# Ultrasound Physics - Vocabulary, Units, Relationships

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Ultrasound Physics - Vocabulary, units, relationships

• 1.

### What means the number of cycles per second?

• A.

Wavelength

• B.

Period

• C.

Frequency

• D.

Propagation Speed

C. Frequency
Explanation
The number of cycles per second refers to the frequency. Frequency is a measurement of how many complete cycles or oscillations occur in a given time period. It is commonly measured in hertz (Hz), where 1 Hz represents one cycle per second. Therefore, the correct answer is frequency.

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• 2.

### Source - US system

• A.

Wavelength

• B.

Period

• C.

Frequency

• D.

Propagation Speed

B. Period
Explanation
Period refers to the time it takes for one complete cycle of a wave to occur. It is measured in seconds and is the reciprocal of frequency. In other words, period and frequency are inversely related. A longer period means a lower frequency, and a shorter period means a higher frequency. This concept is important in understanding wave behavior and can be applied to various types of waves, such as sound waves, light waves, and electromagnetic waves.

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• 3.

### Concentration of energy across the beam?

• A.

Power

• B.

Amplitude

• C.

Incident intensity

• D.

Intensity

D. Intensity
Explanation
The concentration of energy across the beam is determined by the intensity. Intensity is the power per unit area and represents the amount of energy that is carried by the beam. A higher intensity means that there is a greater concentration of energy in the beam, while a lower intensity indicates a lower concentration of energy. Therefore, intensity is the correct answer to the question.

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• 4.

### Power is proportional to the waves amplitude squared

• A.

Power and Amplitude Relationship

• B.

Power and Intensity Relationship

• C.

Amplitude and Intensity Relationship

• D.

Affects Image quality

A. Power and Amplitude Relationship
Explanation
The power of a wave is directly proportional to the square of its amplitude. This means that as the amplitude of a wave increases, the power of the wave also increases. Conversely, if the amplitude of a wave decreases, the power of the wave will also decrease. This relationship is important because it helps us understand how changes in the amplitude of a wave can affect its power.

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• 5.

### The units for frequency are?

Hertz
Explanation
Hertz is the correct answer because it is the standard unit of measurement for frequency. Frequency refers to the number of cycles or oscillations of a wave that occur in one second. Hertz is defined as one cycle per second, so it is the appropriate unit to measure frequency.

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• 6.

### Can frequency be changed by the sonographer without changing the system?

No
Explanation
The answer is "No" because the frequency of an ultrasound wave is determined by the transducer used in the ultrasound system. The sonographer does not have the ability to change the frequency without changing the transducer or the entire ultrasound system. The frequency is a characteristic of the equipment and cannot be altered by the sonographer during the examination.

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• 7.

### What does frequency affect?

Depth of penetration, image quality
Explanation
Frequency affects the depth of penetration and image quality in ultrasound imaging. Higher frequencies provide better image resolution and detail but have limited penetration depth, making them suitable for superficial structures. Lower frequencies, on the other hand, can penetrate deeper into the body but may result in lower image resolution. Therefore, the choice of frequency depends on the specific imaging needs and the depth of the structures being examined.

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• 8.

### Period and frequency have a _______________ relationship.

• A.

Inverse

• B.

Direct

• C.

Reciprocal and inverse

• D.

Reciprocal

C. Reciprocal and inverse
Explanation
Period and frequency have a reciprocal and inverse relationship. This means that as the period increases, the frequency decreases, and vice versa. The reciprocal relationship indicates that the period and frequency are reciprocals of each other, meaning that their product is always equal to 1. So, if the period is represented by T and the frequency by f, then T * f = 1.

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• 9.

### The typical Mhz used in clinical imaging is...

2-10 MHz
Explanation
The typical MHz used in clinical imaging is 2-10 MHz. This range of frequencies is commonly used in ultrasound imaging because it provides a good balance between image resolution and tissue penetration. Higher frequencies (closer to 10 MHz) are used for superficial imaging, such as imaging the skin or superficial organs, where high resolution is needed. Lower frequencies (closer to 2 MHz) are used for deeper imaging, such as imaging internal organs, where tissue penetration is more important than resolution. Therefore, the range of 2-10 MHz is commonly used in clinical imaging to accommodate various imaging depths and resolutions.

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• 10.

### What are the acoustic variables for frequency?

• A.

Propagation speed, temperature, distance

• B.

Pressure, density , temperature

• C.

Pressure, distance , density

• D.

Propagation speed, distance, density

C. Pressure, distance , density
Explanation
The acoustic variables for frequency are pressure, distance, and density. Frequency is a measure of how often a sound wave repeats per unit of time. Pressure refers to the force exerted by the sound wave on a surface, distance refers to the physical distance between the sound source and the listener, and density refers to the mass per unit volume of the medium through which the sound wave travels. These variables are all related to the characteristics of the sound wave and can affect its frequency.

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• 11.

### What is the formula for frequency?

f=1/t
Explanation
The formula for frequency is f=1/t. This formula represents the relationship between frequency (f) and the time period (t) of a repeating event. It states that the frequency is equal to the reciprocal of the time period. In other words, frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. This formula is commonly used in physics and engineering to calculate the frequency of waves, oscillations, and other periodic phenomena.

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• 12.

### What is Period determined by ?

• A.

Source only

• B.

Medium

• C.

Source and medium

A. Source only
Explanation
The period is determined by the source only. This means that the frequency or timing of an event is solely influenced by the source from which it originates. The medium through which the event travels does not have any effect on the period.

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• 13.

### Can the sonogrpher adjust the period without changing the system.

no
Explanation
The answer is "no" because the sonographer cannot adjust the period without changing the system. The period refers to the time it takes for one complete cycle of a wave to pass a given point. In ultrasound imaging, the period is determined by the frequency of the sound waves produced by the system. Changing the period would require altering the frequency, which is a characteristic of the system and cannot be adjusted by the sonographer.

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• 14.

### Amplitude units are determined by ______________.

Acoustic variables
Explanation
Amplitude units are determined by acoustic variables. Acoustic variables refer to the physical quantities that describe sound waves, such as pressure, velocity, and displacement. These variables determine the magnitude or strength of the sound wave, which is measured in units of amplitude. Therefore, the amplitude units are determined by the acoustic variables that define the sound wave.

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• 15.

### Acoustic variables for amplitude are?

pressure, density, particle motion
Explanation
The correct answer is pressure, density, particle motion. Amplitude is a measure of the maximum displacement of a wave from its equilibrium position. In the case of sound waves, the amplitude is related to the intensity or loudness of the sound. The acoustic variables that determine the amplitude of a sound wave are pressure, which refers to the variation in air pressure caused by the wave; density, which is the variation in the density of the medium through which the wave is traveling; and particle motion, which describes the displacement of particles in the medium as the wave passes through it.

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• 16.

### Units for amplitude are?

decibels
Explanation
The units for amplitude are decibels. Decibels (dB) is a logarithmic unit used to measure the intensity or magnitude of a sound wave or signal. It is commonly used to express the loudness or strength of audio signals, such as in the field of acoustics. The decibel scale allows for a more convenient representation of large ranges of values, as it is based on a logarithmic ratio rather than a linear scale.

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• 17.

### Amplitude is?

strength of signal
Explanation
Amplitude refers to the maximum displacement or intensity of a signal from its equilibrium position. It represents the strength or magnitude of the signal. A higher amplitude indicates a stronger signal, while a lower amplitude indicates a weaker signal. Therefore, the correct answer "strength of signal" accurately describes the concept of amplitude.

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• 18.

### The units for Power are?

• A.

Watts

• B.

Hertz

• C.

Pascals

• D.

Decibels

A. Watts
Explanation
Power is a measure of the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred. It is calculated by dividing the amount of work done or energy transferred by the time taken. The unit for power is watts, which represents one joule of work done or energy transferred per second. Hertz is the unit for frequency, Pascals is the unit for pressure, and decibels is the unit for sound intensity. Therefore, the correct answer is watts.

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• 19.

### Average power in imaging is

4-90 milliwatts
Explanation
The average power in imaging is typically measured in milliwatts and can range from 4 to 90 milliwatts. This range represents the typical power levels used in imaging technologies such as ultrasound, laser imaging, or medical imaging devices. The specific power level within this range may vary depending on the specific imaging technique and equipment being used.

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• 20.

### Power is determined by ?

• A.

Source

• B.

Medium

• C.

Source and the medium

C. Source and the medium
• 21.

### Strength of the beam before striking a boundary between two different media.

• A.

Reflected intensity

• B.

Incident intensity

• C.

Transmitted intensity

B. Incident intensity
Explanation
The incident intensity refers to the strength of the beam before it strikes a boundary between two different media. It represents the initial intensity of the beam as it approaches the boundary. The reflected intensity and transmitted intensity, on the other hand, represent the intensity of the beam after it interacts with the boundary. Therefore, the incident intensity is the correct answer as it specifically refers to the strength of the beam before striking the boundary.

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• 22.

### Strength of the beam returning back to transducer after striking a boundary.

• A.

Reflected intensity

• B.

Inciden intensity

• C.

Transmitted intensity

A. Reflected intensity
Explanation
The strength of the beam returning back to the transducer after striking a boundary is known as the reflected intensity. This refers to the amount of energy that is reflected back to the transducer from the boundary. It is an important parameter in ultrasound imaging as it provides information about the properties of the boundary and can be used to create an image of the internal structures.

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• 23.

### Strength of the beam, after striking a boundary, continues on.

• A.

Incident intensity

• B.

Reflected intensity

• C.

Transmitted intensity

C. Transmitted intensity
Explanation
When a beam strikes a boundary, it can either be reflected or transmitted. The strength of the beam refers to its intensity. In this case, the correct answer is "Transmitted intensity" because it implies that the beam's strength continues on after striking the boundary and being transmitted through it. This means that the beam does not lose its intensity upon transmission and continues to propagate with the same strength.

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• 24.

### Units for Intensities

w/cm2
Explanation
The correct answer is "w/cm2". This answer refers to the units for intensities, specifically the intensity of a wave or radiation measured in watts per square centimeter. This unit is commonly used to quantify the amount of energy or power per unit area of a wave or radiation.

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• 25.

### Clinical imaging for reflected intensity is

reflected<1%, transmitted>99%
• 26.

### Distance or length of one cycle

wavelength
Explanation
The distance or length of one cycle is referred to as the wavelength. In physics, wavelength is defined as the distance between two consecutive points in a wave that are in phase. It can be measured from any point on a wave to the corresponding point on the next wave, such as from peak to peak or trough to trough. Wavelength is an important parameter in understanding the properties and behavior of waves, including electromagnetic waves, sound waves, and water waves.

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• 27.

### Wavelength and frequency hav e ________ relationship

inverse
Explanation
The relationship between wavelength and frequency is inverse. This means that as the wavelength increases, the frequency decreases, and vice versa. In other words, when the wavelength of a wave is longer, it takes longer for one complete wave to pass a point, resulting in a lower frequency. On the other hand, when the wavelength is shorter, the frequency is higher because more waves pass a point in a given time.

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• 28.

### Wavelength is determined by ?

source and medium
Explanation
The wavelength of a wave is determined by both the source and the medium through which it propagates. The source of the wave, such as a vibrating object or an electromagnetic wave generator, determines the frequency of the wave. The medium, on the other hand, affects the speed at which the wave travels. The wavelength is then calculated by dividing the speed of the wave by its frequency. Therefore, both the source and the medium play a crucial role in determining the wavelength of a wave.

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• 29.

### A frequency of 1 MHz has a wavelength of ?

1.54 mm
Explanation
The wavelength of a wave is inversely proportional to its frequency. This means that as the frequency increases, the wavelength decreases, and vice versa. In this case, since the frequency is given as 1 MHz (1 million hertz), which is a relatively high frequency, the corresponding wavelength would be relatively small. The answer of 1.54 mm is therefore plausible as a wavelength for a frequency of 1 MHz.

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• 30.

### A frequency of 2 MHz has a wavelength of

0.77 mm
Explanation
The wavelength of a wave is inversely proportional to its frequency. This means that as the frequency increases, the wavelength decreases, and vice versa. In this case, the given frequency is 2 MHz, which is a relatively high frequency. Therefore, it is expected that the corresponding wavelength would be relatively small. The answer of 0.77 mm aligns with this expectation, indicating that the wavelength of a 2 MHz frequency is indeed 0.77 mm.

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• 31.

### Is Porpagation Speed adjustable by the sonographer

no
Explanation
The answer is "no" because the propagation speed of ultrasound waves in a medium is determined by the properties of that medium, such as its density and elasticity. The sonographer does not have the ability to adjust or change the propagation speed of ultrasound waves.

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• 32.

### Propagation speed is determined by

• A.

Density and stiffness of the medium through which sound is traveling

• B.

Density and stiffness of the muscle throught which sound is traveling

A. Density and stiffness of the medium through which sound is traveling
Explanation
The propagation speed of sound is determined by the density and stiffness of the medium through which it is traveling. Density refers to how closely packed the particles of the medium are, while stiffness refers to how easily the particles can be compressed or disturbed. In a medium with high density and low stiffness, such as water, sound waves can travel faster because the particles are closely packed and can transmit the disturbance quickly. In contrast, in a medium with low density and high stiffness, such as a solid, sound waves travel slower because the particles are further apart and it takes more time for the disturbance to be transmitted.

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• 33.

### What is the propagation speed in soft tissue?

• A.

1540 m/s, 1.54 m/us

• B.

1504 cm/s 1.54 cm/us

• C.

1540 m/s, 1.54 mm/us

• D.

1500 mw/s 1.54 mm/us

C. 1540 m/s, 1.54 mm/us
Explanation
The correct answer is 1540 m/s, 1.54 mm/us. This is because soft tissue has a propagation speed of 1540 m/s, which refers to the speed at which sound waves travel through the tissue. Additionally, the speed can also be expressed as 1.54 mm/us, which represents the distance the sound wave travels in soft tissue per microsecond.

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• 34.

### What are the typical values for Period?

• A.

1x10-5, 5x10-5

• B.

1x10-6, 5x10-6

• C.

1x10-8, 5x10-8

• D.

1x10-7, 5x10-7

D. 1x10-7, 5x10-7
Explanation
The typical values for Period are 1x10-7 and 5x10-7.

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• 35.

### Waht is the propagation speed  formula?

• A.

Speed = frequency x wavelength

• B.

Speed = period x wavelength

• C.

Speeed = frequency x period

A. Speed = frequency x wavelength
Explanation
The correct answer is "speed = frequency x wavelength." This formula represents the propagation speed of a wave, which is determined by the product of its frequency and wavelength. Frequency refers to the number of complete cycles of the wave that occur in one second, while wavelength represents the distance between two corresponding points on the wave. Multiplying these two values gives us the speed at which the wave propagates through a medium.

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• 36.

### The formula for wavelength is?

• A.

Wavelength(mm) = 1.54 m/us divided by frequency (MHz)

• B.

Wavelength(mm) = 1540 cm/us divided by frequency (MHz)

• C.

Wavelength(mm) = 1.54mm/us divided by frequency (MHz)

C. Wavelength(mm) = 1.54mm/us divided by frequency (MHz)
Explanation
The correct answer is wavelength(mm) = 1.54mm/us divided by frequency (MHz). This formula is used to calculate the wavelength in millimeters based on the velocity of sound in a medium (1.54 mm/us) divided by the frequency in megahertz. The formula takes into account the relationship between wavelength, velocity, and frequency.

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• 37.

### Mathamatically power is proportional

• A.

To the waves bigness squared

• B.

To the waves amplitude squared

• C.

To the waves frequency squared

• D.

To the waves period squared

B. To the waves amplitude squared
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that power is proportional to the waves amplitude squared. In physics, power is defined as the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred. In the context of waves, the amplitude represents the maximum displacement of the wave from its equilibrium position. The greater the amplitude of a wave, the more energy it carries. Since power is directly related to energy, it follows that power is proportional to the square of the wave's amplitude.

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• 38.

### What are the units for Period?

• A.

Second

• B.

Decibels

• C.

MW/cm2

• D.

Meters

A. Second
Explanation
The units for Period refer to the time it takes for one complete cycle of a repeating event. It is commonly measured in seconds.

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• Current Version
• Aug 31, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Feb 08, 2012
Quiz Created by
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