Unit 5: Earth Systems

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Unit 5: Earth Systems - Quiz


Unit 5 quiz for CCSET Grade 7/8 class. April 30, 2009


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The Earth's crust is made up of

    • A.

      Oceans and basins

    • B.

      Continents

    • C.

      Layers deep beneath the surface of the Earth

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The Earth's crust is the outermost layer of the Earth, and it is made up of both oceans and basins, as well as continents. Additionally, there are layers deep beneath the surface of the Earth that contribute to the composition of the crust. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above" as it encompasses all the mentioned components that make up the Earth's crust.

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  • 2. 

    Volcanoes are made by

    • A.

      The Earth's plates shifting to produce cracks

    • B.

      Hot lava in the Earth's crust leaking out

    • C.

      Nothing, they are just naturally here

    • D.

      Pressure squeezing lava

    Correct Answer
    A. The Earth's plates shifting to produce cracks
    Explanation
    Volcanoes are formed when the Earth's plates, which make up the Earth's crust, shift and create cracks. These cracks allow hot lava, which is molten rock, to leak out from the Earth's crust. As the pressure builds up, the lava is forced to the surface, resulting in the formation of a volcano. This process is a natural occurrence that happens due to the movement of the Earth's tectonic plates.

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  • 3. 

    The rock plates that float across the surface of the Earth

    • A.

      Are called tectonic plates

    • B.

      Float on the mantle between the core and the crust

    • C.

      Hold up the huge land masses called continents

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because tectonic plates are indeed rock plates that float across the surface of the Earth. They do float on the mantle between the core and the crust, and they also hold up the huge land masses called continents. Therefore, all of the given statements are true and the correct answer is all of the above.

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  • 4. 

    The Earth's layers from the inside out are

    • A.

      Mantle, inner core, outer core, crust

    • B.

      Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

    • C.

      Crust, mantle, inner core, outer core

    • D.

      Core, mantle, crust

    Correct Answer
    B. Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
    Explanation
    The correct answer is inner core, outer core, mantle, crust. This is because the Earth's layers are organized based on their composition and physical properties. The inner core is the solid, innermost layer made mostly of iron and nickel. Surrounding the inner core is the outer core, which is a liquid layer also composed of iron and nickel. Above the outer core is the mantle, a thick layer of semi-solid rock. Finally, the outermost layer is the crust, which is the thin, solid layer that we live on.

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  • 5. 

    Minerals

    • A.

      Are molten magma

    • B.

      Are hard to find

    • C.

      Have one chemical composition all the way through

    • D.

      Are usually organic solids

    Correct Answer
    C. Have one chemical composition all the way through
    Explanation
    Minerals have one chemical composition all the way through means that the composition of minerals remains consistent throughout their entire structure. This characteristic distinguishes minerals from other substances that may have varying compositions or mixtures. It implies that minerals are made up of a specific combination of elements, giving them their unique properties and characteristics. This uniformity in composition allows scientists to identify and classify minerals based on their chemical makeup.

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  • 6. 

    Metamorphic rocks

    • A.

      Are hard to break

    • B.

      Are very rough

    • C.

      Have visible lines or waves

    • D.

      Are formed from cooled magma

    Correct Answer
    C. Have visible lines or waves
    Explanation
    Metamorphic rocks are formed through the process of metamorphism, which involves intense heat and pressure. During this process, the minerals in the rock recrystallize and align themselves in a specific pattern, creating visible lines or waves known as foliation. These lines or waves are a characteristic feature of metamorphic rocks and can be used to identify them. Therefore, the statement "metamorphic rocks have visible lines or waves" is a correct explanation.

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  • 7. 

    The parent material of soil

    • A.

      Comes from broken off bedrock

    • B.

      Has lots of life in it

    • C.

      Is organic

    • D.

      Is humus

    Correct Answer
    A. Comes from broken off bedrock
    Explanation
    The parent material of soil comes from broken off bedrock because when rocks break down over time due to weathering and erosion, they form the initial material from which soil is formed. This process involves the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks into smaller particles, which eventually become the parent material of soil. This parent material provides the basis for the development of soil and its characteristics.

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  • 8. 

    Soil erosion is increased if

    • A.

      There are no plants or leftover crops in the soil

    • B.

      The slope of the field is steep

    • C.

      A and b are both correct

    • D.

      The soil isn't compacted by machinery

    Correct Answer
    C. A and b are both correct
    Explanation
    Soil erosion is increased if there are no plants or leftover crops in the soil because vegetation helps to hold the soil in place and prevent it from being washed away by rain or blown away by wind. Without plants, the soil is more vulnerable to erosion. Additionally, the slope of the field being steep also contributes to increased soil erosion. The steeper the slope, the faster water will flow over the surface, carrying away soil particles with it. Therefore, both factors, the absence of vegetation and a steep slope, contribute to increased soil erosion.

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  • 9. 

    The thickest layer is the

    • A.

      Inner Core

    • B.

      Outer Core

    • C.

      Crust

    • D.

      Mantle

    • E.

      Bedrock

    Correct Answer
    D. Mantle
    Explanation
    The mantle is the correct answer because it is the thickest layer of the Earth, located between the crust and the outer core. It is composed of solid rock, but due to the intense heat and pressure, it behaves like a plastic material. The mantle plays a crucial role in the movement of tectonic plates and the convection currents that drive plate tectonics.

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  • 10. 

    Most of the Earth's total volume is made up of

    • A.

      The crust

    • B.

      Rocks and minerals

    • C.

      The Mantle

    • D.

      The inner core

    Correct Answer
    C. The Mantle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Mantle. The mantle is the layer of the Earth located between the crust and the core. It is the largest layer of the Earth by volume and is composed of solid rock. The mantle is made up of various minerals and is responsible for the movement of tectonic plates and the convection currents that drive plate tectonics.

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  • 11. 

    Healthy soil includes

    • A.

      Stones

    • B.

      No or very little air

    • C.

      Loam

    • D.

      Fresh or decomposed living things

    Correct Answer
    D. Fresh or decomposed living things
    Explanation
    Healthy soil includes fresh or decomposed living things because these organic materials, such as plant residues and animal waste, provide essential nutrients and organic matter to the soil. They promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms, improve soil structure, and enhance the soil's ability to retain water and nutrients. Additionally, the decomposition of these organic materials releases carbon dioxide and other gases, which help to create a balanced soil environment.

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  • 12. 

    Most of the internal heat of the Earth is located in the

    • A.

      Sun

    • B.

      Inner Core

    • C.

      Mantle

    • D.

      Outer Core

    • E.

      Crust

    Correct Answer
    C. Mantle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Mantle because the mantle is the layer of the Earth located between the crust and the core. It is composed of hot, semi-fluid rock called magma. The mantle is responsible for the majority of the Earth's internal heat due to the high temperatures and pressure within this layer. This heat drives the movement of tectonic plates and contributes to volcanic activity and the formation of mountains.

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  • 13. 

    Sedimentary rocks

    • A.

      Have small rocks or sand in them

    • B.

      Are rough

    • C.

      Are easily broken

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rocks can have small rocks or sand in them, which contributes to their rough texture. Additionally, sedimentary rocks are easily broken due to their composition and the way they are formed. Therefore, all of the given statements are true about sedimentary rocks.

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  • 14. 

    Rocks are like water because

    • A.

      They both need to be created new once or twice a decade

    • B.

      They both wear out

    • C.

      They are both constantly "recycled"

    • D.

      They both come from the core of the Earch

    Correct Answer
    C. They are both constantly "recycled"
    Explanation
    Rocks and water are constantly recycled in the Earth's natural processes. Water goes through the water cycle, where it evaporates, condenses, and precipitates back to the Earth's surface. Similarly, rocks undergo the rock cycle, where they are weathered, eroded, transported, and eventually deposited to form new rocks. This continuous recycling of rocks and water is a natural process that occurs over time.

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  • 15. 

    How was the Canadian Shield formed?

    • A.

      By decomposition of forests

    • B.

      By glaciers

    • C.

      By soil erosion

    • D.

      By earthquakes

    Correct Answer
    B. By glaciers
    Explanation
    The Canadian Shield was formed by glaciers. Glaciers are large masses of ice that move slowly over land, eroding and shaping the landscape as they go. As the glaciers advanced and retreated over millions of years, they scraped away the soil and rocks, leaving behind the exposed bedrock that is characteristic of the Canadian Shield. This process of glaciation also created many lakes and rivers in the region.

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  • 16. 

    Soil erosion

    • A.

      Is a natural occurring process on all land

    • B.

      Is caused by wind and water

    • C.

      Is a quick noticeable process

    • D.

      A and b are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. A and b are correct
    Explanation
    Soil erosion is a natural occurring process on all land, which means it happens everywhere. It is caused by both wind and water, as they can carry away the top layer of soil. This process is often quick and noticeable, as it can lead to the loss of fertile soil and the formation of gullies or sedimentation in bodies of water. Therefore, both statements a and b are correct.

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  • 17. 

    Igneous rocks are

    • A.

      Very smooth with visible speckles

    • B.

      Rough with sand particles

    • C.

      Very hard to break

    • D.

      Both a and c are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Both a and c are correct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "both a and c are correct." Igneous rocks can have a smooth texture with visible speckles, and they are also known for being very hard to break.

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  • 18. 

    The reason that the Earth's crust fractures in earthquakes is that

    • A.

      Relative to the other layers the crust is cold so it is more brittle

    • B.

      The Earth's crust can't withstand much shaking

    • C.

      The crust is only a few centimeters thick

    • D.

      It moves more than the other layers

    Correct Answer
    A. Relative to the other layers the crust is cold so it is more brittle
    Explanation
    The Earth's crust fractures in earthquakes because it is relatively colder compared to the other layers. This makes it more brittle and prone to breaking when subjected to stress and pressure. The temperature difference between the crust and the underlying layers causes the crust to be less flexible and more likely to fracture, resulting in earthquakes.

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  • 19. 

    When hot magma is pushed up towards the Earth's crust through a volcanoe, which type of rock is formed?

    • A.

      Sedimentary rock

    • B.

      Igneous rock

    • C.

      Mineral rock

    • D.

      Metamorphic rock

    Correct Answer
    B. Igneous rock
    Explanation
    When hot magma is pushed up towards the Earth's crust through a volcano, it cools and solidifies, forming igneous rock. Igneous rocks are formed from the cooling and crystallization of molten material, such as magma or lava. This process can occur either beneath the Earth's surface, resulting in intrusive igneous rocks, or on the surface, resulting in extrusive igneous rocks. Therefore, when hot magma is forced up through a volcano, it solidifies and forms igneous rock.

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  • 20. 

    Soil erosion increases the amount of dust in the air which is a problem because

    • A.

      Dust requires lots of repainting of barns and houses

    • B.

      Dust is a cause of soil pollution

    • C.

      Dust carries the organisms of infectious diseases

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Dust carries the organisms of infectious diseases
    Explanation
    Soil erosion increases the amount of dust in the air, which can carry organisms that cause infectious diseases. This is a problem because these organisms can spread and cause harm to humans, animals, and plants. Therefore, it is important to prevent soil erosion to minimize the amount of dust in the air and reduce the risk of infectious diseases.

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  • 21. 

    How thick is the Earth's crust?

    • A.

      1-5km.

    • B.

      5-40km

    • C.

      5-45km

    • D.

      About 15 km

    Correct Answer
    B. 5-40km
    Explanation
    The Earth's crust is the outermost layer of the Earth and it varies in thickness. It is composed of solid rock and ranges in thickness from 5 to 40 kilometers. This range is due to the fact that the Earth's crust is not uniformly thick and can be thinner in some areas, such as oceanic crust, and thicker in others, such as continental crust. The correct answer, 5-40km, encompasses this variability in crust thickness.

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  • 22. 

    We should all be concerned with soil erosion because

    • A.

      Each year the economy loses money when the land is lost

    • B.

      Each year the eroding soil carries pesticides and fertilizers into streams and lakes

    • C.

      We have to cut down more trees to replace the lost soil

    • D.

      Both a and b are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Both a and b are correct
    Explanation
    Soil erosion is a significant concern because it leads to economic losses and environmental pollution. Firstly, when land is lost due to erosion, it affects various industries such as agriculture and construction, resulting in a loss of productivity and revenue. Secondly, eroding soil carries pesticides and fertilizers into nearby water bodies, contaminating them and causing harm to aquatic life and ecosystems. Therefore, both reasons mentioned in options a and b are correct, highlighting the importance of addressing soil erosion.

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  • 23. 

    Why is soil important for life on Earth?

    • A.

      It is used as a water reservoir

    • B.

      Soil grows crops

    • C.

      Soil is used as a filter for pollutants

    • D.

      Both A and C are correct

    • E.

      All of the above are correct

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Soil grows crops
    E. All of the above are correct
    Explanation
    Soil is important for life on Earth because it serves multiple purposes. It acts as a water reservoir, allowing plants to absorb the necessary moisture for growth. Additionally, soil provides the necessary nutrients and support for the growth of crops, which are essential for sustenance. Moreover, soil acts as a filter, removing pollutants and contaminants from water and preventing them from reaching groundwater sources. Therefore, all of the given options are correct as they highlight the various important roles that soil plays in supporting life on Earth.

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  • 24. 

    Soil erosion is caused by

    • A.

      Land

    • B.

      Water

    • C.

      Fire

    • D.

      Wind

    • E.

      Both B and D are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. Both B and D are correct
    Explanation
    Soil erosion can be caused by both water and wind. Water erosion occurs when rainwater or runoff flows over the soil, carrying away the top layer and causing gullies and channels to form. Wind erosion occurs when strong winds blow over the soil, picking up loose particles and carrying them away. Both of these factors can contribute to soil erosion, making options B and D correct. Fire and land, although they can have an impact on soil health, are not direct causes of soil erosion.

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