Water As A Solvent And Hard Water Notes Quiz

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Water As A Solvent And Hard Water Notes Quiz - Quiz

Water as a Solvent and Hard Water Notes Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Water is a universal solvent because:

    • A.

      Water is polar and can dissolve more substances than any other liquid

    • B.

      Solutes are not polar molecules

    • C.

      Water is made up hydrogen and oxygen atoms

    • D.

      Water has a neutral pH

    Correct Answer
    A. Water is polar and can dissolve more substances than any other liquid
    Explanation
    Water is a universal solvent because it is polar. This means that the oxygen atom in water has a slightly negative charge, while the hydrogen atoms have a slightly positive charge. This polarity allows water molecules to attract and surround solute molecules, breaking them apart and dissolving them. Due to its polar nature, water can dissolve more substances than any other liquid, making it a universal solvent.

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  • 2. 

    Calcium, Ca2+  and Magnesium, Mg2+  are ionically charged how does this help explain why these dissolved minerals make water ‘hard’?

    • A.

      Hard water contains Calcium, Ca2+ and Magnesium, Mg2+cations. These ions form insoluble salt (dissolved mineral) deposits. The charge of these ionic minerals make it 'hard' for water to dissolve solutes such as soap.

    • B.

      Hard water contains Calcium, Ca2+ and Magnesium, Mg2+ anions. These ions form soluble salt (dissolved mineral) deposits. The charge of these ionic minerals make water 'hard' and help to dissolve other solutes.

    • C.

      Hard water contains Calcium, Ca2+ and Magnesium, Mg2+ cations. Ions are insoluble salts. Ionic minerals make water 'hard' and help to dissolve other solutes.

    • D.

      Hard water contains Sodium, Na2+ and Chlorine, Cl2+ cations. Ions are insoluble salts. Ionic minerals make water 'hard' to dissolve other solutes.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hard water contains Calcium, Ca2+ and Magnesium, Mg2+cations. These ions form insoluble salt (dissolved mineral) deposits. The charge of these ionic minerals make it 'hard' for water to dissolve solutes such as soap.
    Explanation
    The presence of calcium and magnesium cations in hard water leads to the formation of insoluble salt deposits. These ionic minerals have a positive charge, which makes it difficult for water to dissolve solutes like soap. This explains why hard water is less effective in cleaning and can leave soap scum or residue behind.

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  • 3. 

    What property of water makes it vulnerable to pollution?

    • A.

      Universal solvent

    • B.

      Polarity

    • C.

      Surface Tension

    • D.

      Capillary Action

    Correct Answer
    A. Universal solvent
    Explanation
    Water is considered a universal solvent because it has the ability to dissolve a wide variety of substances. This property makes it vulnerable to pollution because as water comes into contact with pollutants, it can easily dissolve and carry them along. This allows pollutants to spread and contaminate larger bodies of water, making it difficult to remove them and causing harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health.

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  • 4. 

    Water as a universal solvent:  Identify which group of substances are all soluble:

    • A.

      Ammonia, salt, dishwashing liquid, sugar, vinegar.

    • B.

      Vinegar, salt, sugar, glue, dishwashing liquid.

    • C.

      Vinegar, salt, sugar, hand lotion, dishwashing liquid.

    • D.

      Vinegar,salt, dishwashing liquid, vaseline, sugar.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ammonia, salt, dishwashing liquid, sugar, vinegar.
  • 5. 

    How does flour behave when mixed into water?

    • A.

      Flour suspends in water, eventually settling out.

    • B.

      Flour ionically bonds with water because of its crystalline structure.

    • C.

      Flour ionically bonds with water because of its molecular structure.

    • D.

      Flour bonds with water because of its powdery structure.

    Correct Answer
    A. Flour suspends in water, eventually settling out.
    Explanation
    When flour is mixed into water, it forms a suspension. The particles of flour disperse throughout the water, creating a mixture. However, over time, the flour particles will settle down due to gravity, resulting in the flour eventually settling out at the bottom of the container. This behavior is due to the larger size and weight of the flour particles compared to the water molecules, causing them to separate and settle.

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  • 6. 

    Some hard water is naturally softened___________

    • A.

      Some hard water is naturally softened as it passes through and reacts with rock formations that contain certain minerals. These minerals remove the calcium and magnesium from the water, making it soft.

    • B.

      Some hard water is naturally softened as it passes through and reacts with salt water. The salt removes the calcium and magnesium from the water, making it soft.

    • C.

      Some hard water is naturally softened as it passes through other elements. These elements ionically bond with the calcium and magnesium from the water, making it soft.

    • D.

      Some hard water is naturally softened as it passes through aquifers that contain fresh water. The fresh water removes the calcium and magnesium from the water, making it soft.

    Correct Answer
    A. Some hard water is naturally softened as it passes through and reacts with rock formations that contain certain minerals. These minerals remove the calcium and magnesium from the water, making it soft.
  • 7. 

    Hard water is made up of Calcium Ca2+ and Magnesium Mg2+.  These hard water __________ are __________charged ions.

    • A.

      Hard water is made up of Calcium Ca2+ and Magnesium Mg2+. These hard water cations are positively charged ions.

    • B.

      Hard water is made up of Calcium Ca2+ and Magnesium Mg2+. These hard water anions are negatively charged ions.

    • C.

      Hard water is made up of Calcium Ca2+ and Magnesium Mg2+. These hard water anions are positively charged ions.

    • D.

      Hard water is made up of Calcium Ca2+ and Magnesium Mg2+. These hard water cations are negatively charged ions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hard water is made up of Calcium Ca2+ and Magnesium Mg2+. These hard water cations are positively charged ions.
    Explanation
    Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions, which are positively charged. Cations are positively charged ions, so the correct answer is that these hard water cations are positively charged ions.

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  • 8. 

    How do water softeners begin to soften hard water?

    • A.

      Water softeners work as the high calcium/magnesium water enters the softener into a tank where it interacts with a specially prepared bead that is saturated with sodium ions. The hardness minerals in the hard water attach themselves to the sodium ion beads and are "exchanged" for the sodium. This exchange removes the calcium/magnesium from the water replacing those ions with sodium ions.

    • B.

      Water softeners work as the high sodium/magnesium water enters the softener into a tank where it interacts with a specially prepared bead that is saturated with calcium ions. The hardness minerals in the hard water attach themselves to the sodium ion beads and are "exchanged" for the calcium. This exchange removes the sodium/magnesium from the water replacing those ions with calcium ions.

    • C.

      Water softeners work as the high calcium/sodium water enters the softener into a tank where it interacts with a specially prepared bead that is saturated with magnesium ions. The hardness minerals in the hard water attach themselves to the magnesium ion beads and are "exchanged" for the magnesium. This exchange removes the calcium/sodium from the water replacing those ions with magnesium ions.

    • D.

      Water softeners work as the highly ionized water enters the softener into a tank where it interacts with a specially prepared bead that is saturated with hydrogen ions. The hardness minerals in the hard water attach themselves to the hydrogen ion beads and are "exchanged" for the hydrogen. This exchange removes the ions from the water replacing those ions with hydrogen ions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Water softeners work as the high calcium/magnesium water enters the softener into a tank where it interacts with a specially prepared bead that is saturated with sodium ions. The hardness minerals in the hard water attach themselves to the sodium ion beads and are "exchanged" for the sodium. This exchange removes the calcium/magnesium from the water replacing those ions with sodium ions.
    Explanation
    Water softeners work by using a specially prepared bead that is saturated with sodium ions. When high calcium/magnesium water enters the softener, the hardness minerals in the water attach themselves to the sodium ion beads and are exchanged for the sodium ions. This process removes the calcium/magnesium from the water and replaces them with sodium ions, effectively softening the water.

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  • 9. 

    Hard water contains large amounts of dissolved minerals, metals, and ions in the form of carbonates. The simplest way to determine if water is hard or soft is the __________ test. This test shows whether _________ or  __________ will ____________ when agitated.

    • A.

      Hard water contains large amounts of dissolved minerals, metals, and ions in the form of carbonates. The simplest way to determine if water is hard or soft is the lather test. This test shows whether toothpaste or soap will lather up when agitated.

    • B.

      Hard water contains large amounts of dissolved minerals, metals, and ions in the form of carbonates. The simplest way to determine if water is hard or soft is the smoothness test. This test shows whether toothpaste or shampoo will stick on to brushes when agitated.

    • C.

      Hard water contains large amounts of dissolved elements, metals, and ions in the form of carbonates. The simplest way to determine if water is hard or soft is the stickiness test. This test shows whether dishwashing liquid or dishwashing powder will stick to dishes when agitated

    • D.

      Hard water contains large amounts of dissolved minerals, metals, and ions in the form of carbonates. The simplest way to determine if water is hard or soft is the taste test. This test shows whether swishing or gargling hard water will taste bitter when agitated.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hard water contains large amounts of dissolved minerals, metals, and ions in the form of carbonates. The simplest way to determine if water is hard or soft is the lather test. This test shows whether toothpaste or soap will lather up when agitated.
    Explanation
    The explanation provided correctly states that hard water contains dissolved minerals, metals, and ions in the form of carbonates. It also states that the simplest way to determine if water is hard or soft is the lather test. This test involves agitating the water and observing whether toothpaste or soap will lather up. The lather test is a common method for determining water hardness as the presence of dissolved minerals in hard water can interfere with the lathering ability of soap or toothpaste.

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  • 10. 

    The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a ___________ arrangement.

    • A.

      ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a crystalline arrangement.

    • B.

      ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a hexagonal arrangement.

    • C.

      ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a quadrilateral arrangement.

    • D.

      ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a three cube arrangement.

    Correct Answer
    A. ​The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) produces a crystalline arrangement.
    Explanation
    The electrical attraction between sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) results in a crystalline arrangement. This is because the positive sodium ions are attracted to the negative chloride ions, forming a repeating pattern in a three-dimensional lattice structure. This arrangement is characteristic of ionic compounds, where the strong electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ions create a stable and orderly arrangement.

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