.

      Winter solstice

    • C.

      Autumnal equinox

    • D.

      Both the vernal and autumnal equinoxes

    • E.

      Vernal equinox

    Correct Answer
    B. Winter solstice
    Explanation
    The winter solstice is the correct answer because it is the day with the fewest hours of daylight in the Northern Hemisphere. During this time, the North Pole is tilted furthest away from the sun, resulting in shorter days and longer nights. It marks the official start of winter and is typically around December 21st.

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  • 40. 

    The temperature to which air must be cooled in order to become saturated is the

    • A.

      Minimum temperature

    • B.

      Wet-bulb temperature

    • C.

      Dew point temperature

    • D.

      Freezing point

    Correct Answer
    C. Dew point temperature
    Explanation
    The dew point temperature is the temperature at which air becomes saturated, meaning it can no longer hold all of its moisture and condensation begins to form. This occurs when the air is cooled to the point where it reaches its maximum water vapor capacity. Therefore, the dew point temperature is the correct answer for the temperature at which air must be cooled in order to become saturated.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is NOT a heat-transport process in the atmosphere?

    • A.

      Conduction

    • B.

      Convection

    • C.

      Convergence

    • D.

      Radiation

    Correct Answer
    C. Convergence
    Explanation
    Convergence is not a heat-transport process in the atmosphere. Convergence refers to the horizontal movement of air towards a common location, typically associated with the meeting of air masses. It is not directly involved in the transfer of heat in the atmosphere. On the other hand, conduction, convection, and radiation are all heat-transport processes. Conduction is the transfer of heat through direct contact, convection is the transfer of heat through the movement of fluids, and radiation is the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves.

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  • 42. 

    Atmospheric pressure changes _____ near the surface and ______ at higher altitudes

    • A.

      Slowly, slowly

    • B.

      Rapidly, slowly

    • C.

      Slowly, rapidly

    • D.

      Rapidly, rapidly

    Correct Answer
    B. Rapidly, slowly
    Explanation
    Atmospheric pressure changes rapidly near the surface because the air is denser and more compressed, resulting in a higher pressure. However, as altitude increases, the air becomes less dense and more spread out, causing a slower decrease in pressure. Therefore, atmospheric pressure changes rapidly near the surface and slowly at higher altitudes.

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  • 43. 

    If the air temperature in a room is 70 degrees f, the saturation vapor pressure is 25 mb, the dew point temperature is 45 degrees f, and the actual vapor pressure is 10 mb, the relative humidity must be _____ percent 

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      20

    • C.

      40

    • D.

      70

    • E.

      30

    Correct Answer
    C. 40
    Explanation
    The relative humidity can be calculated by dividing the actual vapor pressure by the saturation vapor pressure and multiplying by 100. In this case, the actual vapor pressure is 10 mb and the saturation vapor pressure is 25 mb. Therefore, the relative humidity is (10/25) * 100 = 40 percent.

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  • 44. 

    In the middle latitudes, which cloud will have the highest base?

    • A.

      Cumulonimbus

    • B.

      Altostratus

    • C.

      Cirrostratus

    • D.

      Cumulus

    Correct Answer
    C. Cirrostratus
    Explanation
    In the middle latitudes, cirrostratus clouds will have the highest base. Cirrostratus clouds are thin and high-level clouds that form above 20,000 feet. They are composed of ice crystals and often cover the entire sky, creating a thin veil-like appearance. Due to their high altitude, cirrostratus clouds have a higher base compared to other cloud types such as cumulonimbus, altostratus, and cumulus clouds. Cumulonimbus clouds are large and vertically developed, altostratus clouds are mid-level clouds, and cumulus clouds are low-level clouds, all of which have lower bases compared to cirrostratus clouds.

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  • 45. 

    Which cloud type is composed of ice crystals and can cause a halo to form around the sun or moon?

    • A.

      Altostratus

    • B.

      Nimbostratus

    • C.

      Stratus

    • D.

      Cirrostratus

    Correct Answer
    D. Cirrostratus
    Explanation
    Cirrostratus clouds are composed of ice crystals and are thin and wispy. These clouds are high in the atmosphere and can cause a halo to form around the sun or moon. They often indicate the approach of a warm front and can lead to precipitation.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following weather elements ALWAYS decreases as we climb upward in the atmosphere?

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      Pressure

    • C.

      Wind

    • D.

      Moisture

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Pressure
    Explanation
    As we climb upward in the atmosphere, the pressure always decreases. This is because the weight of the air above decreases with increasing altitude, resulting in lower atmospheric pressure. The other weather elements, such as temperature, wind, and moisture, can vary with altitude and are not always guaranteed to decrease.

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  • 47. 

    The Earth's surface receives about ______ as much direct solar radiation compared to longwave radiation from the atmosphere 

    • A.

      One half

    • B.

      Twice

    • C.

      Five times

    • D.

      One fifth

    • E.

      One tenth

    Correct Answer
    A. One half
    Explanation
    The Earth's surface receives about one half as much direct solar radiation compared to longwave radiation from the atmosphere. This means that the amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface is approximately half of the amount of longwave radiation that is emitted by the atmosphere.

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