Toxicology Of The Kidney

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Questions: 15 | Attempts: 623

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Toxicology Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz should test your knowledge on nephrotoxicity and help you further understand the toxicology in this vital organ


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In Hyperphosphataemia, which compound is found in high concentration in the kidney?

    • A.

      Phosphate

    • B.

      Phosphatase

    • C.

      Calcium

    • D.

      Carbon

    Correct Answer
    A. Phosphate
    Explanation
    In Hyperphosphataemia, the condition of having high levels of phosphate in the blood, the compound found in high concentration in the kidney is phosphate. This is because the kidneys play a crucial role in regulating the levels of phosphate in the body by filtering it from the blood and excreting any excess through urine. Therefore, in cases of Hyperphosphataemia, the kidneys may not be effectively removing phosphate, leading to its accumulation in the kidney.

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  • 2. 

    Acute Renal Failure (ARF) primarily occurs as a result of .....

    • A.

      Leakage of urea in the kidney

    • B.

      Inflammation of the kidney

    • C.

      Insufficient blood supply to the kidney

    Correct Answer
    C. Insufficient blood supply to the kidney
    Explanation
    Acute Renal Failure (ARF) primarily occurs as a result of insufficient blood supply to the kidney. When the kidneys do not receive enough blood, they are unable to filter waste products and toxins effectively, leading to a buildup of harmful substances in the body. This can be caused by various factors such as dehydration, low blood pressure, or blockage in the blood vessels supplying the kidneys. Without proper blood flow, the kidneys cannot function properly, resulting in ARF.

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  • 3. 

    Hyperkalaemia is a build up of potassium ions. Which organ does this have the  most detrimental effect on?

    • A.

      Lungs

    • B.

      Heart

    • C.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    B. Heart
    Explanation
    Hyperkalaemia is a condition characterized by high levels of potassium ions in the blood. Potassium plays a crucial role in maintaining the electrical activity of the heart, and an excess of potassium can disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart. This can lead to various cardiac abnormalities, such as arrhythmias, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, the most detrimental effect of hyperkalaemia is on the heart.

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  • 4. 

    What do the NSAID's act to inhibit?

    • A.

      Gastric Acid Secretion

    • B.

      Urination

    • C.

      Cyclooxygenase (COX) Enzymes

    • D.

      Perspiration

    Correct Answer
    C. Cyclooxygenase (COX) Enzymes
    Explanation
    NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) act to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that promote inflammation, pain, and fever. By inhibiting COX enzymes, NSAIDs reduce the production of prostaglandins, thereby reducing inflammation, relieving pain, and lowering fever.

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  • 5. 

    Paracetamol possesses which of the following therapeutic effects?

    • A.

      Anti-Pyretic and Anti-Inflammatory

    • B.

      Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic

    • C.

      Analgesic and Anti-Pyretic

    • D.

      Analgesic and Anti-Coagulant

    Correct Answer
    C. Analgesic and Anti-Pyretic
    Explanation
    Paracetamol is known for its analgesic (pain-relieving) and anti-pyretic (fever-reducing) effects. It works by inhibiting the production of certain chemicals in the body that are responsible for pain and fever. Therefore, it helps in relieving pain and reducing fever, making the correct answer "Analgesic and Anti-Pyretic".

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is NOT a symptom of nephrotoxicity caused by the NSAID's?

    • A.

      Papillary Necrosis

    • B.

      Acute Renal Insufficiency

    • C.

      Interstitial Nephritis

    • D.

      Swollen Abdomen

    Correct Answer
    D. Swollen Abdomen
    Explanation
    Swollen abdomen is not a symptom of nephrotoxicity caused by NSAIDs. Nephrotoxicity refers to kidney damage or toxicity, and common symptoms include papillary necrosis, acute renal insufficiency, and interstitial nephritis. Swollen abdomen, on the other hand, is more commonly associated with conditions such as ascites (fluid buildup in the abdominal cavity) or gastrointestinal issues, rather than kidney damage.

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  • 7. 

    Aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis by irreversibily binding to 

    • A.

      50S

    • B.

      30S

    • C.

      16S

    Correct Answer
    B. 30S
    Explanation
    Aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis by irreversibly binding to the 30S subunit of the ribosome. This binding prevents the ribosome from properly assembling and elongating the growing peptide chain, ultimately leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.

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  • 8. 

    What aminoglycoside was the first to be synthesised and the most commonly used?

    • A.

      Vancomycin

    • B.

      Neomycin

    • C.

      Gentamicin

    • D.

      Streptomycin

    Correct Answer
    C. Gentamicin
    Explanation
    Gentamicin is the correct answer because it was the first aminoglycoside to be synthesized and it is also the most commonly used. The other options, Vancomycin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin, are also aminoglycosides, but they were not the first to be synthesized and are not as commonly used as Gentamicin.

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  • 9. 

    A common affect of aminoglycoside antibiotics is

    • A.

      Time dependent bacterial action

    • B.

      Postantibiotic effect

    • C.

      More active in acidic pH

    • D.

      Good oral absorption

    Correct Answer
    B. Postantibiotic effect
    Explanation
    The postantibiotic effect refers to the continued suppression of bacterial growth even after the antibiotic has been removed from the system. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are known to exhibit this effect, which can be beneficial in treating bacterial infections. This phenomenon allows for less frequent dosing of the antibiotic while still maintaining its efficacy.

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  • 10. 

    What is the mechanism of action of ACE inhibitors?

    • A.

      Inhibit vasoconstriction

    • B.

      Promote conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II

    • C.

      Cause the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme

    • D.

      Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme

    Correct Answer
    D. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme
    Explanation
    ACE inhibitors work by inhibiting the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). This enzyme is responsible for converting angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. By inhibiting ACE, ACE inhibitors prevent the production of angiotensin II, leading to vasodilation and a decrease in blood pressure. This mechanism of action is important in the treatment of conditions such as hypertension and heart failure.

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  • 11. 

    ACE inhibitors would NOT be an effective treatment for which of these disorders?

    • A.

      Hypertension

    • B.

      After myocardial infarction

    • C.

      Hypotension

    • D.

      Heart failure

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypotension
    Explanation
    ACE inhibitors are a class of medications that work by inhibiting the enzyme ACE, which is responsible for the production of a hormone called angiotensin II. This hormone causes blood vessels to constrict and raises blood pressure. Therefore, ACE inhibitors are commonly used to treat hypertension, or high blood pressure. However, in the case of hypotension, which is low blood pressure, the goal is to increase blood pressure. Since ACE inhibitors lower blood pressure, they would not be an effective treatment for hypotension.

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  • 12. 

    Patients suffering from which of these diseases are at risk of renal failure due to ACE inhibitors?

    • A.

      Schizophrenia

    • B.

      Heart failure

    • C.

      Parkinson's

    • D.

      Renal artery stenosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Renal artery stenosis
    Explanation
    Patients with renal artery stenosis are at risk of renal failure when taking ACE inhibitors. Renal artery stenosis is a condition where the arteries that supply blood to the kidneys become narrowed, leading to reduced blood flow. ACE inhibitors can further decrease the blood flow to the kidneys, potentially causing renal failure. Therefore, patients with renal artery stenosis should be cautious when using ACE inhibitors.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not present in glomerular filtrate?

    • A.

      Salt

    • B.

      Vitamins

    • C.

      Amino acids

    • D.

      Albumin

    Correct Answer
    D. Albumin
    Explanation
    Albumin is not present in the glomerular filtrate. Glomerular filtrate is the fluid that is formed by the filtration of blood through the glomerulus in the kidney. It contains water, electrolytes, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and other small molecules. However, albumin, which is a protein found in the blood, is too large to pass through the filtration membrane and therefore is not present in the glomerular filtrate.

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  • 14. 

    The filtrate passes through the nephron in which correct order?

    • A.

      Loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, glomerulus, proximal convuluted tubule, collecting duct.

    • B.

      Glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct.

    • C.

      Collecting duct, loop of henle, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, glomerulus.

    • D.

      Glomerulus, distal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, proximal convoluted tubule, collecting duct.

    Correct Answer
    B. Glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct.
    Explanation
    The correct order of the filtrate passing through the nephron is as follows: It starts at the glomerulus where blood is filtered, then it moves to the proximal convoluted tubule where reabsorption of water, ions, and nutrients occurs. Next, it enters the loop of Henle where further reabsorption of water and ions takes place. After that, it goes to the distal convoluted tubule where additional reabsorption and secretion occur. Finally, it enters the collecting duct where the final concentration of urine occurs before it is excreted.

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  • 15. 

    The medulla is involved with which functions of the kidney?

    • A.

      Filtration and secretion

    • B.

      Reabsorption and filtration

    • C.

      Reabsorption and secretion

    Correct Answer
    C. Reabsorption and secretion
    Explanation
    The medulla of the kidney is responsible for the functions of reabsorption and secretion. Reabsorption refers to the process of reclaiming important substances, such as water and nutrients, from the filtrate that is produced during filtration. Secretion, on the other hand, involves the transfer of waste products and excess substances from the blood into the filtrate. Both reabsorption and secretion are crucial for maintaining the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body and regulating blood pressure.

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