Urinary System (MCAT Practice Questions)

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Urinary System (MCAT Practice Questions) - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The renal medulla is composed of tissue called ______.

    • A.

      Renal pyramids

    • B.

      Nephrons

    • C.

      Renal sinus

    • D.

      Renal pelvis

    Correct Answer
    A. Renal pyramids
    Explanation
    The renal medulla is composed of tissue called renal pyramids. These pyramids are triangular-shaped structures that contain the loops of Henle and collecting ducts of the nephrons. They are responsible for the concentration and excretion of urine. The renal pyramids play a crucial role in maintaining the osmotic balance and regulating the water and salt levels in the body.

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  • 2. 

    Juxtaglomerular cells combine with _______ cells to form the juxtagomerular apparatus in the kidney.

    • A.

      Macula densa

    • B.

      Renal pelvis

    • C.

      Nephron

    • D.

      Renal sinus

    Correct Answer
    A. Macula densa
    Explanation
    Juxtaglomerular cells combine with macula densa cells to form the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is important for regulating blood pressure and kidney function. The macula densa cells are located in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron and are sensitive to changes in sodium concentration in the filtrate. They communicate with the juxtaglomerular cells, which are specialized smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole. Together, these cells help regulate the release of renin and control the constriction or dilation of the afferent arteriole, which ultimately affects blood pressure and kidney function.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not in the sequence of proper kidney blood flow? The starting point is the renal artery and the finishing point is the renal vein.

    • A.

      Arciform artery

    • B.

      Afferent arteriole

    • C.

      Interlobar vein

    • D.

      Arciform vein

    Correct Answer
    C. Interlobar vein
    Explanation
    The sequence of proper kidney blood flow starts with the renal artery, which branches into the arciform artery. From there, the blood flows into the afferent arteriole, which leads to the glomerulus for filtration. After filtration, the blood exits the glomerulus through the efferent arteriole. The efferent arteriole then leads to the arciform vein, which drains into the interlobar vein. Finally, the blood flows into the renal vein. Therefore, the interlobar vein is not in the sequence of proper kidney blood flow.

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  • 4. 

    Which is found in the highest concentration in the urine?

    • A.

      Uric acid

    • B.

      Urea

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Creatinine

    Correct Answer
    B. Urea
    Explanation
    Urea is found in the highest concentration in urine. Urea is a waste product that is produced in the liver when proteins are broken down. It is then filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine. The concentration of urea in urine can vary depending on factors such as diet and hydration levels. However, in general, urea is present in higher concentrations compared to other substances such as uric acid, glucose, and creatinine.

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  • 5. 

    The primary function of the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney is?

    • A.

      The active re-absorption of sodium

    • B.

      The active re-absorption of chloride ions

    • C.

      The passive re-absorption of potassium

    • D.

      The passive re-absorption of urea

    Correct Answer
    B. The active re-absorption of chloride ions
    Explanation
    The ascending loop of Henle in the kidney is responsible for the active re-absorption of chloride ions. This process helps to create a concentration gradient in the interstitial fluid surrounding the loop, which is essential for the re-absorption of water in the collecting duct. The active re-absorption of chloride ions is crucial for maintaining the balance of electrolytes and fluid volume in the body.

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  • 6. 

    The middle layer of the urinary bladder is identified as ___________.

    • A.

      Mucous coat

    • B.

      Submucous coat

    • C.

      Muscular Coat

    • D.

      Sphincter Coat

    Correct Answer
    B. Submucous coat
    Explanation
    The middle layer of the urinary bladder is known as the submucous coat. This layer is located between the innermost mucous coat and the outer muscular coat. It consists of connective tissue and contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels. The submucous coat provides support and protection to the bladder wall, and it also plays a role in the expansion and contraction of the bladder during the storage and release of urine.

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  • 7. 

    He micturition reflex center is located in the _____.

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Midbrain

    • C.

      Lumbar plexus

    • D.

      Sacral plexus

    Correct Answer
    D. Sacral plexus
    Explanation
    The micturition reflex center is located in the sacral plexus. The sacral plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the lower back and supplies the pelvic region, including the bladder and the muscles involved in urination. This reflex center is responsible for coordinating the contraction of the bladder muscles and the relaxation of the urinary sphincters during the process of micturition or urination.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following match with the definition: a poor output of urine?

    • A.

      Oliguria

    • B.

      Pyruia

    • C.

      Enuresis

    • D.

      Diuresis

    Correct Answer
    A. Oliguria
    Explanation
    Oliguria is the correct answer because it refers to a condition characterized by a decreased urine output, usually less than 400 milliliters per day. This can be caused by various factors such as dehydration, kidney damage, or urinary tract obstruction. Pyruia refers to the presence of pus in the urine, enuresis refers to involuntary urination, and diuresis refers to an increased urine output.

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  • 9. 

    Capillary loops located in the medulla are also known as _________.

    • A.

      Vasa recta

    • B.

      Urea collectors

    • C.

      Trigone

    • D.

      Macula densa

    Correct Answer
    A. Vasa recta
    Explanation
    Capillary loops located in the medulla are known as vasa recta. The vasa recta is a network of blood vessels that runs parallel to the loops of Henle in the kidney. They play a crucial role in maintaining the concentration gradient in the medulla, which is important for the reabsorption of water and solutes. The vasa recta helps to supply oxygen and nutrients to the medulla while also removing waste products.

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  • 10. 

    The primary function of the descending loop of Henle in the kidney is?

    • A.

      Reabsorption of sodium ions

    • B.

      Reabsoption of water by osmosis

    • C.

      Secretion of hydrogen ions

    • D.

      Secretion of potassium ions

    Correct Answer
    B. Reabsoption of water by osmosis
    Explanation
    The primary function of the descending loop of Henle in the kidney is the reabsorption of water by osmosis. As the filtrate moves down the loop, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes increasingly concentrated due to the active transport of solutes out of the loop. This creates a high osmotic gradient, causing water to passively move out of the filtrate and into the surrounding interstitial fluid. This reabsorption of water helps to concentrate the urine and conserve water in the body.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is not considered a part of the male urethra?

    • A.

      Prostatic

    • B.

      Membranous

    • C.

      Vasapore

    • D.

      Penile

    Correct Answer
    C. Vasapore
    Explanation
    The male urethra is divided into three parts: prostatic, membranous, and penile. The vasapore is not considered a part of the male urethra.

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  • 12. 

    When glucose if found in urine it is called _____.

    • A.

      Glucosuria

    • B.

      Uremia

    • C.

      Ureteritis

    • D.

      Glucose intolerance

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucosuria
    Explanation
    Glucosuria is the correct answer because it refers to the presence of glucose in the urine. This condition occurs when the kidneys are unable to reabsorb all of the glucose filtered from the blood, leading to its excretion in the urine. Glucosuria can be a sign of uncontrolled diabetes or kidney disorders. Uremia, ureteritis, and glucose intolerance do not specifically refer to the presence of glucose in the urine.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not considered a component of kidney stones?

    • A.

      Calcium phosphate

    • B.

      Uric Acid

    • C.

      Calcium oxalate

    • D.

      HCO3

    Correct Answer
    D. HCO3
    Explanation
    HCO3, also known as bicarbonate, is not considered a component of kidney stones. Kidney stones are typically made up of calcium phosphate, uric acid, or calcium oxalate. Bicarbonate is a component of the body's buffering system and helps maintain the pH balance in the blood. While it can play a role in kidney stone formation indirectly by affecting urinary pH, it is not a direct component of the stones themselves.

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  • 14. 

    The one of the functions occurring at the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney is?

    • A.

      Passive secretion of hydrogen ions

    • B.

      Passive secretion of potassium ions

    • C.

      Limited re-absorption of water

    • D.

      No re-absorption of sodium

    Correct Answer
    B. Passive secretion of potassium ions
    Explanation
    The distal convoluted tubule in the kidney is responsible for the passive secretion of potassium ions. This means that potassium ions are transported from the blood into the tubule without the need for energy. This process helps regulate the levels of potassium in the body by excreting excess potassium ions into the urine.

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  • 15. 

    ADH has which of the following effects on the distal convoluted tubule?

    • A.

      Decrease water re-absorption

    • B.

      Increase water re-absorption

    • C.

      Decrease the concentration of urine

    • D.

      Increase the urine volume

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase water re-absorption
    Explanation
    ADH, or antidiuretic hormone, increases water re-absorption in the distal convoluted tubule. This hormone is released by the pituitary gland in response to low blood volume or increased blood osmolality. When ADH binds to receptors in the distal convoluted tubule, it increases the permeability of the tubule to water, allowing more water to be re-absorbed back into the bloodstream. This leads to a decrease in urine volume and an increase in the concentration of urine.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is not associated with the role of the kidneys?

    • A.

      Release of erythropoietin (hormone)

    • B.

      Release of renin (enzyme)

    • C.

      Release of Vitamin E

    • D.

      Activate Vitamin D

    Correct Answer
    C. Release of Vitamin E
    Explanation
    The role of the kidneys includes the release of erythropoietin, which is a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. The kidneys also release renin, which is an enzyme involved in regulating blood pressure. Additionally, the kidneys activate Vitamin D, which is important for calcium absorption and bone health. However, the release of Vitamin E is not associated with the role of the kidneys. Vitamin E is primarily obtained through dietary sources and is involved in antioxidant function and immune system regulation.

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  • 17. 

    Each kidney contains approximately ______ nephrons.

    • A.

      10 million

    • B.

      1 million

    • C.

      100,000

    • D.

      10,000

    Correct Answer
    B. 1 million
    Explanation
    Each kidney contains approximately 1 million nephrons. The nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. The large number of nephrons in each kidney allows for efficient filtration and processing of the blood to maintain homeostasis in the body.

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  • 18. 

    The release of Angiotension II causes which of the following to occur

    • A.

      Increased filtration rate

    • B.

      Decreased glomerular hydrostatic pressure

    • C.

      Increase synthesis of Vitamin E

    • D.

      Increased release of erythropoietin

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased filtration rate
    Explanation
    The release of Angiotensin II causes an increase in filtration rate. Angiotensin II is a hormone that constricts blood vessels, leading to an increase in blood pressure. This increase in blood pressure causes an increase in the glomerular filtration rate, which is the rate at which blood is filtered by the kidneys. The increased filtration rate helps to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood.

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