# Statistical Description Of Data

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• 1.

### Which of the following statements is false?

• A.

Statistics is derived from the Latin word 'Status'

• B.

Statistics is derived from the Italian word 'Statista'

• C.

Statistics is derived from the French word 'Statistik'

• D.

None of these.

C. Statistics is derived from the French word 'Statistik'
Explanation
The given correct answer is "Statistics is derived from the French word 'Statistik'". However, this statement is false because statistics is not derived from the French word 'Statistik'. The word 'statistics' is actually derived from the Latin word 'Status', which means "state" or "status".

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• 2.

### Statistics is defined in terms of numerical data in the

• A.

Singular sense

• B.

Plural sense

• C.

Either (a) or (b)

• D.

Both (a) and (b)

B. Plural sense
Explanation
Statistics is defined in terms of numerical data in the plural sense because it involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of a large set of data. It deals with the study of data from a population or sample, and aims to provide insights and make inferences about the characteristics and patterns within the data. Therefore, statistics is concerned with multiple data points rather than just a single data point, hence the need for the plural sense.

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• 3.

### Statistics is applied in

• A.

Economics

• B.

• C.

Commerce and industry

• D.

All these

D. All these
Explanation
The correct answer is "All these". Statistics is applied in various fields, including economics, business management, commerce, and industry. In economics, statistics is used to analyze and interpret economic data, such as GDP, inflation rates, and employment figures. In business management, statistics is used to make informed decisions, analyze market trends, and evaluate performance. In commerce and industry, statistics is used for market research, quality control, and forecasting. Therefore, statistics is applicable in all of these fields.

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• 4.

### Statistics is concerned with

• A.

Qualitative information

• B.

Quantitative information

• C.

(a)or(b)

• D.

Both (a) and (b)

D. Both (a) and (b)
Explanation
Statistics is concerned with both qualitative and quantitative information. Qualitative information refers to non-numerical data that describes qualities or characteristics, such as opinions, preferences, or observations. Quantitative information, on the other hand, involves numerical data that can be measured or counted, such as quantities, amounts, or statistics. Statistics uses both types of information to analyze and interpret data, make predictions, and draw conclusions.

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• 5.

### An attribute is

• A.

A qualitative characteristic

• B.

A quantitative characteristic

• C.

A measurable characteristic

• D.

All these

A. A qualitative characteristic
Explanation
An attribute is a qualitative characteristic because it describes the quality or nature of something rather than its quantity or measurability.

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• 6.

### Annual income of a person is

• A.

An attribute

• B.

A discrete variable

• C.

A continuous variable

• D.

(b)or(c)

B. A discrete variable
Explanation
The annual income of a person can be considered a discrete variable because it can only take on specific, distinct values. It cannot be measured or divided into smaller units. For example, someone's annual income can be \$50,000, \$60,000, or \$70,000, but it cannot be \$55,000. Therefore, it falls into the category of a discrete variable.

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• 7.

### Marks of a student is an example of

• A.

An attribute

• B.

A discrete variable

• C.

A continuous variable

• D.

(b)or(c).

B. A discrete variable
Explanation
The marks of a student can be considered as a discrete variable because it is a countable and distinct value. Each mark is a separate and distinct value, and there is a finite or countable number of possible marks that a student can receive. It is not a continuous variable because there are no infinite or uncountable number of possible values for marks.

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• 8.

### Nationality of a student is

• A.

An attribute

• B.

A continuous variable

• C.

A discrete variable

• D.

(a)or(c).

A. An attribute
Explanation
Nationality of a student is considered as an attribute because it is a characteristic or quality that describes the student. It is not a continuous variable because it cannot be measured on a continuous scale, and it is not a discrete variable because it does not have distinct numerical values.

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• 9.

### Drinking habit of a person is

• A.

An attribute

• B.

A variable

• C.

A discrete variable

• D.

A continuous variable

A. An attribute
Explanation
The drinking habit of a person is considered an attribute because it is a characteristic or quality that describes the person. It is not a variable because it does not vary or change over time. It is also not a discrete or continuous variable because it cannot be measured or quantified in a numerical form. Instead, it is a qualitative characteristic that helps define and distinguish individuals.

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• 10.

### Age of a person is

• A.

An attribute

• B.

A discrete variable

• C.

A continuous variable

• D.

A variable

C. A continuous variable
Explanation
Age of a person is considered a continuous variable because it can take on any value within a certain range. Age is measured on a continuous scale, meaning it can have decimal values and can be infinitely divided into smaller units. For example, a person can be 25.5 years old or 25.75 years old. There is no distinct separation between different age values, making it a continuous variable.

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• 11.

### Data collected on religion from the census reports are

• A.

Primary data

• B.

Secondary data

• C.

Sample data

• D.

(a) or (b)

B. Secondary data
Explanation
The data collected on religion from the census reports is considered secondary data. This is because the census reports are already existing sources of information that have been collected by a third party (government or statistical agencies) for a different purpose. The data is not collected directly by the researcher for their specific study or research question.

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• 12.

### The data collected on the height of a group of students after recording their heights with a measuring tape are

• A.

Primary data

• B.

Secondary data

• C.

Discrete data

• D.

Continuous data

A. Primary data
Explanation
The data collected on the height of a group of students after recording their heights with a measuring tape is considered primary data. This is because the data is collected firsthand by directly measuring the heights of the students. Primary data is original and collected for the specific purpose of the study, making it more reliable and accurate compared to secondary data, which is data collected by someone else for another purpose. Discrete and continuous data refer to the nature of the data itself, and are not applicable in this context.

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• 13.

### The primary data are collected by

• A.

Interview method

• B.

Observation method

• C.

Questionnaire method

• D.

All these

D. All these
Explanation
The correct answer is "All these" because primary data can be collected through various methods such as interviews, observations, and questionnaires. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, and researchers often use a combination of these methods to gather comprehensive and reliable data. Therefore, the statement "All these" correctly acknowledges that primary data can be collected through any of these methods.

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• 14.

### The quickest method to collect primary data is

• A.

Personal interview

• B.

Indirect interview

• C.

Telephone interview

• D.

By observation

C. Telephone interview
Explanation
The quickest method to collect primary data is a telephone interview. This is because it allows for immediate communication and eliminates the need for travel or scheduling conflicts. With a telephone interview, researchers can quickly gather information from respondents by asking questions and recording their responses in real-time. This method is particularly useful when time is limited and when face-to-face interaction is not necessary.

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• 15.

### The best method to collect data, in case of a natural calamity, is

• A.

Personal interview

• B.

Indirect interview

• C.

Questionnaire method

• D.

Direct observation method

A. Personal interview
Explanation
Personal interviews would be the best method to collect data in the case of a natural calamity because it allows for direct interaction with the affected individuals. This method would provide a deeper understanding of their experiences, emotions, and needs, which can be crucial in planning and implementing effective relief efforts. Additionally, personal interviews can also help gather more detailed and specific information compared to other methods like questionnaires or indirect interviews.

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• 16.

### In case of a rail accident, the appropriate method of data collection is by

• A.

Personal interview

• B.

Direct interview

• C.

Indirect interview

• D.

All these

C. Indirect interview
Explanation
Indirect interview is the appropriate method of data collection in case of a rail accident. This method involves gathering information from individuals who have knowledge or experience related to the accident, but without directly interviewing them. This could include reviewing documents, reports, and other sources of information to gather relevant data. Indirect interviews help in obtaining accurate and reliable information about the accident without directly involving the individuals who were directly affected or involved in the incident.

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• 17.

### Which method of data collection covers the widest area?

• A.

Telephone interview method

• B.

Mailed questionnaire method

• C.

Direct interview method

• D.

All these

B. Mailed questionnaire method
Explanation
The mailed questionnaire method covers the widest area among the given options. This method involves sending questionnaires to a large number of respondents through mail, allowing for a broader geographic reach compared to methods like telephone or direct interviews. With the mailed questionnaire method, researchers can collect data from individuals across different locations, making it a suitable choice for studies that require a wide representation of respondents.

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• 18.

### The amount of non-responses is maximum in

• A.

Mailed questionnaire method

• B.

Interview method

• C.

Observation method

• D.

All these

A. Mailed questionnaire method
Explanation
The amount of non-responses is maximum in the mailed questionnaire method. This is because when questionnaires are sent by mail, there is no direct interaction between the researcher and the respondent. This lack of personal contact may result in a lower response rate as compared to other methods. Respondents may choose not to fill out the questionnaire or may simply forget to do so. Additionally, there is no opportunity for the researcher to clarify any doubts or provide further explanations, which may further contribute to non-responses.

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• 19.

### Some important sources of secondary data are

• A.

International and Government sources

• B.

International and primary sources

• C.

Private and primary sources

• D.

Government sources

A. International and Government sources
Explanation
Secondary data refers to data that has been collected by someone else for a different purpose. International and government sources are important sources of secondary data because they provide data that is collected at a global or national level. These sources often have extensive databases and research reports that can be accessed by researchers and analysts. This data can be used to gain insights into various aspects such as economics, demographics, social trends, and more. International sources include organizations like the United Nations, World Bank, and World Health Organization, while government sources refer to data collected by government agencies at the local, regional, or national level.

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• 20.

### Internal consistency of the collected data can be checked when

• A.

Internal data are given

• B.

External data are given

• C.

Two or more series are given

• D.

A number of related series are given

D. A number of related series are given
Explanation
When a number of related series are given, it allows for the comparison and cross-referencing of the data to ensure internal consistency. By examining the relationships and patterns between the different series, any inconsistencies or discrepancies can be identified and addressed. This process helps to validate the accuracy and reliability of the collected data.

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• 21.

### The accuracy and consistency of data can be verified by

• A.

Internal checking

• B.

External checking

• C.

Scrutiny

• D.

Both (a) and (b)

C. Scrutiny
Explanation
Scrutiny refers to the careful examination or inspection of data to ensure its accuracy and consistency. It involves both internal checking, which involves verifying data within the organization, and external checking, which involves verifying data with external sources. By conducting a thorough scrutiny, organizations can verify the accuracy and consistency of their data, ensuring its reliability for decision-making and other purposes.

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• 22.

### The mode of presentation of data are

• A.

Textual, tabulation and diagrammatic

• B.

Tabular, internal and external

• C.

Textual, tabular and internal

• D.

Tabular, textual and external

A. Textual, tabulation and diagrammatic
Explanation
The question is asking about the different modes of presenting data. The correct answer states that the modes of presentation are textual, tabulation, and diagrammatic. This means that data can be presented in the form of written text, tables, and diagrams. These different modes allow for different ways of organizing and representing data, depending on the purpose and audience of the presentation.

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• 23.

### The best method of presentation of data is

• A.

Textual

• B.

Tabular

• C.

Diagrammatic

• D.

(b) and (c)

B. Tabular
Explanation
Tabular presentation of data is considered the best method because it organizes information in a systematic and structured manner. It allows for easy comparison and analysis of data, making it easier to identify patterns and trends. Tabular presentation also provides clarity and precision, as it presents data in rows and columns, making it easier to read and understand. Diagrammatic presentation, on the other hand, uses visual representations such as graphs and charts, which may not be suitable for all types of data. Therefore, the combination of tabular and diagrammatic presentation may not always be the best method.

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• 24.

### The most attractive method of data presentation is

• A.

Tabular

• B.

Textual

• C.

Diagrammatic

• D.

(a)or(b).

C. Diagrammatic
Explanation
The most attractive method of data presentation is diagrammatic. Diagrams are visually appealing and can effectively convey information in a concise and understandable manner. They allow for the representation of complex data sets and relationships, making it easier for the audience to interpret and analyze the information being presented. Additionally, diagrams can be customized and visually enhanced to make the data more engaging and visually appealing to the viewers.

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• 25.

### For tabulation, 'caption' is

• A.

The upper part of the table

• B.

The lower part of the table

• C.

The main part of the table

• D.

The upper part of a table that describes the column and sub-column.

D. The upper part of a table that describes the column and sub-column.
Explanation
The caption in a table is the upper part that describes the column and sub-column. It provides a brief explanation or title for the table, helping the reader understand the content and context of the data presented in the table. The caption typically includes information such as the table's title, the units of measurement, and any relevant notes or explanations.

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• 26.

### 'Stub' of a table is the

• A.

Left part of the table describing the columns

• B.

Right part of the table describing the columns

• C.

Right part of the table describing the rows

• D.

Left part of the table describing the rows

D. Left part of the table describing the rows
Explanation
The left part of a table typically contains the row headings or labels, which provide a description or name for each individual row in the table. This allows the reader to easily identify and understand the data presented in each row. The right part of the table, on the other hand, usually contains the column headings or labels, which describe the data categories or variables being measured or observed. Therefore, the correct answer is that the left part of the table describes the rows.

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• 27.

### The entire upper part of a table is known as

• A.

Caption

• B.

Stub

• C.

• D.

Body

Explanation
The upper part of a table is commonly referred to as the "box head." This section usually contains the table's title or caption and any additional information or labels that are necessary for understanding the data in the table. The box head is located above the body of the table and provides an overview or summary of the information presented in the table.

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• 28.

### The unit of measurement in tabulation is shown in

• A.

• B.

Body

• C.

Caption

• D.

Stub

Explanation
In tabulation, the unit of measurement is shown in the Box head. The Box head is the topmost part of a table or chart that contains the labels or headings for each column. It provides a clear and concise representation of the units being measured in the tabulation.

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• 29.

### In tabulation source of the data, if any, is shown in the

• A.

Footnote

• B.

Body

• C.

Stub

• D.

Caption

A. Footnote
Explanation
The correct answer is "Footnote." In tabulation, the source of the data is typically shown in the footnote. This is where additional information or references are provided to give credit or context to the data presented in the table. The footnote is usually placed at the bottom of the table and is numbered or marked with symbols to link it to specific data points or tables.

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• 30.

### Which of the following statements is untrue for tabulation?

• A.

Statistical analysis of data requires tabulation

• B.

It facilitates comparison between rows and not columns

• C.

Complicated data can be presented

• D.

Diagrammatic representation of data requires tabulation

B. It facilitates comparison between rows and not columns
Explanation
Tabulation is a useful tool in statistical analysis as it helps organize and summarize data. It allows for easy comparison between different categories or variables, both horizontally (rows) and vertically (columns). Therefore, the statement "It facilitates comparison between rows and not columns" is untrue. Tabulation enables comparison between both rows and columns, providing a comprehensive view of the data.

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• 31.

### Hidden trend, if any, in the data can be noticed in

• A.

Textual presentation

• B.

Tabulation

• C.

Diagrammatic representation

• D.

All these

C. Diagrammatic representation
Explanation
Diagrammatic representation allows for visualizing data in a graphical format, which can make it easier to identify patterns, trends, and relationships that may not be immediately apparent in textual or tabular formats. By using charts, graphs, or other visual elements, data can be presented in a way that helps to highlight any hidden trends or patterns that may exist within the data. This visual representation can make it easier for individuals to understand and interpret the data, leading to better insights and decision-making.

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• 32.

### Diagrammatic representation of data is done by

• A.

Diagrams

• B.

Charts

• C.

Pictures

• D.

All these

D. All these
Explanation
The correct answer is "All these" because diagrammatic representation of data can be done using diagrams, charts, and pictures. All of these methods visually present data in a way that is easy to understand and analyze.

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• 33.

### The most accurate mode of data presentation is

• A.

Diagrammatic method

• B.

Tabulation

• C.

Textual presentation

• D.

None of these

B. Tabulation
Explanation
Tabulation is the most accurate mode of data presentation because it organizes data in a systematic and structured manner, making it easier to analyze and interpret. It involves the use of tables, which provide a clear and concise summary of the data. Tabulation allows for easy comparison and identification of patterns, trends, and relationships within the data. It also enables the presentation of large amounts of data in a compact and organized format, making it more comprehensible and accessible to the reader.

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• 34.

### The chart that uses logarithm of the variable is known as

• A.

Line chart

• B.

Ratio chart

• C.

Multiple line chart

• D.

Component line chart

B. Ratio chart
Explanation
A chart that uses logarithm of the variable is known as a ratio chart. This type of chart is used when the data being plotted spans a wide range of values. By taking the logarithm of the variable, the chart can effectively display both small and large values on a single scale. This helps to visualize the relative ratios between the data points more accurately.

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• 35.

### Multiple line chart is applied for

• A.

Showing multiple charts

• B.

Two or more related time series when the variables are expressed in the same unit

• C.

Two or more related time series when the variables are expressed in different unit

• D.

Multiple variations in the time series

B. Two or more related time series when the variables are expressed in the same unit
Explanation
A multiple line chart is used to display two or more related time series when the variables are expressed in the same unit. This type of chart is effective in comparing the trends and patterns of different variables over time. By using multiple lines, it becomes easier to visualize and analyze the relationships between the variables. This chart is particularly useful when the variables being compared are measured on the same scale or have similar units of measurement, allowing for a meaningful comparison between them.

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• 36.

### Multiple axis line chart is considered when

• A.

There is more than one time series

• B.

The units of the variables are different

• C.

(a)or(b)

• D.

(a)and(b)

D. (a)and(b)
Explanation
A multiple axis line chart is considered when there is more than one time series and the units of the variables are different. This means that if there are multiple variables being plotted over time, and these variables have different units of measurement, a multiple axis line chart would be used to effectively visualize and compare the trends of these variables.

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• 37.

### Horizontal bar diagram is used for

• A.

Qualitative data

• B.

Data varying over time

• C.

Data varying over space

• D.

(a)or(c)

D. (a)or(c)
Explanation
A horizontal bar diagram is used to represent data that varies over time or data that varies over space. It is a visual representation that displays qualitative data in horizontal bars, where the length of each bar corresponds to the value of the data being represented. Therefore, the correct answer is either (a) qualitative data or (c) data varying over space.

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• 38.

### Vertical bar diagram is applicable when

• A.

The data are qualitative

• B.

The data are quantitative

• C.

When the data vary over time

• D.

(a)or(c)

B. The data are quantitative
Explanation
A vertical bar diagram is applicable when the data are quantitative. This type of diagram is used to represent numerical data and compare different categories or groups. It consists of vertical bars of different lengths, where the length of each bar represents the value or magnitude of the data being represented. This type of diagram is useful for visualizing and comparing numerical data in a clear and concise manner.

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• 39.

### Divided bar chart is considered for

• A.

Comparing different components of a variable

• B.

The relation of different components to the table

• C.

(a)or(b)

• D.

(a) and (b)

D. (a) and (b)
Explanation
A divided bar chart is used to compare different components of a variable, as well as show the relationship of these components to the overall total. It allows for a visual representation of how each component contributes to the whole, making it easier to analyze and understand the data. Therefore, the correct answer is (a) and (b), as both statements accurately describe the purpose of a divided bar chart.

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• 40.

### In order to compare two or more related series, we consider

• A.

Multiple bar chart

• B.

Grouped bar chart

• C.

(a)or(b)

• D.

(a) and (b)

C. (a)or(b)
Explanation
The correct answer is (a) or (b) because both a multiple bar chart and a grouped bar chart can be used to compare two or more related series. A multiple bar chart displays multiple bars side by side, each representing a different series, allowing for easy comparison between the series. On the other hand, a grouped bar chart also displays multiple bars, but groups them together based on a common category, making it easier to compare the series within each group. Therefore, either option can be used depending on the specific requirements and preferences of the data analysis.

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• 41.

### Pie-diagram is used for

• A.

Comparing different components and their relation to the total

• B.

Representing qualitative data in a circle

• C.

Representing quantitative data in circle

• D.

(b)or(c)

A. Comparing different components and their relation to the total
Explanation
A pie diagram is used to compare different components and their relation to the total. It visually represents the proportions of each component within a whole by dividing a circle into sectors. Each sector represents a different component, and the size of the sector corresponds to the proportion of that component in relation to the total. This allows for a quick and easy comparison of the different components and their contribution to the whole.

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• 42.

### A frequency distribution

• A.

Arranges observations in an increasing order

• B.

Arranges observation in terms of a number of groups

• C.

Relaters to a measurable characteristic

• D.

All these

D. All these
Explanation
A frequency distribution is a way of organizing and summarizing data by arranging observations in an increasing order, grouping them based on a certain characteristic, and relating them to a measurable characteristic. Therefore, all of the given options are correct as they describe different aspects of a frequency distribution.

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• 43.

### The frequency distribution of a continuous variable is known as

• A.

Grouped frequency distribution

• B.

Simple frequency distribution

• C.

(a)or(b)

• D.

(a) and (b)

A. Grouped frequency distribution
Explanation
A frequency distribution is a representation of how often different values of a variable occur in a dataset. When the variable is continuous, it means it can take on any value within a certain range. In order to create a frequency distribution for a continuous variable, the data is grouped into intervals or bins. Each interval represents a range of values, and the frequency is the number of observations that fall within that range. Therefore, the correct answer is "Grouped frequency distribution" as it refers to the frequency distribution of a continuous variable.

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• 44.

### The distribution of shares is an example of the frequency distribution of

• A.

A discrete variable

• B.

A continuous variable

• C.

An attribute

• D.

(a)or(c)

A. A discrete variable
Explanation
The distribution of shares is an example of a discrete variable because the number of shares can only take on specific, separate values. Shares cannot be divided into fractions or decimals, and there is a clear distinction between different quantities of shares. Therefore, it falls under the category of a discrete variable.

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• 45.

### The distribution of profits of a blue-chip company relates to

• A.

Discrete variable

• B.

Continuous variable

• C.

Attributes

• D.

(a)or(b)

B. Continuous variable
Explanation
The distribution of profits of a blue-chip company is considered a continuous variable because it can take on any value within a certain range. Profits can vary greatly and can be measured in decimals or fractions, making it a continuous variable rather than a discrete variable which only takes on distinct values.

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• 46.

### Mutually exclusive classification

• A.

Excludes both the class limits

• B.

Excludes the upper class limit but includes the lower class limit

• C.

Includes the upper class limit but excludes the upper class limit

• D.

Either (b) or (c)

B. Excludes the upper class limit but includes the lower class limit
Explanation
This answer suggests that mutually exclusive classification excludes the upper class limit but includes the lower class limit. This means that when categorizing data into classes, the upper value of a class is not included in that class, while the lower value is included. This ensures that each data point falls into only one class, avoiding overlap or ambiguity in classification.

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• 47.

### Mutually inclusive classification is usually meant for

• A.

A discrete variable

• B.

A continuous variable

• C.

An attribute

• D.

All these

A. A discrete variable
Explanation
Mutually inclusive classification is usually meant for a discrete variable because discrete variables have distinct and separate values. In mutually inclusive classification, multiple categories or groups can be assigned to a single observation, and this is more suitable for discrete variables where each observation falls into a specific category. Continuous variables, on the other hand, have a range of values and are not mutually exclusive. Attributes, which refer to characteristics or qualities of an object, may or may not be discrete or continuous, so they are not specifically associated with mutually inclusive classification.

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• 48.

### Mutually exclusive classification is usually meant for

• A.

A discrete variable

• B.

A continuous variable

• C.

An attribute

• D.

Any of these

B. A continuous variable
Explanation
Mutually exclusive classification is usually meant for a continuous variable because a continuous variable can take on an infinite number of values within a given range. In mutually exclusive classification, each value of the variable is assigned to only one category, and no two categories can overlap. This is more appropriate for continuous variables as they can have a wide range of values that need to be classified into distinct categories. Discrete variables, on the other hand, have a finite number of distinct values, while an attribute refers to a characteristic or property of an object or entity and may not necessarily involve classification.

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• 49.

### The LCB is

• A.

An upper limit to LCL

• B.

A lower limit to LCL

• C.

(a) and (b)

• D.

(a) or (b)

B. A lower limit to LCL
Explanation
The LCB, or Lower Control Limit, is a statistical measure used in process control to determine the lower limit at which a process is considered out of control. It is used in conjunction with the Upper Control Limit (UCL) to create a control chart. The LCB represents the lower boundary below which the process is not expected to perform consistently. Therefore, the correct answer is "A lower limit to LCL."

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• 50.

### The UCL is

• A.

An upper limit to UCL

• B.

A lower limit to LCL

• C.

Both(a)and(b)

• D.

(a)or(b)

A. An upper limit to UCL
Explanation
The UCL (Upper Control Limit) is a statistical measure that represents the highest acceptable value or limit for a process. It is used in quality control to determine if a process is within acceptable limits or if it is experiencing excessive variation. Therefore, the correct answer is "An upper limit to UCL" as it accurately describes the role and purpose of the UCL in statistical analysis.

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