Upper Unit Test 1

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Upper Unit Test 1 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Welcome to my grand test! Please keep in mind that your time is limited and you have to complete a total of 6 assignments: listening and reading comprehension, 2 grammar and 2 vocabulary tasks. I expect you not to cheat and demonstrate your actual knowledge. 70% is a passing grade. Good luck! Aida

  • 2. 

    LISTENING You will hear five short voicemails which Penny received. For questions 1–5, choose the reason why (A–H) each person has contacted Penny. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use. A I want to go round to Penny’s house. B I want Penny to do something for me. C I’m inviting Penny to visit. D I want to fix something for Penny. E I’m going on holiday with Penny. F I’m agreeing to help Penny. G I’m inviting Penny out. H I want to return something to Penny. Speaker 1 ________

    Explanation
    The speaker wants Penny to do something for them.

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  • 3. 

    LISTENING You will hear five short voicemails which Penny received. For questions 1–5, choose the reason why (A–H) each person has contacted Penny. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use. A I want to go round to Penny’s house. B I want Penny to do something for me. C I’m inviting Penny to visit. D I want to fix something for Penny. E I’m going on holiday with Penny. F I’m agreeing to help Penny. G I’m inviting Penny out. H I want to return something to Penny. Speaker 2 ________

  • 4. 

    LISTENING You will hear five short voicemails which Penny received. For questions 1–5, choose the reason why (A–H) each person has contacted Penny. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use. A I want to go round to Penny’s house. B I want Penny to do something for me. C I’m inviting Penny to visit. D I want to fix something for Penny. E I’m going on holiday with Penny. F I’m agreeing to help Penny. G I’m inviting Penny out. H I want to return something to Penny. Speaker 3 ________

    Explanation
    Speaker 3 is inviting Penny to visit.

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  • 5. 

    LISTENING You will hear five short voicemails which Penny received. For questions 1–5, choose the reason why (A–H) each person has contacted Penny. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use. A I want to go round to Penny’s house. B I want Penny to do something for me. C I’m inviting Penny to visit. D I want to fix something for Penny. E I’m going on holiday with Penny. F I’m agreeing to help Penny. G I’m inviting Penny out. H I want to return something to Penny. Speaker 4 ________

    Explanation
    Speaker 4 wants to return something to Penny.

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  • 6. 

    LISTENING You will hear five short voicemails which Penny received. For questions 1–5, choose the reason why (A–H) each person has contacted Penny. Use the letters only once. There are three extra letters which you do not need to use. A I want to go round to Penny’s house. B I want Penny to do something for me. C I’m inviting Penny to visit. D I want to fix something for Penny. E I’m going on holiday with Penny. F I’m agreeing to help Penny. G I’m inviting Penny out. H I want to return something to Penny. Speaker 5 ________

    Explanation
    The correct answer is A (I want to go round to Penny's house). This is because the speaker mentions wanting to come over to Penny's house, which suggests that they want to visit her.

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  • 7. 

    VOCABULARY Task 1   Use the word given in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence to form a word that fits in the gap in the same sentence. Here is an example (0). 0 Danny’s nine months old and very energetic. He won’t sit still! ENERGY   1  Wendy Surtees is one of our most ________ employees. She’s always on time and completes all her projects. DEPEND

    Explanation
    Wendy Surtees is one of our most dependable employees. She consistently shows up on time and successfully finishes all of her projects.

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  • 8. 

    2 Don’t be so ________! You only ever think of yourself. SELF

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "selfish" because it is the word that best fits the context of the sentence. The sentence implies that the person being referred to only thinks of themselves and does not consider others, which aligns with the definition of selfishness.

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  • 9. 

    3 Adam Scott is one of the most ________ businessmen in our region. He’s made millions. SUCCESS

    Explanation
    Adam Scott is described as one of the most successful businessmen in the region because he has made millions of dollars. This indicates that he has achieved a high level of financial success in his business endeavors.

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  • 10. 

    4  Thanks for your advice. It’s been very ________. HELP

    Explanation
    The word "helpful" is the correct answer because it fits logically in the sentence. The speaker is expressing gratitude for the advice they received, indicating that the advice was beneficial to them. Therefore, "helpful" is the most appropriate word to complete the sentence.

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  • 11. 

    5  Paul’s ________ behaviour is annoying. He gets jealous when he isn’t the centre of attention.

    Explanation
    Paul's childish behavior is annoying because he gets jealous when he isn't the center of attention.

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  • 12. 

    6  Jack’s very ________. He’d like to be boss of the company one day. AMBITION

    Explanation
    Jack's strong desire to become the boss of the company one day indicates that he has a high level of ambition. Ambition refers to a strong drive and determination to achieve one's goals and aspirations. In this context, Jack's ambition is evident as he aims for a position of leadership and success within the company.

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  • 13. 

    7  We need to take ________ action to stop the spread of this disease. We mustn’t waste a moment. DECIDE

    Explanation
    To stop the spread of the disease, we need to take immediate and firm action. We cannot waste any time and must make a quick decision on the necessary steps to be taken. The word "decisive" means having the ability to make decisions quickly and effectively, which is exactly what is needed in this situation.

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  • 14. 

    8 When she was young, she was very ________. She never listened to her parents and joined a punk band. REBEL

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "rebellious". This word accurately describes the behavior of the person when she was young. The sentence states that she never listened to her parents and joined a punk band, which suggests a defiant and non-conformist attitude. "Rebellious" fits this description perfectly, indicating a strong inclination to resist authority and societal norms.

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  • 15. 

    9  The operation was quite ________. It really hurt. But Bob’s feeling better now. PAIN

    Explanation
    The given sentence states that the operation was quite something and it hurt a lot. However, it also mentions that Bob is feeling better now. The word that best fits this context is "painful" as it describes something that causes physical or emotional pain.

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  • 16. 

    10. Our car’s ________. It often breaks down – we got stuck on the motorway last week. RELY

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "unreliable" because the sentence states that the car often breaks down and the speaker got stuck on the motorway last week. This indicates that the car is not dependable or trustworthy, hence it can be described as unreliable.

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  • 17. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (1)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      Really

    • C.

      Main

    • D.

      Strong

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The word "true" best fits the gap in the sentence. The sentence is describing the narrator's uncle Tim as a true friend who really supports them.

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  • 18. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (2)

    • A.

      Rules the world for

    • B.

      Makes the earth for

    • C.

      Shows the earth to

    • D.

      Means the world to

    Correct Answer
    D. Means the world to
    Explanation
    The phrase "means the world to" fits best in the context of the sentence. It implies that the speaker has a very strong bond with their uncle Tim and that he is very important to them. The phrase conveys a deep level of affection and significance in their relationship.

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  • 19. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (3)

    • A.

      Mutual

    • B.

      Dutiful

    • C.

      Laid-back

    • D.

      Considerate

    Correct Answer
    C. Laid-back
    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is "laid-back". This is because the passage describes Uncle Tim as cool and relaxed, someone who is not easily worried. This suggests that he has a laid-back personality.

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  • 20. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (4)

    • A.

      Hang down from

    • B.

      Hang out with

    • C.

      Hang away from

    • D.

      Hang over

    Correct Answer
    B. Hang out with
    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is "hang out with". This means to spend time with someone in a casual and relaxed way. In the context of the passage, the author describes Uncle Tim as someone they enjoy talking to and having fun with, and someone they can share problems with. Therefore, "hang out with" is the best fit for the gap as it conveys the idea of spending time and enjoying the company of Uncle Tim.

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  • 21. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (5)

    • A.

      Go

    • B.

      Run

    • C.

      Stand

    • D.

      Lie

    Correct Answer
    C. Stand
    Explanation
    The word "stand" is the correct answer because it fits grammatically and contextually in the sentence. The sentence states that Uncle Tim would always "stand by" the speaker if things got tough, indicating that he would support and be there for them. The other options (go, run, lie) do not convey the same meaning and would not make sense in the context of the sentence.

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  • 22. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (6)

    • A.

      Common

    • B.

      Usual

    • C.

      Standard

    • D.

      Proper

    Correct Answer
    A. Common
    Explanation
    In the given context, the speaker mentions that they respect Uncle Tim's advice because he talks a lot of "sense." This implies that Uncle Tim gives practical and sensible advice, which is why the word "common" is the best fit. The other options, "usual," "standard," and "proper," do not convey the same meaning and are not suitable in this context.

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  • 23. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (7)

    • A.

      On

    • B.

      In

    • C.

      Over

    • D.

      Up

    Correct Answer
    D. Up
  • 24. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (8)

    • A.

      Making

    • B.

      Getting

    • C.

      Taking

    • D.

      Doing

    Correct Answer
    B. Getting
    Explanation
    In the given text, the narrator mentions that Uncle Tim always asks them how they're "getting on" at college. This implies that Uncle Tim is interested in their progress or well-being at college. Therefore, the best fit for the gap is "getting."

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  • 25. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (9)

    • A.

      Fashion

    • B.

      Set

    • C.

      Feel

    • D.

      Sense

    Correct Answer
    D. Sense
    Explanation
    The word "sense" fits best in the gap because the sentence mentions that the speaker and Uncle Tim share the same sense of humor, indicating that they have a similar understanding and appreciation of what is funny.

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  • 26. 

    VOCABULARY Task 2 Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). My Uncle Tim Of all my relatives, I have a very strong (0) bond with my uncle Tim. He’s a (1) _______ friend and really (2) _______ me. Perhaps it’s because he’s older than me – thirteen years older, in fact – but not so much older to make him of a different generation. As I was growing up, he was so cool and relaxed, you know, really (3) _______, as if nothing worried him. And now I’m twenty myself, he’s just good fun. He’s the kind of person you want to (4) _______ just because he’s fun to talk to, and the kind of person you can share problems with because you know he’ll always be supportive. Uncle Tim would always (5) _______ by me if things got tough. And I respect his advice because he talks a lot of (6) _______ sense. Uncle Tim works in the city centre, not far from my college, so we meet (7) _______ for a coffee and a chat at least once a week. He always asks me how I’m (8) _______ on at college, and we tell each other funny stories. We share the same (9) _______ of humour so it’s always a laugh. In the summer, I’m going to travel round Europe, and I’m trying to (10) _______ him to come with me. I hope he can – I can’t think of anyone I’d sooner travel the world with. (10)

    • A.

      Take

    • B.

      Get

    • C.

      Go 

    • D.

      Move

    Correct Answer
    B. Get
  • 27. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 1 ________

    Correct Answer
    moved
    Explanation
    In the last year, more than one hundred thousand people moved abroad.

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  • 28. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 2 ________

    Correct Answer
    remains
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "remains". In the context of the sentence, "remains" is the correct form of the verb to indicate that Australia continues to be the most popular destination. The sentence is discussing the popularity of Australia as a destination for Britons, and "remains" is used to show that this popularity has not changed.

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  • 29. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 3 ________

    Correct Answer
    have attracted
    Explanation
    In the given text, it is mentioned that Australia has attracted two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone. Therefore, the correct form of the verb to use in the blank is "have attracted" to maintain the past tense and subject-verb agreement. This choice accurately reflects the information provided in the text.

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  • 30. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 4 ________

    Correct Answer
    continues
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "continues". In the previous sentence, it is mentioned that Australia remains the most popular destination for Britons. The use of "continues" in this sentence indicates that this popularity is ongoing and has not stopped.

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  • 31. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 5 ________

    Correct Answer
    was
    Explanation
    In the given sentence, the verb "be" needs to be in the past tense to match the subject "Spain" which is singular and in the past. Therefore, the correct form of the verb is "was".

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  • 32. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 6 ________

    Correct Answer
    has dropped
    Explanation
    In the given sentence, the correct answer is "has dropped". This is because the sentence is talking about Spain's position in the league table of popular destinations, which has decreased in recent years. The verb "drop" needs to be in the present perfect tense to show an action that started in the past and is still relevant in the present. Therefore, "has dropped" is the correct form of the verb to use in this context.

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  • 33. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 7 ________

    Correct Answer
    has struggled, has been struggling
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "has struggled, has been struggling". This is because the sentence is referring to the Spanish economy and its ongoing struggle since 2008. The use of "has struggled" indicates a continuous action in the past, while "has been struggling" emphasizes the ongoing nature of the struggle.

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  • 34. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 8 ________

    Correct Answer
    is rising, has risen, has been rising
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "is rising, has risen, has been rising." The question asks for the correct form of the verb to fill in the blank. The verb form "is rising" is used to indicate the present continuous tense, showing that the unemployment rate is currently increasing. The verb form "has risen" is used to indicate the present perfect tense, showing that the unemployment rate has increased in the past and is still relevant in the present. The verb form "has been rising" is used to indicate the present perfect continuous tense, showing that the unemployment rate has been continuously increasing over a period of time.

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  • 35. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 9 ________

    Correct Answer
    hit, has hit
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "hit, has hit." This is because the sentence is referring to a past event (the sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008) that had a lasting impact on ex-pat houseowners from the UK. Therefore, the past tense form "hit" is used to describe the action that occurred in 2008. The present perfect tense form "has hit" is used to show the ongoing effect or result of that past action.

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  • 36. 

    GRAMMAR Task 1 Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. There is an example at the beginning (0). In the last twenty years, over five million Britons (0) have left (leave) home for a new life abroad. More than one hundred thousand (1) _______ (move) abroad last year. Today, Australia (2) _______ (remain) the most popular destination. Its high standard of living and sunny weather (3) _______ (attract) two hundred thousand Britons in the last five years alone, and it (4) _______  (continue) to be the dream destination of many ‘poms’*. Meanwhile Spain, which (5) _______  (be) a favourite among retiring Britons in the 1990s, (6) _______  (drop) down the league table of popular destinations in recent years. The Spanish economy (7) _______ (struggle) since 2008, and the unemployment rate (8) _______ (rise) year on year. The sharp fall in Spanish house prices in 2008 (9) _______  (hit) ex-pat houseowners from the UK hard. As a result, Spain (10) _______ (become) a less attractive destination. 10 ________

    Correct Answer
    has become, is becoming
    Explanation
    In the last sentence of the passage, it is mentioned that Spain has become a less attractive destination. This suggests that there has been a change in its attractiveness over time. The use of "has become" indicates that this change has already happened in the past. On the other hand, the use of "is becoming" suggests that this change is still ongoing and happening in the present. Therefore, both "has become" and "is becoming" are correct forms of the verb to describe the current state of Spain as a destination.

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  • 37. 

    GRAMMAR Task 2 Complete the sentences with the past simple, present perfect simple or present perfect continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Here is an example (0). 0 I have known (know) Julia all my life. She’s very supportive. 1 All day, everybody ________ (chat) online about that drama serial on TV last night. I keep getting messages in my inbox even now!

    Correct Answer
    has been chatting
    Explanation
    The sentence is in the present perfect continuous form because it is describing an action that started in the past and is still happening now. The verb "chat" is in the present participle form "chatting" and is used with the auxiliary verb "has been" to form the present perfect continuous tense.

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  • 38. 

    2 Jake and I ________ (not get) on during last summer’s holiday. He’s the least considerate person I know.

    Correct Answer
    didn't get, did not get
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "didn't get, did not get" because the sentence is in the past tense and is referring to a specific event in the past (last summer's holiday). "Didn't get" is the contracted form of "did not get" and is used to express the negative form of the verb "get" in the past tense. The sentence also emphasizes that Jake is the least considerate person the speaker knows, further supporting the use of the negative form "didn't get."

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  • 39. 

    3 Some time ago, John and I ________ (decide) to travel round the world together.

    Correct Answer
    decided
    Explanation
    In the given sentence, the verb "decide" should be in the past tense to match the past time frame indicated by the phrase "Some time ago." Therefore, the correct form of the verb is "decided."

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  • 40. 

    4 Ray ________ (buy) a new car. It’s outside. Come and have a look!

    Correct Answer
    has bought
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "has bought" because the sentence is in the present perfect tense. "Has bought" is the correct form of the verb "buy" in the present perfect tense when referring to an action that was completed in the past but has a connection to the present. In this case, Ray bought a new car in the past, and the car is currently outside, so there is a connection between the past action and the present moment.

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  • 41. 

    5 It’s about time you got here. It’s really late and we ________ (wait) for ages.

    Correct Answer
    have been waiting
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "have been waiting" because the sentence is in the present perfect continuous tense. The phrase "for ages" indicates that the waiting has been happening for a long time. Therefore, "have been waiting" is the appropriate verb form to convey this continuous action in the past leading up to the present moment.

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  • 42. 

    6 My brother ________ (move) to Canada. We won’t see him so much now.

    Correct Answer
    has moved
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "has moved." This is because the sentence is in the present perfect tense, indicating an action that started in the past and has a connection to the present. "Has moved" is the correct form of the verb "move" in the present perfect tense. It shows that the brother's move to Canada happened recently and will have an impact on how often the speaker will see him in the future.

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  • 43. 

    7 My headache ________ (get) worse all morning. Perhaps I should lie down.

    Correct Answer
    has been getting
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "has been getting." This answer is correct because the sentence is in the present perfect continuous tense, which is used to talk about an action that started in the past and is still happening in the present. In this case, the headache started in the past and is still getting worse in the present.

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  • 44. 

    8 So far this year, the weather ________ (be) awful.

    Correct Answer
    has been
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "has been." This is because the sentence is referring to the weather throughout the year, indicating a continuous action or state. "Has been" is the present perfect tense of the verb "be," which is used to describe an action or state that started in the past and continues up to the present moment. Therefore, "has been" is the appropriate verb form to describe the ongoing awful weather throughout the year.

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  • 45. 

    9 We first (hear) about our interesting family history when our uncle was here.

    Correct Answer
    heard
    Explanation
    The verb "hear" is the correct answer because it is the past tense form of the verb that matches the tense of the sentence. The sentence is describing an event that happened in the past when the speaker first learned about their family history. Therefore, "heard" is the appropriate verb to use in this context.

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  • 46. 

    10 Amy ________ (not pass) her test yet. She’s hoping to take it again in the spring.

    Correct Answer
    hasn't passed, has not passed
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "hasn't passed, has not passed" because the sentence is in the present perfect tense, which is used to talk about actions that started in the past and continue into the present. The word "yet" indicates that the action of passing the test has not happened at any point up until now. The verb "hasn't passed" is the contraction of "has not passed" and is the correct form to use with the subject "Amy" in the third person singular.

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  • 47. 

    READING You are going to read an article about National Geographic’s Genographic Project. For questions 1–10, choose from the sections (A–E). The sections may be chosen more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0). National Geographic’s Genographic Project A It’s no secret that we all want to know who we really are and, since its launch in 2005, National Geographic’s Genographic Project has been using advanced DNA analysis to help answer fundamental questions about where humans originated and how we came to populate the Earth. Now, cutting-edge technology is enabling the project to shine a powerful new light on our collective past. By participating in the next phase of this real-time scientific research, you will be able to learn more about yourself and your roots than you ever thought possible. You will also help support the Genographic Legacy Fund, which works to conserve and revitalize indigenous cultures around the world. B The Genographic Project is a multi-year research initiative led by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Dr Spencer Wells. Dr Wells and a team of renowned international scientists are using advanced genetic and computational technologies to analyse historical patterns in DNA from participants around the world to better understand our human genetic roots. As well as aiming to gather research data in collaboration with indigenous and traditional peoples, the project is reaching out to ordinary members of the public to help. Vital as it is to collect data from peoples who have evolved in relative isolation, having as large a database of samples as possible is just as essential to the success of the project. C To join this real-time scientific project all you have to do is purchase a Genographic Project Participation Kit, called Geno 2.0. Basically, this is a simple swab that you swipe on the inside of your cheek to collect your own DNA. Although it takes seconds to complete your part in the project, it will be months before you receive the results of the researchers’ analysis. However, it will be worth the wait. A technology called single nucleotide polymorphism uses computer chips to probe for 150,000 different mutations in any individual’s strand of DNA. Analysing these tiny mistakes, passed down over thousands of years of evolution, is what the project aims to do. D Although not a primary aim of the research, an area of study that may fascinate the layman is the extent to which our ancestry may or may not include genes from Neanderthal or Denisovan peoples. Until recently, it was believed that all humans were descended exclusively from Homo sapiens who evolved in what is now East Africa. Today, however, it is commonly accepted that modern humans, as they migrated north, west and east from Africa, mated with Neanderthal and Denisovan peoples, who had evolved separately. These peoples died out but their DNA has survived in a surprisingly large number of people today. It will be fascinating to discover the extent to which we are all Neanderthal. E Although taking part in National Geographic’s Genographic Project has a financial cost, your money won’t be wasted. A portion of the proceeds from all Geno 2.0 kit sales will be used to fund further research, and a further portion will go to the Genographic Legacy Fund, which in turn supports community-led indigenous conservation and revitalization projects. The Genographic Project is anonymous, non-medical and non-profit, and all results will be placed in the public domain following scientific peer publication. 0 Which section says which people are carrying out research into the human genome?  1  that our view of human evolution has changed to some extent? 2  why ordinary people should take part in the project? 3  whether or not other people will have access to an individual’s DNA data? 4  how many years the Genographic Project has been going on? 5  whether genetical information from one group of participants may be more important than information from another? 6  how ordinary people can gather and send useable material? 7  what the project most hopes to discover? 8  whether any of the data will be kept secret or not? 9  how an individual’s DNA is analysed using technology? 10  whether the quantity of information collected is a concern for the researchers? 1 ________

    Correct Answer
    D
    Explanation
    Section D discusses the extent to which our ancestry may or may not include genes from Neanderthal or Denisovan peoples. It explains that modern humans, as they migrated from Africa, mated with these separate groups of people who have since died out. The section highlights the fascination in discovering the extent to which we are all Neanderthal. Therefore, the answer to question 1, which asks about our changing view of human evolution, can be found in section D.

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  • 48. 

    READING You are going to read an article about National Geographic’s Genographic Project. For questions 1–10, choose from the sections (A–E). The sections may be chosen more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0). National Geographic’s Genographic Project A It’s no secret that we all want to know who we really are and, since its launch in 2005, National Geographic’s Genographic Project has been using advanced DNA analysis to help answer fundamental questions about where humans originated and how we came to populate the Earth. Now, cutting-edge technology is enabling the project to shine a powerful new light on our collective past. By participating in the next phase of this real-time scientific research, you will be able to learn more about yourself and your roots than you ever thought possible. You will also help support the Genographic Legacy Fund, which works to conserve and revitalize indigenous cultures around the world. B The Genographic Project is a multi-year research initiative led by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Dr Spencer Wells. Dr Wells and a team of renowned international scientists are using advanced genetic and computational technologies to analyse historical patterns in DNA from participants around the world to better understand our human genetic roots. As well as aiming to gather research data in collaboration with indigenous and traditional peoples, the project is reaching out to ordinary members of the public to help. Vital as it is to collect data from peoples who have evolved in relative isolation, having as large a database of samples as possible is just as essential to the success of the project. C To join this real-time scientific project all you have to do is purchase a Genographic Project Participation Kit, called Geno 2.0. Basically, this is a simple swab that you swipe on the inside of your cheek to collect your own DNA. Although it takes seconds to complete your part in the project, it will be months before you receive the results of the researchers’ analysis. However, it will be worth the wait. A technology called single nucleotide polymorphism uses computer chips to probe for 150,000 different mutations in any individual’s strand of DNA. Analysing these tiny mistakes, passed down over thousands of years of evolution, is what the project aims to do. D Although not a primary aim of the research, an area of study that may fascinate the layman is the extent to which our ancestry may or may not include genes from Neanderthal or Denisovan peoples. Until recently, it was believed that all humans were descended exclusively from Homo sapiens who evolved in what is now East Africa. Today, however, it is commonly accepted that modern humans, as they migrated north, west and east from Africa, mated with Neanderthal and Denisovan peoples, who had evolved separately. These peoples died out but their DNA has survived in a surprisingly large number of people today. It will be fascinating to discover the extent to which we are all Neanderthal. E Although taking part in National Geographic’s Genographic Project has a financial cost, your money won’t be wasted. A portion of the proceeds from all Geno 2.0 kit sales will be used to fund further research, and a further portion will go to the Genographic Legacy Fund, which in turn supports community-led indigenous conservation and revitalization projects. The Genographic Project is anonymous, non-medical and non-profit, and all results will be placed in the public domain following scientific peer publication. 0 Which section says which people are carrying out research into the human genome?  1  that our view of human evolution has changed to some extent? 2  why ordinary people should take part in the project? 3  whether or not other people will have access to an individual’s DNA data? 4  how many years the Genographic Project has been going on? 5  whether genetical information from one group of participants may be more important than information from another? 6  how ordinary people can gather and send useable material? 7  what the project most hopes to discover? 8  whether any of the data will be kept secret or not? 9  how an individual’s DNA is analysed using technology? 10  whether the quantity of information collected is a concern for the researchers? 2 ________

    Correct Answer
    B
    Explanation
    Section B explains why ordinary people should take part in the project. It states that while it is vital to collect data from isolated populations, having a large database of samples from ordinary members of the public is just as essential for the success of the project. This suggests that the project relies on the participation of ordinary people to gather research data and contribute to understanding our human genetic roots.

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  • 49. 

    READING You are going to read an article about National Geographic’s Genographic Project. For questions 1–10, choose from the sections (A–E). The sections may be chosen more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0). National Geographic’s Genographic Project A It’s no secret that we all want to know who we really are and, since its launch in 2005, National Geographic’s Genographic Project has been using advanced DNA analysis to help answer fundamental questions about where humans originated and how we came to populate the Earth. Now, cutting-edge technology is enabling the project to shine a powerful new light on our collective past. By participating in the next phase of this real-time scientific research, you will be able to learn more about yourself and your roots than you ever thought possible. You will also help support the Genographic Legacy Fund, which works to conserve and revitalize indigenous cultures around the world. B The Genographic Project is a multi-year research initiative led by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Dr Spencer Wells. Dr Wells and a team of renowned international scientists are using advanced genetic and computational technologies to analyse historical patterns in DNA from participants around the world to better understand our human genetic roots. As well as aiming to gather research data in collaboration with indigenous and traditional peoples, the project is reaching out to ordinary members of the public to help. Vital as it is to collect data from peoples who have evolved in relative isolation, having as large a database of samples as possible is just as essential to the success of the project. C To join this real-time scientific project all you have to do is purchase a Genographic Project Participation Kit, called Geno 2.0. Basically, this is a simple swab that you swipe on the inside of your cheek to collect your own DNA. Although it takes seconds to complete your part in the project, it will be months before you receive the results of the researchers’ analysis. However, it will be worth the wait. A technology called single nucleotide polymorphism uses computer chips to probe for 150,000 different mutations in any individual’s strand of DNA. Analysing these tiny mistakes, passed down over thousands of years of evolution, is what the project aims to do. D Although not a primary aim of the research, an area of study that may fascinate the layman is the extent to which our ancestry may or may not include genes from Neanderthal or Denisovan peoples. Until recently, it was believed that all humans were descended exclusively from Homo sapiens who evolved in what is now East Africa. Today, however, it is commonly accepted that modern humans, as they migrated north, west and east from Africa, mated with Neanderthal and Denisovan peoples, who had evolved separately. These peoples died out but their DNA has survived in a surprisingly large number of people today. It will be fascinating to discover the extent to which we are all Neanderthal. E Although taking part in National Geographic’s Genographic Project has a financial cost, your money won’t be wasted. A portion of the proceeds from all Geno 2.0 kit sales will be used to fund further research, and a further portion will go to the Genographic Legacy Fund, which in turn supports community-led indigenous conservation and revitalization projects. The Genographic Project is anonymous, non-medical and non-profit, and all results will be placed in the public domain following scientific peer publication. 0 Which section says which people are carrying out research into the human genome?  1  that our view of human evolution has changed to some extent? 2  why ordinary people should take part in the project? 3  whether or not other people will have access to an individual’s DNA data? 4  how many years the Genographic Project has been going on? 5  whether genetical information from one group of participants may be more important than information from another? 6  how ordinary people can gather and send useable material? 7  what the project most hopes to discover? 8  whether any of the data will be kept secret or not? 9  how an individual’s DNA is analysed using technology? 10  whether the quantity of information collected is a concern for the researchers? 3 ________

    Correct Answer
    E
    Explanation
    Section E explains that the Genographic Project is anonymous and non-medical, and all results will be placed in the public domain. This suggests that other people will have access to an individual's DNA data.

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  • 50. 

    READING You are going to read an article about National Geographic’s Genographic Project. For questions 1–10, choose from the sections (A–E). The sections may be chosen more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0). National Geographic’s Genographic Project A It’s no secret that we all want to know who we really are and, since its launch in 2005, National Geographic’s Genographic Project has been using advanced DNA analysis to help answer fundamental questions about where humans originated and how we came to populate the Earth. Now, cutting-edge technology is enabling the project to shine a powerful new light on our collective past. By participating in the next phase of this real-time scientific research, you will be able to learn more about yourself and your roots than you ever thought possible. You will also help support the Genographic Legacy Fund, which works to conserve and revitalize indigenous cultures around the world. B The Genographic Project is a multi-year research initiative led by National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Dr Spencer Wells. Dr Wells and a team of renowned international scientists are using advanced genetic and computational technologies to analyse historical patterns in DNA from participants around the world to better understand our human genetic roots. As well as aiming to gather research data in collaboration with indigenous and traditional peoples, the project is reaching out to ordinary members of the public to help. Vital as it is to collect data from peoples who have evolved in relative isolation, having as large a database of samples as possible is just as essential to the success of the project. C To join this real-time scientific project all you have to do is purchase a Genographic Project Participation Kit, called Geno 2.0. Basically, this is a simple swab that you swipe on the inside of your cheek to collect your own DNA. Although it takes seconds to complete your part in the project, it will be months before you receive the results of the researchers’ analysis. However, it will be worth the wait. A technology called single nucleotide polymorphism uses computer chips to probe for 150,000 different mutations in any individual’s strand of DNA. Analysing these tiny mistakes, passed down over thousands of years of evolution, is what the project aims to do. D Although not a primary aim of the research, an area of study that may fascinate the layman is the extent to which our ancestry may or may not include genes from Neanderthal or Denisovan peoples. Until recently, it was believed that all humans were descended exclusively from Homo sapiens who evolved in what is now East Africa. Today, however, it is commonly accepted that modern humans, as they migrated north, west and east from Africa, mated with Neanderthal and Denisovan peoples, who had evolved separately. These peoples died out but their DNA has survived in a surprisingly large number of people today. It will be fascinating to discover the extent to which we are all Neanderthal. E Although taking part in National Geographic’s Genographic Project has a financial cost, your money won’t be wasted. A portion of the proceeds from all Geno 2.0 kit sales will be used to fund further research, and a further portion will go to the Genographic Legacy Fund, which in turn supports community-led indigenous conservation and revitalization projects. The Genographic Project is anonymous, non-medical and non-profit, and all results will be placed in the public domain following scientific peer publication. 0 Which section says which people are carrying out research into the human genome?  1  that our view of human evolution has changed to some extent? 2  why ordinary people should take part in the project? 3  whether or not other people will have access to an individual’s DNA data? 4  how many years the Genographic Project has been going on? 5  whether genetical information from one group of participants may be more important than information from another? 6  how ordinary people can gather and send useable material? 7  what the project most hopes to discover? 8  whether any of the data will be kept secret or not? 9  how an individual’s DNA is analysed using technology? 10  whether the quantity of information collected is a concern for the researchers? 4 ________

    Correct Answer
    A
    Explanation
    Section A states that National Geographic's Genographic Project has been using advanced DNA analysis since its launch in 2005 to answer questions about human origins and population. This suggests that the project has been going on for 15 years.

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