The Cold War Ultimate Quiz: Exam!

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| By Daniel Guiney
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The Cold War Ultimate Quiz: Exam! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following was not at the Yalta Conference?

    • A.

      Winston Churchill

    • B.

      Franklin Roosevelt

    • C.

      Joseph Stalin

    • D.

      Harry Truman

    Correct Answer
    D. Harry Truman
    Explanation
    The February 1945 Yalta Conference was the second wartime meeting of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the conference, the three leaders agreed to demand Germany’s unconditional surrender and began plans for a post-war world. Stalin also agreed to permit free elections in Eastern Europe and to enter the Asian war against Japan, for which he was promised the return of lands lost to Japan in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. Although most of these agreements were initially kept secret, the revelations of the conference particulars became controversial after Soviet-American wartime cooperation degenerated into the Cold War.

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  • 2. 

    In which country is Yalta?

    • A.

      Russia

    • B.

      Lithuania

    • C.

      Poland

    • D.

      Ukraine

    Correct Answer
    D. Ukraine
    Explanation
    The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4 to 11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Europe's postwar reorganization. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta in Crimea, Ukraine.

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  • 3. 

    In which country is Potsdam?

    • A.

      Austria

    • B.

      Germany

    • C.

      Hungary

    • D.

      Turkey

    Correct Answer
    B. Germany
    Explanation
    Held near Berlin, the Potsdam Conference (July 17-August 2, 1945) was the last of the World War II meetings held by the “Big Three” heads of state. Featuring American President Harry S. Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and his successor, Clement Attlee) and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, the talks established a Council of Foreign Ministers and a central Allied Control Council for administration of Germany. The leaders arrived at various agreements on the German economy, punishment for war criminals, land boundaries and reparations. Although talks primarily centered on postwar Europe, the Big Three also issued a declaration demanding “unconditional surrender” from Japan.

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  • 4. 

    Which country (in Eastern Europe) did the West and Russia famously disagree over at Potsdam? 

    Correct Answer
    Poland
    Explanation
    The postwar Poland was a state of reduced sovereignty, strongly dependent on the Soviet Union, but the only one possible under the existing circumstances and internationally recognized. The Polish Left's cooperation with the Stalin's regime made the preservation of a Polish state within favorable borders possible. The dominant Polish Workers' Party had a strictly pro-Soviet branch, led by Bierut and a number of communist activists, and a national branch, willing to take a "Polish route to socialism", led by Gomułka.

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  • 5. 

    Communism and Capitalism are both what word beginning with the letter ‘I'?

    Correct Answer
    Ideology, Ideologies
    Explanation
    Ideology is a system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.

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  • 6. 

    Stalin famously told a fellow Communist ‘Churchill is the kind of man who would pick your pocket for a ____________’ 

    • A.

      Pound

    • B.

      Dollar

    • C.

      Kopeck

    • D.

      Rouble

    Correct Answer
    C. Kopeck
    Explanation
    Changes in key personnel was a key reason behind early Cold War antagonism. Churchill was voted out of office allowing him more freedom to air his anti Communist views from July 1945 onwards and FDR's death meant hardline Harry S Truman, a former haberdasher, coming to power.

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  • 7. 

    What did Churchill do to the German arsenal after the Second World War? 

    • A.

      Sell it

    • B.

      Destroy it

    • C.

      Maintain it

    • D.

      Melt it

    Correct Answer
    C. Maintain it
    Explanation
    He feared it would be used by the Russians. After all, they had kept 200,000 soldiers stationed in Manchuria at the turn of the century which had been a key cause of the Russo-Japanese war (they were not meant to stay). Churchill feared the Red Army would repeat this and so he wanted German arms to stay in tact.

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  • 8. 

    Who replaced Winston Churchill as British Prime Minister and was the UK representative in Potsdam?

    • A.

      Harold Wilson

    • B.

      Clement Attlee

    • C.

      Ted Heath

    • D.

      Margaret Thatcher

    Correct Answer
    B. Clement Attlee
    Explanation
    Labour's Attlee won with 59.9% of the vote. Britain wanted a peacetime leader and Churchill was viewed as a good wartime leader - there is a difference!

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  • 9. 

    Where was Churchill when he made his Iron Curtain speech? 

    • A.

      Fulton, Missouri

    • B.

      Birmingham, Alabama

    • C.

      Little Rock, Arkansas

    • D.

      Dayton, Ohio

    Correct Answer
    A. Fulton, Missouri
    Explanation
    In one of the most famous orations of the Cold War period, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill condemned the Soviet Union’s policies in Europe and declared, “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.” Churchill’s speech is considered one of the opening volleys announcing the beginning of the Cold War.

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  • 10. 

    How many Eastern European states were NOT Communist in 1948?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      1

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      3

    Correct Answer
    C. 2
    Explanation
    The Greek Civil War was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army (backed by the United Kingdom and the United States), and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE, the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE), backed by Yugoslavia and Albania as well as by Bulgaria). The fighting resulted in the defeat of the Communist insurgents by the government forces. Founded by the Communist Party of Greece and funded by Communist nations such as Yugoslavia, the Democratic Army of Greece included many personnel who had fought as partisans against German and Italian occupation forces during the Second World War of 1939–1945.

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  • 11. 

    Whom was fighting whom in the Greek Civil War?

    • A.

      Royalists V Roundheads

    • B.

      Tommies V Jerries

    • C.

      Nationalists V Communists

    • D.

      Ali V Frasier

    Correct Answer
    C. Nationalists V Communists
    Explanation
    Despite setbacks suffered by government forces from 1946 to 1948, increased American aid, the failure of the DSE to attract sufficient recruits and the side-effects of the Tito–Stalin split of 1948 eventually led to victory for the government troops. The final victory of the western-allied government forces led to Greece's membership in NATO (1952) and helped to define the ideological balance of power in the Aegean Sea for the entire Cold War. The civil war also left Greece with a vehemently anti-communist security establishment, which would lead to the establishment of the Greek military junta of 1967–74 and a legacy of political polarisation that lasts until today.

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  • 12. 

    Whose doctrine lead to the Marshall Plan?

    • A.

      Roosevelt

    • B.

      Truman

    • C.

      Eisenhower

    • D.

      Trump

    Correct Answer
    B. Truman
    Explanation
    With the Truman Doctrine, President Harry S. Truman established that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces. The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from its usual stance of withdrawal from regional conflicts not directly involving the United States, to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts.

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  • 13. 

    Marshall Aid, the Korean War, the Berlin Blockade, the Truman Doctrine, and even Vietnam were all part of which foreign policy by the US government?

    • A.

      Rollback

    • B.

      Detente

    • C.

      Containment

    • D.

      Brinkmanship

    Correct Answer
    C. Containment
    Explanation
    Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy. It is best known as the Cold War policy of the United States and its allies to prevent the spread of communism. A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to increase communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, Africa, and Vietnam. Containment represented a middle-ground position between detente and rollback.

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  • 14. 

    Which pro-American Czech minister was found dead - allegedly by "suicide" but in controversial circumstances, near his open window? 

    • A.

      Karel Poborsky

    • B.

      Vaclav Havel

    • C.

      Jan Maseryk

    • D.

      Czechie Chan

    Correct Answer
    C. Jan Maseryk
    Explanation
    Jan Garrigue Masaryk (14 September 1886 – 10 March 1948) was a Czech diplomat and politician and Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1940 to 1948. American journalist John Gunther described Masaryk as "a brave, honest, turbulent, and impulsive man"

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  • 15. 

    How many Berliners were cut off by Stalin's blockade?

    • A.

      500,000

    • B.

      1,000,000

    • C.

      2,000,000

    • D.

      4,000,000

    Correct Answer
    C. 2,000,000
    Explanation
    The Berlin Blockade was an attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the ability of France, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany. Eventually, the western powers instituted an airlift that lasted nearly a year and delivered much-needed supplies and relief to West Berlin. Coming just three years after the end of World War II, the blockade was the first major clash of the Cold War and foreshadowed future conflict over the city of Berlin.

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  • 16. 

    Which divide and conquer tactics were used in Europe to promote Communist states?

    • A.

      Pepperoni

    • B.

      Salami

    • C.

      Beef jerky

    • D.

      Pastrami

    Correct Answer
    B. Salami
    Explanation
    Salami tactics, also known as the salami-slice strategy, is a divide and conquer process of threats and alliances used to overcome opposition. With it, an aggressor can influence and eventually dominate a landscape, typically political, piece by piece. In this fashion, the opposition is eliminated "slice by slice" until one realizes (too late) that it is gone in its entirety. In some cases it includes the creation of several factions within the opposing political party and then dismantling that party from the inside, without causing the "sliced" sides to protest. Salami tactics are most likely to succeed when the perpetrators keep their true long-term motives hidden and maintain a posture of cooperativeness and helpfulness while engaged in the intended gradual subversion.

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  • 17. 

    Write down the phrase which describes a war in the Cold War in which the USA and USSR are not combating one another directly with troops. 

    Correct Answer
    Proxy war, proxy, a proxy war
    Explanation
    A proxy war is a conflict between two states or non-state actors where neither entity directly engages the other. While this can encompass a breadth of armed confrontation, its core definition hinges on two separate powers utilizing external strife to somehow attack the interests or territorial holdings of the other. This frequently involves both countries fighting their opponent's allies, or assisting their allies in fighting their opponent.

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  • 18. 

    30,000 Americans died during the Korean War. Who were they fighting for? 

    • A.

      ASEAN

    • B.

      USA

    • C.

      UNO

    • D.

      NATO

    Correct Answer
    C. UNO
    Explanation
    The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states.

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  • 19. 

    What is the opposite of a Cold War? 

    • A.

      A warm war

    • B.

      A tepid war

    • C.

      An ice war

    • D.

      A hot war

    Correct Answer
    D. A hot war
    Explanation
    A war with active military hostilities. Not to be confused with a military 'crisis' in IB terms!

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  • 20. 

    Which Senator led US scaremongering in the Red Scare? 

    • A.

      Joe Mccarthy

    • B.

      Barack Obama

    • C.

      Bernie Sanders

    • D.

      Henry Cabot Lodge

    Correct Answer
    A. Joe Mccarthy
    Explanation
    A "Red Scare" is the promotion by a state or society of widespread fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism. In the United States, the First Red Scare, which occurred immediately after World War I, revolved around a perceived threat from the American labor movement, anarchist revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare, which occurred immediately after World War II, was preoccupied with perceived national or foreign communists infiltrating or subverting U.S. society or the federal government.

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  • 21. 

    Where were the Reds metaphorically hiding during the Red Scare?

    • A.

      In the loft

    • B.

      Behind the sofa

    • C.

      Under the bed

    • D.

      On the doormat

    Correct Answer
    C. Under the bed
    Explanation
    America in this period is in the grip of anti-Communism. A US Senator called Joseph McCarthy is especially anti-Communist and launches a series of ‘witch hunts’ against ‘Communists’ in America which lead Charlie Chaplin, being expelled from the USA. One expression used to describe these ‘witch hunts’ at the time was ‘Reds under the bed’. Another was the ‘Red scare’. Many innocent people were maltreated in this episode in US history.

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  • 22. 

    What was the name given to the theory that if one south-east Asian nation fell to Communism more would follow?

    • A.

      The Domino Theory

    • B.

      The Jenga Theory

    • C.

      The Darts Theory

    • D.

      The Backgammon Theory

    Correct Answer
    A. The Domino Theory
    Explanation
    Mao Tse-Tung took power in China in 1949 and the country (which the USA had previously pumped $2 billion into during its Civil War) and which was regarded as the USA’s mainstay in Asia became Communist once the nationalist Chiang Kai-Shek was forced to flee to Taiwan. Truman (who is in office until 1952) was worried about countries in south-east Asia, such as Malaya (not called Malaysia yet), Thailand, Burma, the Philippines, Korea, and Indonesia turning red. The idea was that if one fell they might all fall … like dominoes. As such this became known as Truman’s domino theory.

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  • 23. 

    What did Moscow-based American George Kennan write which dictated Truman’s foreign policy? 

    • A.

      The Vast Document

    • B.

      The Sizeable Script

    • C.

      The Lengthy Script

    • D.

      The Long Telegram

    Correct Answer
    D. The Long Telegram
    Explanation
    George Kennan, Truman’s man in Moscow, sent a famous memo called The Long Telegram to Truman outlining the dangers of Communism (especially now that Cominform had been formed in 1947). This greatly dictated Truman’s attitude to Communism (remember he didn’t like it much from the beginning – think Potsdam in 1945, Marshall Aid in 1947, and the Berlin Blockade in 1949). So when South Korea was invaded by Communists from the North in 1950 his mind was made up to support the South ruled by Syngmann Rhee against the North ruled by Kim Il Sung.

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  • 24. 

    How many people died in the Korean War? (estimate)

    • A.

      500,000

    • B.

      1 million

    • C.

      2.5 million

    • D.

      5 million

    Correct Answer
    C. 2.5 million
    Explanation
    The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance.

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  • 25. 

    And how many of these casualties were Korean?

    • A.

      250,000

    • B.

      1 million

    • C.

      1.5 million

    • D.

      2.49 million

    Correct Answer
    D. 2.49 million
    Explanation
    In contrast according to the data from the U.S. Department of Defense, the United States suffered 33,686 battle deaths, along with 2,830 non-battle deaths, during the Korean War

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  • 26. 

    Where did Macarthur land to launch his counter-offensive in the Korean War?

    • A.

      Seoul

    • B.

      Incheon

    • C.

      Pusan

    • D.

      Daegu

    Correct Answer
    B. Incheon
    Explanation
    Against the rested and re-armed Pusan Perimeter defenders and their reinforcements, the KPA were undermanned and poorly supplied; unlike the UN Command, they lacked naval and air support. To relieve the Pusan Perimeter, General MacArthur recommended an amphibious landing at Incheon, near Seoul and well over 100 miles (160 km) behind the KPA lines. On 6 July, he ordered Major General Hobart R. Gay, Commander, 1st Cavalry Division, to plan the division's amphibious landing at Incheon; on 12–14 July, the 1st Cavalry Division embarked from Yokohama, Japan, to reinforce the 24th Infantry Division inside the Pusan Perimeter.

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  • 27. 

    The Chinese Pioneer Army landed 200,000 soldiers in Korea to halt US rollback. What were their tactics known as? 

    • A.

      Cheeseboard tactics

    • B.

      Soup and bread roll tactics

    • C.

      Tea and biscuits tactics

    • D.

      Meat grinder tactics

    Correct Answer
    D. Meat grinder tactics
    Explanation
    On 20 August 1950, Premier Zhou Enlai informed the UN that "Korea is China's neighbor ... The Chinese people cannot but be concerned about a solution of the Korean question".

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  • 28. 

    When did the Korean War officially end?

    • A.

      July 27th 1953

    • B.

      June 25th 1950

    • C.

      18th January 1978

    • D.

      It didn't

    Correct Answer
    D. It didn't
    Explanation
    The on-again, off-again armistice negotiations continued for two years, first at Kaesong, on the border between North and South Korea, and then at the neighboring village of Panmunjom. A major, problematic negotiation point was prisoner of war (POW) repatriation. The PVA, KPA, and UN Command could not agree on a system of repatriation because many PVA and KPA soldiers refused to be repatriated back to the north, which was unacceptable to the Chinese and North Koreans. In the final armistice agreement, signed on 27 July 1953, a Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, under the chairman Indian General K. S. Thimayya, was set up to handle the matter. The war has not officially ended however.

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  • 29. 

    What is MAD? 

    • A.

      Magnificent Air Drop

    • B.

      Massively Aggressive Diplomacy

    • C.

      Mutually Assured Destruction

    • D.

      Mostly Angry Dictators

    Correct Answer
    C. Mutually Assured Destruction
    Explanation
    Truman stopped short of rolling back Communism in North Korea and China (MacArthur’s wish) because of what was known appropriately as MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction).

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  • 30. 

    Where might you have witnessed tanks engaging in daily 'brinkmanship'?

    • A.

      Checkpoint Charlie

    • B.

      Checkpoint Harry

    • C.

      Checkpoint Bobby

    • D.

      Checkpoint Lindsey

    Correct Answer
    A. Checkpoint Charlie
    Explanation
    Checkpoint Charlie (or "Checkpoint C") was the name given by the Western Allies to the best-known Berlin Wall crossing point between East Berlin and West Berlin during the Cold War (1947–1991). East German leader Walter Ulbricht agitated and maneuvered to get the Soviet Union's permission to construct the Berlin Wall in 1961 to stop Eastern Bloc emigration and defection westward through the Soviet border system, preventing escape across the city sector border from communist East Berlin into West Berlin. Checkpoint Charlie became a symbol of the Cold War, representing the separation of East and West. Soviet and American tanks briefly faced each other at the location during the Berlin Crisis of 1961.

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  • 31. 

    How far in miles is Cuba from Florida? 

    • A.

      9

    • B.

      90

    • C.

      900

    • D.

      9,000

    Correct Answer
    B. 90
    Explanation
    The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis (Spanish: Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Карибский кризис, tr. Karibskij krizis), or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.

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  • 32. 

    What percentage of its total exports were sugar prior to the revolution? 

    • A.

      50

    • B.

      80

    • C.

      67

    • D.

      32

    Correct Answer
    B. 80
    Explanation
    When Kennedy ran for president in 1960, one of his key election issues was an alleged "missile gap" with the Soviets leading. In fact, the U.S. led the Soviets by a wide margin that would only increase. In 1961, the Soviets had only four intercontinental ballistic missiles (R-7 Semyorka). By October 1962, they may have had a few dozen, with some intelligence estimates as high as 75. The U.S., on the other hand, had 170 ICBMs and was quickly building more. It also had eight George Washington– and Ethan Allen–class ballistic missile submarines with the capability to launch 16 Polaris missiles each, with a range of 1,500 nautical miles (2,800 km).

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  • 33. 

    Which dictator ruled Cuba before the revolution and was propped up by the US government? 

    • A.

      Josip Tito

    • B.

      Syngman Rhee

    • C.

      Fulgencio Batista

    • D.

      Quang Duc

    Correct Answer
    C. Fulgencio Batista
    Explanation
    Fulgencio Batista Zaldívar was the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and U.S.-backed dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution. Fulgencio Batista initially rose to power as part of the 1933 Revolt of the Sergeants that overthrew the authoritarian rule of Gerardo Machado. He then appointed himself chief of the armed forces, with the rank of colonel, and effectively controlled the five-member Presidency. He maintained this control through a string of puppet presidents until 1940, when he was himself elected President of Cuba on a populist platform. He then instated the 1940 Constitution of Cuba, considered progressive for its time,[4] and served until 1944. After finishing his term he lived in Florida, returning to Cuba to run for president in 1952. Facing certain electoral defeat, he led a military coup that preempted the election.

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  • 34. 

    Which revolutionary (pictured) led the Cuban Revolution? 

    • A.

      Fidel Castro

    • B.

      Infidel Castro

    • C.

      Fido Castro

    • D.

      Fiddle Castro

    Correct Answer
    A. Fidel Castro
    Explanation
    Cuba is a large island near Florida in the southern USA. It had long been an American ally and its large sugar exports (amounting to 80% of its total exports) were sold mostly to the USA. Since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 the US had a policy known as ‘the big stick’ policy which basically gave itself the right to interfere with places on its doorstep in South and Latin America, like Cuba. Lots of Americans holidayed there and there was a huge naval base there.

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  • 35. 

    Who helped Castro toppled Batista in Cuba in 1959 (pictured)? 

    • A.

      Shane Warne

    • B.

      Jay Z

    • C.

      Shay GIven

    • D.

      Che Guevera

    Correct Answer
    D. Che Guevera
    Explanation
    Like South Korea’s Syngmann Rhee and Vietnam's Ngo Dinh Diem the nation was ruled by an undemocratic dictator with the support of the USA. His name was Fulgencio Batista and he was toppled in Castro's revolution.

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  • 36. 

    Where was the US allowed to maintain a naval base near Cuba?

    • A.

      The Orkneys

    • B.

      Guantanamo Bay

    • C.

      The Falkland Isles

    • D.

      The Carolines

    Correct Answer
    B. Guantanamo Bay
    Explanation
    The US were not pleased. Castro took over US businesses in Cuba such as a large fruit company and started accepting arms from the USSR. After two years in which Cuba allowed the US to keep its naval base in January 1961 the US broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba. It had decided it was not prepared to accept a Soviet satellite state like those in Eastern Europe on its own door step or in its own sphere of influence.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following was NOT a way the CIA had tried to kill the leader of Communist Cuba?

    • A.

      Hiring an ex lover to shoot him in his sleep

    • B.

      Sending him exploding cigars

    • C.

      Putting poison in his scuba diving outfit

    • D.

      Encouraging him to take part in the annual Havana Banana Skin 10K Run

    Correct Answer
    D. Encouraging him to take part in the annual Havana Banana Skin 10K Run
    Explanation
    JFK said there was “no worse country in the world”. In April 1961 JFK supplied arms, equipment and transport for 1400 anti-Castro rebels. This was the famous Bay of Pigs invasion. They were met by 20,000 Castro troops armed with tanks and modern weapons and were slaughtered. JFK looked weak, unsuccessful, and had given off a big hint that he wasn’t prepared to get directly involved in Cuba.

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  • 38. 

    On 14th October 1962 what took photos of 158 Soviet missiles in Cuba? 

    • A.

      Pink

    • B.

      U2

    • C.

      Taylor Swift

    • D.

      Bruno Mars

    Correct Answer
    B. U2
    Explanation
    On Sunday 14th October 1962 an American U2 spy plane flew over Cuba. It took photographs of nuclear missiles. 20 Soviet ships were on their way to Cuba carrying further missiles. JFK’s brother, Robert Kennedy, stated in his book “within a few minutes of them being fired 80 million Americans would be dead”.

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  • 39. 

    Who said 80 million Americans were within firing range of Cuban missiles? 

    • A.

      Bubba Kennedy

    • B.

      Bobby Kennedy

    • C.

      Bobbo Kennedy

    • D.

      Blobby Kennedy

    Correct Answer
    B. Bobby Kennedy
    Explanation
    Cuba boasted 5000 Soviet technicians as well as missiles, patrol boats, tanks, radar vans, missile erectors, jet bombers, and jet fighters.

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  • 40. 

    What might you do with an ICBM?

    • A.

      Eat it

    • B.

      Play with it

    • C.

      Fire it

    • D.

      Discuss it

    Correct Answer
    C. Fire it
    Explanation
    An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres (3,400 miles) primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).

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  • 41. 

    One of Khruschev's demands during the Cuban Missile Crisis in his letters to JFK were the removal of 15 _________________ missiles which were based on Russia's doorstep in Turkey.

    • A.

      Uranus

    • B.

      Mars

    • C.

      Jupiter

    • D.

      Saturn

    Correct Answer
    C. Jupiter
    Explanation
    In the immediate post-war era, the US and USSR both started rocket research programs based on the German wartime designs, especially the V-2. In the US, each branch of the military started its own programs, leading to considerable duplication of effort. In the USSR, rocket research was centrally organized, although several teams worked on different designs. Early designs from both countries were short-range missiles, like the V-2, but improvements quickly followed.

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  • 42. 

    What 12 man body did JFK establish during the Cuban Missile Crisis to advise him?

    • A.

      Cobra

    • B.

      Delta Force

    • C.

      Ex Comm

    • D.

      Strike Force

    Correct Answer
    C. Ex Comm
    Explanation
    The Executive Committee of the National Security Council (commonly referred to as simply the Executive Committee or ExComm) was a body of United States government officials that convened to advise President John F. Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. It was composed of the regular members of the National Security Council, along with other men whose advice the President deemed useful during the crisis. EXCOMM was formally established by National Security Action Memorandum 196 on October 22, 1962. It was made up of twelve full members in addition to the president. Advisers frequently sat in on the meetings, which were held in the Cabinet Room of the White House's West Wing and secretly recorded by tape machines activated by Kennedy. None of the other committee members knew the meetings were being recorded, save for possibly the president's brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy

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  • 43. 

    How high on its DEFCON scale did the US go during the Cuban Missile Crisis?

    • A.

      DEFCON 0

    • B.

      DEFCON 1

    • C.

      DEFCON 2

    • D.

      DEFCON 3

    Correct Answer
    D. DEFCON 3
    Explanation
    During the Cuban Missile Crisis on October 22, 1962, the U.S. Armed Forces (with the exception of United States Army Europe (USAREUR) were ordered to DEFCON 3. On October 24, Strategic Air Command (SAC) was ordered to DEFCON 2, while the rest of the U.S. Armed Forces remained at DEFCON 3. SAC remained at DEFCON 2 until November 15.

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  • 44. 

    A hotline between the Whitehouse and the Kremlin was introduced as a result of the crisis and many see this crisis as the start of the thawing of the Cold War because both sides realised just how close to MAD they were. What is this process sometimes known as?

    • A.

      The Blast From the Past

    • B.

      The End Is Nigh

    • C.

      The Thaw of War

    • D.

      The Long Peace

    Correct Answer
    D. The Long Peace
    Explanation
    This is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and the Russian Federation. This hotline was established in 1963 and links the Pentagon with the Kremlin (historically, with Soviet Communist Party leadership across the square from the Kremlin itself). Although in popular culture known as the "red telephone", the hotline was never a telephone line, and no red phones were used. The first implementation used Teletype equipment, and shifted to fax machines in 1986. Since 2008, the Moscow–Washington hotline is a secure computer link over which messages are exchanged by email.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following nations had Vietnam NOT fought in the Twentieth Century?

    • A.

      Japan

    • B.

      France

    • C.

      USA

    • D.

      Malaysia

    Correct Answer
    D. Malaysia
    Explanation
    Japan took control of Vietnam and a group of Communists under the leadership of an exceptional leader called Ho Chi Minh fought against them.

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  • 46. 

    What was Vietnam known as previously? 

    • A.

      Temasek

    • B.

      Cathay

    • C.

      Formosa

    • D.

      Indochina

    Correct Answer
    D. Indochina
    Explanation
    Since the late Nineteenth Century Vietnam had been ruled by France and was known as Indochina.

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  • 47. 

    Vietcong leader Ho Chi Minh was once a teacher.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In 1930 he founded the Indochinese Communist Party. Having fought off the Japanese he now turned his attention against French rule. In 1945 he entered Hanoi in the North and declared independence. At first he kept his Communism quiet and had some sympathy from the USA. In 1949 China started giving him help though and this changed US attitudes.

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  • 48. 

    3000 French were routed in a major victory for Ho Chi Minh. Where? 

    • A.

      Saigon

    • B.

      Dien Bien Phu

    • C.

      Hanoi

    • D.

      Danang

    Correct Answer
    B. Dien Bien Phu
    Explanation
    The USA poured in $500 million per year to help the French but to no avail. There were 90,000 French casualties and 3,000 died in a comprehensive defeat at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. A small Asian nation had beaten a large European power.

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  • 49. 

    At which conference in 1954 was Vietnam divided unto North and South until free elections could be held? 

    • A.

      Geneva

    • B.

      Beijing

    • C.

      London

    • D.

      Singapore

    Correct Answer
    A. Geneva
    Explanation
    At the 1954 Geneva Peace Conference the country was divided at the 17th Parallel into North and South Vietnam until elections could be held. The US refused however to allow the free elections promised in the Peace Conference to take place because they feared the Communists would win easily (it was estimated they would win 80% of the public vote).

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  • 50. 

    Who was Eisenhower’s staunchly anti-Communist foreign policy advisor? 

    • A.

      Robert McNamara

    • B.

      John Foster Dulles

    • C.

      Bobby Kennedy

    • D.

      Colin Powell

    Correct Answer
    B. John Foster Dulles
    Explanation
    The fighting in the Vietnam War was often brutal on both sides. American technology and firepower were totally superior but as time wore on it became clear that the USA needed more than technology to win this war. Vietnam was a failure for containment as a policy.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 03, 2017
    Quiz Created by
    Daniel Guiney
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