Infection Control Questions: Quiz! Exam

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Infection Control Questions: Quiz! Exam - Quiz



Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which client needs the most rapid response to protect other family members at home from infection?

    • A.

      A 72-year-old who must undergo tuberculosis (TB) testing after being exposed to TB during a recent international airplane flight

    • B.

      A 58-year-old who has a history of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) abdominal wound infection

    • C.

      A 7-year-old who has a new pruritic rash and a possible chickenpox infection

    • D.

      A 4-year-old who has paroxysmal coughing and whose sibling has pertussis

    Correct Answer
    A. A 72-year-old who must undergo tuberculosis (TB) testing after being exposed to TB during a recent international airplane flight
    Explanation
    The 72-year-old who must undergo tuberculosis (TB) testing after being exposed to TB during a recent international airplane flight needs the most rapid response to protect other family members at home from infection. Tuberculosis is a highly contagious airborne disease, and the individual has been exposed to it during travel. Prompt testing and isolation measures are necessary to prevent the spread of TB to other family members and the community.

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  • 2. 

    The nurse is assigned to a patient who has a draining sacral wound infected by MRSA. Which personal protective equipment (PPE) will the nurse plan to use in preparing to change the linens of the client?  1. Gloves 2. Goggles 3. Gown 4. N95 respirator 5. Surgical mask 6. Shoe covers

    • A.

      1 and 3

    • B.

      1, 2, and 3

    • C.

      1, 2, and 6

    • D.

      3, 4, and 5

    • E.

      1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

    Correct Answer
    A. 1 and 3
    Explanation
    The nurse should plan to use gloves and a gown when preparing to change the linens of the client with a draining sacral wound infected by MRSA. Gloves are necessary to protect the nurse's hands from coming into contact with the wound and potentially spreading the infection. A gown is needed to protect the nurse's clothing from any potential contamination from the wound. Goggles, N95 respirator, surgical mask, and shoe covers are not necessary for changing linens in this situation.

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  • 3. 

    A newly admitted patient is suspected to have avian influenza (“bird flu”) due to increasing dyspnea and dehydration. You are assigned to take care of the patient while in the hospital. Which of these prescribed actions will the hospital nurse you are expected to implement first?

    • A.

      Give first dose of oseltamivir (Tamiflu)

    • B.

      Instill 5% dextrose in water at 100 mL/hr

    • C.

      Collect blood and sputum specimens for testing

    • D.

      Start oxygen using a nonrebreather mask

    Correct Answer
    D. Start oxygen using a nonrebreather mask
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to start oxygen using a nonrebreather mask. This is the first action that should be implemented because the patient is experiencing increasing dyspnea, which indicates difficulty in breathing. Providing oxygen through a nonrebreather mask will help improve oxygenation and alleviate respiratory distress. This action takes priority over other actions such as giving medication, collecting specimens, or providing fluids, as addressing the patient's respiratory status is crucial in managing their condition.

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  • 4. 

    You went to hospital with your patient as the parents want to admit your 8-year-old patient with rubeola (measles). Which of the following do you think is of most concern in deciding whether to admit the child to the hospital?

    • A.

      The unit is not staffed with the usual number of staff nurses to cater the patient.

    • B.

      There are several children receiving chemotherapy on the unit who are immunocompromised.

    • C.

      No negative-airflow rooms are available on the unit.

    • D.

      The infection control nurse liaison is not on the unit today.

    Correct Answer
    C. No negative-airflow rooms are available on the unit.
    Explanation
    The most concerning factor in deciding whether to admit the child to the hospital is the unavailability of negative-airflow rooms on the unit. Negative-airflow rooms are crucial in preventing the spread of airborne diseases like rubeola. Without these rooms, there is a higher risk of infecting other patients, especially those who are immunocompromised, such as the children receiving chemotherapy. The lack of staff nurses or the absence of the infection control nurse liaison may be problematic, but they do not directly impact the safety and well-being of the patients as much as the absence of negative-airflow rooms.

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  • 5. 

    In which order will the nurse perform the following actions as she prepares to leave the room of the patient with airborne precautions after performing oral suctioning? 1. Take off goggles 2. Take off gown 3. Remove gloves 4. Remove N95 respirator 5. Perform hand hygiene

    • A.

      1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    • B.

      3,2,1,4,5

    • C.

      3, 4, 1, 2, 5

    • D.

      4, 3, 2, 1, 5

    Correct Answer
    B. 3,2,1,4,5
    Explanation
    This sequence ensures that the nurse minimizes the risk of self-contamination by appropriately removing the most contaminated items first and performing hand hygiene before removing items closer to the face and respiratory passages.

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  • 6. 

    The nurse is caring for a client with a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infection. Which action can be delegated to a family member?

    • A.

      Implement contact precautions when caring for the client.

    • B.

      Monitor the results of ordered laboratory culture and sensitivity test.

    • C.

      Teach the client and family members about means to prevent transmission of VRE.

    • D.

      Interact with other departments when the client is transported for ordered tests.

    Correct Answer
    A. Implement contact precautions when caring for the client.
    Explanation
    Implementing contact precautions when caring for a client with a VRE infection is a task that can be delegated to a family member. Contact precautions include measures such as wearing gloves and gowns, using proper hand hygiene, and ensuring that the client's environment is clean and disinfected. These precautions are important to prevent the spread of the infection to others. While monitoring laboratory test results, teaching about prevention of transmission, and coordinating with other departments are all important aspects of care, they require specialized knowledge and skills that are best performed by healthcare professionals.

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  • 7. 

    A client who has frequent watery stool is admitted to the unit due to dehydration possibly caused by C. difficile. Which nursing action can the nurse delegate to the family member?

    • A.

      Giving the ordered metronidazole (Flagyl) 500 mg PO to the patient

    • B.

      Reconsidering the client’s medical history for any risk factors for diarrhea

    • C.

      Doing ongoing assessments to determine the client’s hydration status

    • D.

      Explaining the purpose of ordered stool cultures to the patient

    Correct Answer
    A. Giving the ordered metronidazole (Flagyl) 500 mg PO to the patient
    Explanation
    The nurse can delegate the task of giving the ordered metronidazole (Flagyl) 500 mg PO to the patient to the family member. This task does not require specialized nursing knowledge or skills and can be safely performed by a trained family member. The nurse should provide clear instructions and ensure that the family member understands the dosage and administration guidelines. This delegation allows the nurse to focus on other nursing actions such as ongoing assessments and providing education to the patient.

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  • 8. 

    Mariam, 25-year-old patient, came with you to outpatient unit with complaints of diarrhea, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, and epistaxis. Which action should the hospital nurse take first?

    • A.

      Learn whether the client has had recommended immunizations

    • B.

      Ask the client about any recent travel to Asia or other parts of Middle East

    • C.

      Have the client pinch the anterior nares firmly for 5 minutes

    • D.

      Request an ambulance to take the client quickly to the hospital

    Correct Answer
    B. Ask the client about any recent travel to Asia or other parts of Middle East
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to ask the client about any recent travel to Asia or other parts of the Middle East. This is because the patient is presenting with symptoms that could be indicative of a possible infectious disease, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, and epistaxis. Asking about recent travel to specific regions can help identify if the patient may have been exposed to any infectious diseases prevalent in those areas. This information is crucial in determining the appropriate course of action and treatment for the patient.

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  • 9. 

    A mother of your 14-year-old patient who is receiving chemotherapy for leukemia has concerns that a younger son is having chickenpox. Which of these actions will the nurse anticipate taking next?

    • A.

      Plan to admit the client to a private room in a hospital

    • B.

      Teach the mother and practice contact and airborne precautions

    • C.

      Educate the mother about the correct use of acyclovir (Zovirax)

    • D.

      Administer varicella-zoster immune globulin to the client as ordered after a visit in the OPD

    Correct Answer
    D. Administer varicella-zoster immune globulin to the client as ordered after a visit in the OPD
    Explanation
    The nurse should anticipate administering varicella-zoster immune globulin to the client as ordered after a visit in the OPD. This is because the patient receiving chemotherapy for leukemia is immunocompromised and at a higher risk for developing severe complications from chickenpox. Varicella-zoster immune globulin can provide passive immunity and help prevent or reduce the severity of the infection in the younger son. Admitting the client to a private room in a hospital may not be necessary unless the client develops symptoms. Teaching the mother and practicing contact and airborne precautions can be done, but administering varicella-zoster immune globulin is the immediate action to protect the client.

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  • 10. 

    The home care nurse is caring for a patient receiving IV infusions of normal saline. The patient is currently admitted to the ward. The nurse observes the ward to have 3 more patients with different diagnoses. Which client is at the highest risk for bloodstream infection?

    • A.

      A client who has a nontunneled central line in the left internal jugular vein

    • B.

      A client with an implanted port in the right subclavian vein

    • C.

      A client with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line in the right upper arm

    • D.

      A client who has midline IV catheter in the left antecubital fossa

    Correct Answer
    A. A client who has a nontunneled central line in the left internal jugular vein
    Explanation
    A client who has a nontunneled central line in the left internal jugular vein is at the highest risk for bloodstream infection. Nontunneled central lines have a higher risk of infection compared to other types of IV access devices. The internal jugular vein is also closer to the heart, increasing the risk of infection spreading to the bloodstream. Additionally, the left side of the body has a higher risk of infection due to the proximity to the gastrointestinal tract, where bacteria are more commonly present.

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  • 11. 

    Which action will the nurse take to most effectively reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI)?

    • A.

      Make sure that clients have adequate fluid intake

    • B.

      Educate assistive personnel on how to provide good perineal hygiene

    • C.

      Restrict the use of indwelling catheters

    • D.

      Perform dipstick urinalysis for clients with risk factors for UTI

    Correct Answer
    C. Restrict the use of indwelling catheters
    Explanation
    Restricting the use of indwelling catheters is the most effective action to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI). Indwelling catheters increase the risk of UTIs by providing a direct pathway for bacteria to enter the urinary tract. By restricting their use, the nurse can minimize the chances of infection. Adequate fluid intake, educating assistive personnel on perineal hygiene, and performing dipstick urinalysis are also important interventions, but they are not as effective in reducing UTI incidence as restricting the use of indwelling catheters.

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  • 12. 

    The nurse is assigned to a client who has been diagnosed with disseminated herpes zoster. Which PPE will the nurse plan to use when preparing to assess the client?  1. Gloves 2. Goggles 3. Gown 4. N95 respirator 5. Surgical face mask 6. Shoe covers

    • A.

      1, 2, and 3

    • B.

      1, 2, and 4

    • C.

      1, 3, and 4

    • D.

      1, 4, 5, and 6

    • E.

      1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

    Correct Answer
    C. 1, 3, and 4
    Explanation
    Disseminated herpes zoster is a highly contagious viral infection. The nurse should use gloves to protect hands from direct contact with the client's lesions or body fluids. A gown should be worn to protect the nurse's clothing from contamination. An N95 respirator should be used to protect the nurse's respiratory system from inhaling infectious particles. Goggles, surgical face mask, and shoe covers are not necessary for assessing a client with disseminated herpes zoster. Therefore, the correct PPE to use when preparing to assess the client includes gloves, gown, and N95 respirator.

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  • 13. 

    The nurse is caring for a client with a leg ulcer that is infected with vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Which of the following nursing actions can a nurse assign to a family member?

    • A.

      Assess risk for further skin breakdown

    • B.

      Collect wound cultures during dressing changes

    • C.

      Create methods to improve the client’s oral protein intake

    • D.

      Educate the client about home care of the leg ulcer

    Correct Answer
    B. Collect wound cultures during dressing changes
    Explanation
    A family member can be assigned to collect wound cultures during dressing changes because it is a task that does not require specialized medical knowledge or skills. Collecting wound cultures involves swabbing the wound to obtain a sample for laboratory analysis, which can help determine the type of bacteria causing the infection and guide appropriate treatment. This task can be easily taught to a family member, allowing them to assist in the client's care and monitoring the progress of the infection.

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  • 14. 

    A 7-year-old girl who has just endured allogeneic stem cell transplantation will need protective environmental stimulation. Which nursing task should the nurse delegate to the family member?  1. Educating the client to perform careful handwashing after using the bathroom 2. Communicating with the family members about the grounds for isolation 3. Stock the client’s room with the required PPE items 4. Reminding the visitors to wear a respirator mask, gloves, and gown 5. Posting the precautions for protective isolation on the door of the client’s room

    • A.

      1, 2, and 3

    • B.

      2, 3, and 4

    • C.

      3, 4, and 5

    • D.

      All except 1

    Correct Answer
    C. 3, 4, and 5
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 3, 4, and 5. These tasks can be delegated to the family member to ensure a protective environment for the 7-year-old girl who has undergone allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Stocking the client's room with the required personal protective equipment (PPE) items helps maintain a sterile environment. Reminding visitors to wear a respirator mask, gloves, and gown helps prevent the spread of infections. Posting the precautions for protective isolation on the door of the client's room helps educate others about the necessary precautions.

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  • 15. 

    The nurse assessed the client and noted shortness of breath and a recent trip to China. The client is strongly suspected of having Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Which of these prescribed actions will the nurse take first?

    • A.

      Place the client on airborne and contact precautions

    • B.

      Hydrate the patient.

    • C.

      Give methylprednisolone (SOLU-Medrol) 1 g intravenously (IV)

    • D.

      Take blood, urine, sputum cultures and send it to laboratory

    Correct Answer
    A. Place the client on airborne and contact precautions
    Explanation
    The nurse will place the client on airborne and contact precautions first because the client is strongly suspected of having Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). This is necessary to prevent the spread of the disease to others and to protect healthcare workers. Hydrating the patient and giving methylprednisolone may be part of the treatment plan, but the immediate priority is to isolate the client and take necessary precautions. Taking cultures and sending them to the laboratory is important for diagnostic purposes, but it is not the first action that needs to be taken.

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  • 16. 

    The nurse is asked which action will take to have the most impact on the incidence of infectious diseases in school. The correct response is:

    • A.

      Grant written information about infection control to all parents

    • B.

      Ensure that students are immunized according to national guidelines

    • C.

      Make soap and water easily accessible in the classrooms

    • D.

      Educate students on how to cover their mouths when coughing

    Correct Answer
    B. Ensure that students are immunized according to national guidelines
    Explanation
    Ensuring that students are immunized according to national guidelines will have the most impact on the incidence of infectious diseases in school. Immunizations help prevent the spread of diseases by building immunity in individuals, making them less susceptible to infections. By following national guidelines for immunizations, the school can ensure that students are protected against common infectious diseases, reducing the risk of outbreaks within the school population. This action is proactive and has a direct impact on preventing the spread of infectious diseases among students.

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  • 17. 

    The nurse is delegating tasks. Which infection control activity should she assign to an family member?

    • A.

      Giving the patient ordered immunosuppressant medications

    • B.

      Demonstrating correct hand washing to visitors and other family members

    • C.

      Disinfecting all patient used equipment every after use

    • D.

      Checking patient for any other signs for upper respiratory tract symptoms

    Correct Answer
    C. Disinfecting all patient used equipment every after use
    Explanation
    The nurse should assign the task of disinfecting all patient used equipment to a family member. This activity is a crucial part of infection control as it helps prevent the spread of germs and infections. By delegating this task to a family member, it not only lightens the workload for the nurse but also involves the patient's support system in maintaining a clean and safe environment.

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  • 18. 

    There are four sick children with infections in your patient's home and only one closed room is available. Which among the sick is the most appropriate to occupy the closed room?

    • A.

      Cough who may have TB

    • B.

      Toxic shock syndrome and a temperature of 102.4°F (39.1°C)

    • C.

      Diarrhea caused by C. difficile

    • D.

      A wound infected with VRE

    Correct Answer
    A. Cough who may have TB
    Explanation
    The most appropriate sick child to occupy the closed room would be the one with a cough who may have TB. Tuberculosis is a highly contagious airborne disease, and isolating the child with a potential TB infection in a closed room would help prevent the spread of the disease to others in the house. Additionally, the other illnesses mentioned (toxic shock syndrome, diarrhea caused by C. difficile, and a wound infected with VRE) are not typically transmitted through the air, so isolating the child with a possible TB infection would be the best precautionary measure.

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  • 19. 

    The nurse is assigned to a patient with meningococcal meningitis. Which information about the client is the best indicator that the nurse can discontinue droplet precautions?

    • A.

      Appropriate antibiotics have been given 24 hours

    • B.

      Cough is productive of clear, nonpurulent mucus

    • C.

      Pupils are equal and reactive to light

    • D.

      Temperature is lower than 100°F (37.8°C)

    Correct Answer
    A. Appropriate antibiotics have been given 24 hours
    Explanation
    The best indicator that the nurse can discontinue droplet precautions is that appropriate antibiotics have been given for 24 hours. This suggests that the client's meningococcal meningitis is being effectively treated, reducing the risk of transmission to others. The other options do not specifically address the client's condition or the effectiveness of treatment.

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  • 20. 

    A 90-year-old client was confined to the hospital for two weeks. He has been receiving antibiotics for more than a week and tells that he is having frequent watery stools. Which action will you take first?

    • A.

      Place the client on contact precautions

    • B.

      Educate the client about correct hand washing

    • C.

      Notify the physician about the loose stools

    • D.

      Get stool specimens for culture and request the family to send it to the nearest laboratory.

    Correct Answer
    A. Place the client on contact precautions
    Explanation
    Placing the client on contact precautions is the first action to take because the client is experiencing frequent watery stools, which could be a sign of a contagious infection. Contact precautions help prevent the spread of infections through direct contact with the client or their environment. By isolating the client, healthcare providers can minimize the risk of spreading the infection to others in the hospital.

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  • Apr 16, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 27, 2018
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