Test 1 Advanced Contingency Management

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Exam 1 in EDX 8103, Advanced Contingency Management. You may use any of the resources you have available.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The focus of the behavioral approach is:

    • A.

      Observing and predicting

    • B.

      Facilitating behavior change

    • C.

      Recording and verifying aberrant behaviors

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because the behavioral approach encompasses all three aspects mentioned in the options. It focuses on observing and predicting behavior by studying its antecedents and consequences. It also aims to facilitate behavior change by using various techniques such as reinforcement and punishment. Additionally, the behavioral approach involves recording and verifying aberrant behaviors to understand their causes and develop interventions. Therefore, all three options are valid components of the behavioral approach.

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  • 2. 

    A relationship among events in which the rate of a behavior's occurrence increases when some environmental condition is removed is:

    • A.

      Differential reinforcement

    • B.

      Reinforcement

    • C.

      Positive reinforcement

    • D.

      Negative reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    D. Negative reinforcement
    Explanation
    Negative reinforcement is a type of operant conditioning in which the occurrence of a behavior increases when a negative or aversive stimulus is removed or avoided. In this case, the behavior's rate of occurrence increases when an environmental condition is removed. This suggests that the behavior is being reinforced by the removal of the aversive stimulus, leading to an increase in the behavior's frequency. This is consistent with the concept of negative reinforcement.

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  • 3. 

    Behaviorists are LEAST concerned with the following:

    • A.

      Functional relation

    • B.

      Observable behaviors

    • C.

      Present events

    • D.

      Past events

    Correct Answer
    D. Past events
    Explanation
    Behaviorists focus on studying observable behaviors and the functional relation between behaviors and present events. They believe that past events, such as a person's history or experiences, do not play a significant role in determining behavior. Instead, behaviorists believe that behavior is shaped by the current environment and the consequences of those behaviors. Therefore, they are least concerned with past events when studying behavior.

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  • 4. 

    Who is associated or responsible for the use of the term “behaviorism?”

    • A.

      Skinner

    • B.

      Watson

    • C.

      Darwin

    • D.

      Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    B. Watson
    Explanation
    Watson is associated or responsible for the use of the term "behaviorism." Behaviorism is a psychological approach that focuses on observable behaviors and their relationship to stimuli in the environment. Watson was a prominent psychologist who championed behaviorism and popularized it in the early 20th century. He believed that behavior could be studied scientifically and that all behavior could be explained by conditioning and environmental factors. His work laid the foundation for the development of behaviorism as a major school of thought in psychology.

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  • 5. 

       John was scheduled to take a spelling test each Friday. His mother told him if he received 90% correct or better for three out of four spelling test he would get to buy a new video game. His mother was employing which of the following behavioral techniques?

    • A.

      Punishment

    • B.

      Negative punishment

    • C.

      Shaping

    • D.

      Positive reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    D. Positive reinforcement
    Explanation
    John's mother is employing positive reinforcement because she is offering a reward (buying a new video game) to encourage and increase the behavior of receiving 90% correct or better on the spelling tests. Positive reinforcement involves providing a desirable stimulus to reinforce a behavior and increase the likelihood of it occurring again in the future. In this case, the video game serves as the desirable stimulus that reinforces John's performance on the spelling tests.

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  • 6. 

            Ms. Sims was having difficulty getting Tia to sit during morning circle. She decided that she would reinforce Tia’s attempts to sit during circle time. She began by reinforcing Tia when she was standing next to her chair, then when she had one knee on her chair. She continued this process until Tia remained seated during morning circle time. Ms. Sims employed which the following behavioral techniques?

    • A.

      Modeling

    • B.

      Shaping

    • C.

      Positive reinforcement

    • D.

      Negative reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    B. Shaping
    Explanation
    In this scenario, Ms. Sims is using the technique of shaping. Shaping is a behavioral technique where a desired behavior is gradually achieved by reinforcing successive approximations of that behavior. In this case, Ms. Sims is reinforcing Tia's attempts to sit during morning circle time, starting with reinforcing when Tia is standing next to her chair, then reinforcing when she has one knee on her chair, and continuing this process until Tia remains seated during the entire circle time. This gradual reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior is a characteristic of shaping.

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  • 7. 

    Pairing stimuli so that an unconditioned stimulus elicits a response is known as all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Pavlovian

    • B.

      Classical

    • C.

      Respondent conditioning

    • D.

      Shaping

    Correct Answer
    D. Shaping
    Explanation
    Shaping is not the correct term for pairing stimuli so that an unconditioned stimulus elicits a response. Shaping refers to the process of gradually reinforcing behaviors that are closer and closer to the desired behavior. In contrast, Pavlovian, classical, and respondent conditioning all refer to the process of pairing stimuli to elicit a response.

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  • 8. 

    Which is NOT a contributor to the behavioral viewpoint

    • A.

      Functionalism

    • B.

      Naturalism

    • C.

      Animal psychology

    • D.

      Positivism

    Correct Answer
    B. Naturalism
    Explanation
    Naturalism is not a contributor to the behavioral viewpoint because it focuses on the belief that human behavior is determined by biological factors and instincts, rather than external stimuli and environmental influences. The behavioral viewpoint, on the other hand, emphasizes the role of external factors and environmental conditions in shaping behavior. Therefore, naturalism does not align with the principles and perspectives of the behavioral viewpoint.

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  • 9. 

    "Jack can't learn because he has Down syndrome" is an example of what explanation of behavior?

    • A.

      Biophysical explanation

    • B.

      Developmental explanation

    • C.

      Cognitive explanation

    • D.

      Behavioral explanation

    Correct Answer
    A. Biophysical explanation
    Explanation
    The statement "Jack can't learn because he has Down syndrome" is an example of a biophysical explanation of behavior. This explanation attributes Jack's inability to learn to a physical condition, namely Down syndrome, which affects his cognitive abilities. Biophysical explanations focus on the biological factors that influence behavior, such as genetics, brain structure, or physiological conditions. In this case, the explanation suggests that Jack's Down syndrome, which is a genetic disorder, is the primary cause of his learning difficulties.

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  • 10. 

    Target behavior must be included in behavioral objectives because:

    • A.

      The precise definition of the behavior facilitates continuity of instruction

    • B.

      The statement allows our confirmation that a change has actually occurred

    • C.

      A and b

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A and b
    Explanation
    Including the target behavior in behavioral objectives is important because it helps in ensuring continuity of instruction. By providing a precise definition of the behavior, educators can ensure that the instruction remains consistent and focused on the desired outcome. Additionally, including the target behavior allows for confirmation that a change has actually occurred. This enables educators to assess whether the intended behavior has been achieved and if the instructional methods have been effective. Therefore, both options a and b are correct.

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  • 11. 

    Which component is missing from the following objective? "Jason will fill the ice cube tray independently during 4 out of 5 sessions."

    • A.

      Learner

    • B.

      Target behavior

    • C.

      Condition

    • D.

      Criteria for acceptable performance

    Correct Answer
    C. Condition
    Explanation
    The missing component from the objective is "Condition". The objective states that Jason will fill the ice cube tray independently during 4 out of 5 sessions, but it does not mention any specific condition under which this will occur. The condition could refer to any specific circumstances or environment in which Jason is expected to perform the behavior. Without a condition, the objective lacks clarity and specificity.

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  • 12. 

    Behavioral objectives are

    • A.

      Statements of actual instructional intent

    • B.

      Statements of annual program intent

    • C.

      Usually 3 to 4 months long

    • D.

      The length of the grading period for students with mild disabilities

    Correct Answer
    B. Statements of annual program intent
    Explanation
    Behavioral objectives are statements that outline the intended outcomes or goals of an educational program or curriculum for a specific period of time, typically a year. These objectives provide a clear focus and direction for instruction, allowing educators to plan and design appropriate learning activities and assessments. By stating the annual program intent, behavioral objectives help ensure that all students receive a comprehensive education that aligns with the overall goals and objectives of the program.

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  • 13. 

    "Point to the correct answer" is an example of which component of a behavioral objective?

    • A.

      Target behavior

    • B.

      Learner

    • C.

      Conditions

    • D.

      Criteria for acceptable performance

    Correct Answer
    A. Target behavior
    Explanation
    In this question, "Point to the correct answer" is an example of the target behavior component of a behavioral objective. The target behavior refers to the specific action or skill that the learner is expected to demonstrate. In this case, the target behavior is pointing to the correct answer. The other options, such as learner, conditions, and criteria for acceptable performance, are not applicable in this context.

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  • 14. 

    When selecting a criterion for mastery, the teacher should consider:

    • A.

      Nature of the content

    • B.

      Ability of the student

    • C.

      Numbers of learning opportunities to be provided

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    When selecting a criterion for mastery, the teacher should consider the nature of the content, the ability of the student, and the number of learning opportunities to be provided. The nature of the content refers to the complexity and difficulty level of the subject matter, which can vary greatly and impact the mastery criteria. The ability of the student is important to consider as it determines their readiness and capacity to achieve mastery. Lastly, the number of learning opportunities provided is crucial as it affects the amount of practice and exposure the student has to the content, which can influence their ability to achieve mastery.

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  • 15. 

    A behavioral intervention plan includes:

    • A.

      Operation definition of the target behavior

    • B.

      Intervention strategies

    • C.

      Results of the functional assessment

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    A behavioral intervention plan includes all of the above because it is a comprehensive plan that addresses various aspects of behavior modification. The operation definition of the target behavior is necessary to clearly define the behavior that needs to be changed. Intervention strategies outline the specific techniques and approaches that will be used to modify the behavior. Lastly, the results of the functional assessment provide valuable information about the underlying causes and triggers of the behavior, which helps in developing effective intervention strategies.

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  • 16. 

    All of the following are reasons for identifying the traget behavior in the behavioral objective EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Consistency in behavioral observation

    • B.

      Required by law

    • C.

      Facilitates continuity of instruction

    • D.

      Confirmation by a third party

    Correct Answer
    B. Required by law
    Explanation
    Identifying the target behavior in a behavioral objective is important for several reasons, including consistency in behavioral observation, facilitating continuity of instruction, and confirmation by a third party. However, the reason "required by law" is not a valid explanation for identifying the target behavior. The law may require certain behaviors to be addressed or monitored, but it does not specifically dictate the need to identify the target behavior in a behavioral objective.

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  • 17. 

    Mike's job coach was concerned with his production on the job site. Mike had mastered the assembly skills but was having difficulty keeping up with the competitive  job production of his coworkers. Mike's job coach should work on which of the following?

    • A.

      Acquisition

    • B.

      Fluency

    • C.

      Generalization

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Fluency
    Explanation
    The job coach should work on fluency. Fluency refers to the ability to perform a task quickly and efficiently. In this case, Mike has mastered the assembly skills but is struggling to keep up with his coworkers in terms of productivity. By working on fluency, the job coach can help Mike improve his speed and efficiency in completing tasks, allowing him to keep up with his coworkers' production levels.

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  • 18. 

    During the third grade, John learned his multiplication facts. Upon returning to school after the summer break, his fourth grade teacher tested his ability to recite his multiplication facts. John's fourth grade teachers was assessing which skill level?

    • A.

      Maintenance

    • B.

      Generalization

    • C.

      Fluency

    • D.

      Over learning

    Correct Answer
    A. Maintenance
    Explanation
    The fourth grade teacher was assessing John's maintenance of his multiplication facts. Maintenance refers to the ability to retain and remember previously learned information over time. In this case, the teacher wanted to see if John still remembered his multiplication facts after the summer break.

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  • 19. 

    To provide the broadest possible description of events occurring within a time period one would use:

    • A.

      Anecdotal recording

    • B.

      Observational recording

    • C.

      Permanent product recording

    • D.

      Topography recording

    Correct Answer
    B. Observational recording
    Explanation
    Observational recording would be the most suitable method for providing the broadest possible description of events occurring within a time period. This method involves directly observing and recording the behaviors and actions of individuals or events without any interference or manipulation. It allows for a comprehensive and unbiased account of what is happening, capturing a wide range of behaviors, interactions, and contextual information. Other methods like anecdotal recording, permanent product recording, and topography recording may focus on specific aspects or outcomes, but observational recording provides a holistic view of the events taking place.

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  • 20. 

    Jessie is learning traffic signs in driver's education. His teacher holds up the sign and immediately records if Jessie names it correctly. This type of data collection is known as:

    • A.

      Event recording

    • B.

      Time sampling

    • C.

      Latency recording

    • D.

      Permanent product recording

    Correct Answer
    A. Event recording
    Explanation
    Event recording is a type of data collection where the occurrence of a specific behavior or event is recorded as it happens. In this scenario, Jessie's teacher records whether he names the traffic sign correctly or not immediately after the sign is held up. This method allows for accurate and real-time documentation of Jessie's performance in identifying the traffic signs.

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  • 21. 

    Mrs. Golden wanted to collect baseline data on how often Lauren speaks to her neighbor during silent reading. She divided the 15 minutes into equal 30-second intervals and made a notion of Lauren's talking during each. The method of data collection she used was:

    • A.

      Event recording

    • B.

      Time sampling

    • C.

      Interval recording

    • D.

      Anecdotal recording

    Correct Answer
    C. Interval recording
    Explanation
    Mrs. Golden used interval recording as a method of data collection. Interval recording involves dividing the observation period into equal time intervals and noting whether the behavior of interest occurs or not within each interval. In this case, Mrs. Golden divided the 15-minute silent reading period into 30-second intervals and made a notation of whether Lauren was talking during each interval. This method allows for the collection of data on the frequency of the behavior within specific time intervals.

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  • 22. 

    At the end of each play period, Mr. Carey counted the number of toys that Mary, Louise, and Anita did not put back on the shelves. He was using:

    • A.

      Event recording

    • B.

      Interval recording

    • C.

      Time sampling

    • D.

      Permanent product recording

    Correct Answer
    D. Permanent product recording
    Explanation
    Permanent product recording involves recording the outcome or end result of a behavior rather than directly observing the behavior itself. In this case, Mr. Carey is counting the number of toys that the children did not put back on the shelves, which is a measure of the end result or permanent product of their behavior. This method is useful when direct observation of behavior is not feasible or practical.

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  • 23. 

    When determining __________________of a behavior, we count the number of times the behavior occurs within an observation period.

    • A.

      Frequency

    • B.

      Rate

    • C.

      Latency

    • D.

      Duration

    Correct Answer
    A. Frequency
    Explanation
    Frequency refers to the number of times a behavior occurs within a specific observation period. It is a measure of how often a behavior is exhibited. By counting the occurrences of a behavior, we can determine its frequency. This measure is useful in tracking and analyzing behavior patterns and can provide valuable insights into the frequency of certain behaviors.

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  • 24. 

    ____________________ is calculated by dividing the number of times a behavior occurred by the length of the observation period.

    • A.

      Frequency

    • B.

      Latency

    • C.

      Duration

    • D.

      Rate

    Correct Answer
    D. Rate
    Explanation
    Rate is calculated by dividing the number of times a behavior occurred by the length of the observation period. This measure allows us to determine the average frequency of the behavior over a given time period, taking into account the duration of the observation. It provides a standardized way of comparing behavior across different observation periods or individuals, as it takes into account both the occurrence of the behavior and the time in which it occurred.

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  • 25. 

    ___________________ is important when we are concerned not with the number of times a student engages in it, but how long.

    • A.

      Duration

    • B.

      Latency

    • C.

      Rate

    • D.

      Topography

    Correct Answer
    A. Duration
    Explanation
    Duration is important when we are concerned not with the number of times a student engages in it, but how long. Duration refers to the length of time that a behavior occurs. In this context, it is important to consider the duration of the behavior rather than the frequency or rate at which it occurs.

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  • 26. 

    The _______________ of behavior is its intensity.

    • A.

      Rate

    • B.

      Locus

    • C.

      Latency

    • D.

      Force

    Correct Answer
    D. Force
    Explanation
    The intensity of behavior refers to its force or strength. It indicates how strong or powerful the behavior is.

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  • 27. 

    The ____________ of behavior describes where it occurs.

    • A.

      Force

    • B.

      Locus

    • C.

      Latency

    • D.

      Topography

    Correct Answer
    B. Locus
    Explanation
    The term "locus" refers to the location or place where behavior occurs. It describes the specific setting or context in which an individual engages in a particular behavior. This can include physical locations such as a classroom or workplace, as well as social or environmental factors that influence behavior. Understanding the locus of behavior is important for analyzing and modifying behavior patterns in various contexts.

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  • 28. 

      Conversion to rate data is required when the teacher is concerned with          

    • A.

      Topography

    • B.

      Averaging performance scores

    • C.

      Both accuracy and speed

    • D.

      Percent of intervals

    Correct Answer
    C. Both accuracy and speed
    Explanation
    The conversion to rate data is necessary when the teacher wants to consider both accuracy and speed. This means that the teacher is interested in evaluating how well the students perform a task in terms of both their accuracy and the speed at which they complete it. By converting the data to rate data, the teacher can analyze and compare the students' performance based on both these factors.

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  • 29. 

    The following data can be reported on a graph as the number of percent of the total behavioral occurrence.

    • A.

      Interval and time sampling

    • B.

      Event

    • C.

      Permanent product

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above" because all of the mentioned data types - interval and time sampling, event, and permanent product - can be reported on a graph as the number of percent of the total behavioral occurrence.

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  • 30. 

    Miss Curry decides to decrease Rico's use of inappropriate langauge by requiring him to lose a behavior point for every inappropriate word he uses each day. Once implemented, she again gathers data on the number of times he uses inappropriate language in her class. This data condition is known as:

    • A.

      Intervention

    • B.

      Baseline

    • C.

      Event recording

    • D.

      Performance

    Correct Answer
    A. Intervention
    Explanation
    The given data condition is known as "Intervention" because Miss Curry has implemented a specific strategy (requiring Rico to lose a behavior point) to decrease his use of inappropriate language. This intervention is intended to modify Rico's behavior and improve his language use. The term "intervention" refers to the deliberate and planned actions taken to bring about a change or improvement in a targeted behavior or condition. In this case, the intervention is aimed at reducing the frequency of inappropriate language use.

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  • 31. 

    Mrs. Jakes wanted to address Murray's reading comprehension using a new instructional program. For baseline, she measured:

    • A.

      Murray's ability to read and understand new passages

    • B.

      Murray's current reading comprehension level using the instructional program already in place.

    • C.

      Murray's ability to understand material that is read to him.

    • D.

      Murray's reading comprehension using the new instructional program.

    Correct Answer
    B. Murray's current reading comprehension level using the instructional program already in place.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Murray's current reading comprehension level using the instructional program already in place. This is because Mrs. Jakes wanted to address Murray's reading comprehension using a new instructional program, so it is important to first understand Murray's current reading comprehension level with the current program in order to measure any improvement or changes with the new program.

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  • 32. 

    When constructing a graph, behavior is plotted along the:

    • A.

      X axis

    • B.

      Horizontal axis

    • C.

      Vertical axis

    • D.

      Abcissa

    Correct Answer
    C. Vertical axis
    Explanation
    In graph construction, behavior is typically plotted along the vertical axis. The vertical axis represents the dependent variable or the variable that is being measured or observed. It is usually used to represent the quantity or magnitude of the behavior being studied. The horizontal axis, on the other hand, represents the independent variable or the variable that is being manipulated or controlled. The abscissa refers to the x-axis in a graph. Therefore, the correct answer is the vertical axis.

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  • 33. 

    Event recording can be reported as all of the following except:

    • A.

      Percentage

    • B.

      Rate

    • C.

      Percent of intervals

    • D.

      Number

    Correct Answer
    C. Percent of intervals
    Explanation
    Event recording is a method used to measure the frequency or rate of a behavior by dividing the observation time into intervals. The percent of intervals is not a valid way to report event recording because it does not provide information about the actual number or rate of occurrences. Instead, it only indicates the proportion of intervals in which the behavior occurred, which may not accurately reflect the overall frequency or rate of the behavior. Therefore, percent of intervals is not a suitable reporting measure for event recording.

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  • 34. 

    A continuity break could be present of a graph for any of the following except:

    • A.

      Student was sick

    • B.

      Winter break

    • C.

      Student was not responding well during the instructional session

    • D.

      Teacher had a meeting

    Correct Answer
    C. Student was not responding well during the instructional session
    Explanation
    A continuity break refers to a disruption or gap in the flow of data or information in a graph. This break can occur due to various reasons such as a student being sick, a winter break, or a teacher having a meeting. However, the statement "student was not responding well during the instructional session" does not provide a valid reason for a continuity break in a graph. This suggests that this option is the exception and does not cause a disruption in the graph's continuity.

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  • 35. 

    An example of an independent variable is:

    • A.

      Numbers of minutes it takes to complete 20 math problems

    • B.

      Use of a number line for addition problems

    • C.

      How long it takes for a student to return from the bathroom

    • D.

      How often a student asks for teacher assistance

    Correct Answer
    B. Use of a number line for addition problems
    Explanation
    The use of a number line for addition problems can be considered an independent variable because it is a factor that can be manipulated or changed by the researcher. In an experiment, the researcher can control and vary the use of a number line to observe its effect on the outcome or dependent variable. The other options mentioned in the question are not independent variables as they are either dependent variables or not factors that can be manipulated by the researcher.

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  • 36. 

    A teacher measured Jane's out-of-seat behavior during reading, music, and math periods. The appropriate design for use in this instance was:

    • A.

      Multiple baseline design

    • B.

      Alternating treatments design

    • C.

      Reversal design

    • D.

      Changing criterion design

    Correct Answer
    A. Multiple baseline design
    Explanation
    The multiple baseline design would be the appropriate design to measure Jane's out-of-seat behavior during reading, music, and math periods. In this design, the behavior is measured across different settings or subjects, with the baseline phase for each setting or subject being established at different times. This allows for the examination of the effect of the independent variable (in this case, the different periods) on the dependent variable (Jane's out-of-seat behavior), while controlling for potential confounding variables. This design is particularly useful when it is not possible or ethical to withdraw the intervention or treatment.

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  • 37. 

    The single-subject design which allows comparison of more than one treatment or intervention is the:

    • A.

      Multiple baseline design

    • B.

      Reversal design

    • C.

      Alternating treatments design

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Alternating treatments design
    Explanation
    The alternating treatments design is a single-subject design that allows for the comparison of multiple treatments or interventions. In this design, different treatments are alternated systematically over time, allowing for direct comparisons of their effectiveness. This design is useful when it is not feasible or ethical to use a traditional experimental design with control and experimental groups. It allows for the evaluation of the effects of different interventions on the same individual, providing valuable information for treatment planning and decision-making.

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  • 38. 

    A reversal design has:

    • A.

      Two phases

    • B.

      Three phases

    • C.

      Four phases

    • D.

      Five phases

    Correct Answer
    C. Four phases
    Explanation
    A reversal design typically consists of four phases. This design is a type of single-subject experimental design used to evaluate the effects of an intervention or treatment. The four phases include a baseline phase, an intervention phase, a reversal phase, and a re-intervention phase. In the baseline phase, the participant's behavior is observed without any intervention. Then, in the intervention phase, the treatment is implemented. The reversal phase involves withdrawing the treatment to observe if the behavior returns to baseline levels. Finally, the re-intervention phase reintroduces the treatment to determine if the behavior changes again.

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  • 39. 

    David can currently read 12 sight words. The curriculum criterion states that he must be able to read 50 sight words. His teacher plans to systematically introduce 4 new sight words at a time as David masters each new set. David's teacher should employ a:

    • A.

      Multiple baseline design

    • B.

      ABAB design

    • C.

      Reversal design

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
  • 40. 

    ________________ refers to the researcher's efforts to ensure that changes in the dependent variable are directly related to manipulations of the independent variable.

    • A.

      Baseline

    • B.

      Experimental control

    • C.

      Repeated measurement

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Experimental control
    Explanation
    Experimental control refers to the researcher's efforts to ensure that changes in the dependent variable are directly related to manipulations of the independent variable. This involves carefully designing and conducting an experiment in a way that minimizes the influence of extraneous variables and confounding factors. By controlling for these variables, researchers can confidently attribute any observed changes in the dependent variable to the manipulation of the independent variable.

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  • 41. 

    Which is considered a common component of single-subject design?

    • A.

      Measurement of baseline performance

    • B.

      Measure of performance under an intervention condition

    • C.

      Replication of the use of the intervention within the design

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed are considered common components of single-subject design. Measurement of baseline performance is important to establish a starting point for comparison. Measurement of performance under an intervention condition allows for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention. Replication of the use of the intervention within the design ensures that the results are reliable and can be generalized. Therefore, all three components are necessary in single-subject design.

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  • 42. 

    Ana consistently increases the number of baskets she makes each game. If the number of baskets she made over the last seven games were plotted on a graph, a _________ trend would be evident.

    • A.

      Descending

    • B.

      Variable

    • C.

      Ascending

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Ascending
    Explanation
    If Ana consistently increases the number of baskets she makes each game, then when the number of baskets she made over the last seven games is plotted on a graph, an ascending trend would be evident. This means that the number of baskets she made would be increasing over time, indicating her improvement and consistent progress in making more baskets each game.

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  • 43. 

    The primary purpose of scatter-plot assessment is to:

    • A.

      Determine the cause of behaviors that occur in bursts

    • B.

      Present data in an easily readable format

    • C.

      Specifically identify potential controlling variables

    • D.

      Identify time-related patterns of behavior

    Correct Answer
    D. Identify time-related patterns of behavior
    Explanation
    The primary purpose of scatter-plot assessment is to identify time-related patterns of behavior. Scatter plots are graphical representations of data points, where each point represents a specific time and behavior. By plotting these points on a graph, patterns and trends in behavior over time can be easily identified and analyzed. This helps in understanding the relationship between time and behavior and allows for the identification of any consistent patterns or changes that may occur.

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  • 44. 

    When students escape from a task or environment by performing an inappropriate behavior, that behavior is likely to be maintained by:

    • A.

      Positive reinforcement

    • B.

      Negative reinforcement

    • C.

      Extinction

    • D.

      Punishment

    Correct Answer
    B. Negative reinforcement
    Explanation
    When students escape from a task or environment by performing an inappropriate behavior, that behavior is likely to be maintained by negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is strengthened by the removal or avoidance of an aversive stimulus. In this case, the inappropriate behavior allows the students to escape or avoid the task or environment they find unpleasant or challenging. By engaging in this behavior, they are reinforced by the relief or removal of the aversive stimulus, thus increasing the likelihood of repeating the behavior in the future.

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  • 45. 

    Teachers often miss the function of a behavior because they are preoccupied with a behavior's ________________.

    • A.

      Frequency

    • B.

      Topography

    • C.

      Latency

    • D.

      Rate

    Correct Answer
    B. Topography
    Explanation
    Teachers often miss the function of a behavior because they are preoccupied with the physical characteristics or form of the behavior, known as its topography. They may focus on how the behavior looks or sounds, rather than understanding the underlying reason or purpose behind the behavior. This can hinder their ability to effectively address and modify the behavior in a meaningful way. By solely focusing on the topography, teachers may overlook important factors such as the function or motivation behind the behavior, which is crucial for developing appropriate interventions and supports for students.

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  • 46. 

    A child who wants more juice interrupts her mother who is talking on the phone. As the child's interruptions become louder and more insistent, the mother abruptly ends her call and immediately attends to the child. More than liely, the next time the omother is on the phone and her child wants something...

    • A.

      The mother will ignore the child

    • B.

      The child will take care of her own needs because her mother taught her how to do so

    • C.

      The child will interrupt the mother

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The child will interrupt the mother
    Explanation
    The given scenario suggests that the mother has established a pattern of responding to the child's interruptions. Therefore, it is likely that the next time the mother is on the phone and the child wants something, the child will interrupt the mother again, as it has been successful in gaining the mother's attention in the past.

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  • 47. 

    Students frequently engage in inappropriate behaviors when

    • A.

      Their schedule is interrupted

    • B.

      They lack the ability to communicate effectively

    • C.

      They are disciplined

    • D.

      They are internally stimulated

    Correct Answer
    B. They lack the ability to communicate effectively
    Explanation
    When students lack the ability to communicate effectively, they may resort to inappropriate behaviors as a way to express their frustrations, needs, or emotions. Without the skills to effectively communicate their thoughts and feelings, they may act out in order to get attention or to convey their dissatisfaction. This can manifest as disruptive behavior, defiance, or aggression. By improving their communication skills, students can better express themselves and find more appropriate ways to address their concerns or seek assistance.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is not a condition examined during a functional analysis?

    • A.

      Attention

    • B.

      Sleep

    • C.

      Demand

    • D.

      Play

    Correct Answer
    B. Sleep
    Explanation
    During a functional analysis, various conditions are examined to determine the function of a behavior. Attention, demand, and play are all conditions that can be evaluated during a functional analysis. However, sleep is not typically considered as a condition in this context. Sleep is a separate physiological state and does not involve behavioral functions that are typically analyzed in a functional analysis.

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  • 49. 

    During A-B-C descriptive analysis, data should be collected for a minimum of

    • A.

      3 days

    • B.

      5 days

    • C.

      9 days

    • D.

      10 days

    Correct Answer
    B. 5 days
    Explanation
    During A-B-C descriptive analysis, data should be collected for a minimum of 5 days. This duration allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the behavior being analyzed. Collecting data for a shorter period may not capture enough variability and could lead to incomplete or inaccurate conclusions. On the other hand, collecting data for a longer period may be unnecessary and time-consuming. Therefore, 5 days is considered an appropriate minimum duration for collecting data during A-B-C descriptive analysis.

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  • 50. 

    Mr. Williams has noticed that students in his fourth period class have been exhibiting some inappropriate behaviors. Mr. Williams has attempted to correct the behavior using evidence based behavior management programs, but Joseph continues to exhibit the behaviors. Mr. Williams and the IEP committee have decided to develop a Behavior Support Plan for Joseph. What is the next step in developing a Behavior Support Plan?

    • A.

      Conduct a functional assessment

    • B.

      Screening

    • C.

      Conduct a functional analysis

    • D.

      Identify the target behavior

    Correct Answer
    D. Identify the target behavior
    Explanation
    The next step in developing a Behavior Support Plan is to identify the target behavior. This involves clearly defining the specific behavior that needs to be addressed in order to develop effective strategies and interventions. By identifying the target behavior, Mr. Williams and the IEP committee can gather more information and understanding about the behavior, which will then inform the development of the Behavior Support Plan. Conducting a functional assessment and analysis may come later in the process, but initially, identifying the target behavior is crucial.

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