Sociology 1301 Final Exam Review

149 Questions | Total Attempts: 36

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Sociology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which discipline describes itself as "the sstematic study of society"?
    • A. 

      History

    • B. 

      Psychology

    • C. 

      Sociology

    • D. 

      Economics

  • 2. 
    Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the_______in the_______.
    • A. 

      Specific; commonplace

    • B. 

      New; old

    • C. 

      Good; worst tragedies

    • D. 

      General; particular

  • 3. 
    ___________are characteristics of personality.
    • A. 

      ID

    • B. 

      EGO

    • C. 

      SUPER EGO

    • D. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 4. 
    Suicide rates are generally higher among:
    • A. 

      Females compared with males

    • B. 

      Single people compared with married people

    • C. 

      Poor people compared with rich people

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 5. 
    According to Emile Durkheim, a category of people with a higher suicide rates typically has:
    • A. 

      Greater self-esteem

    • B. 

      Less money and other resources

    • C. 

      More clinical depression

    • D. 

      Lower social integration

  • 6. 
    The term "sociology" was coined in 1838 by:
    • A. 

      Auguste Comte

    • B. 

      Adam Smith

    • C. 

      Karl Marx

    • D. 

      Herbert Spencer

  • 7. 
    Comte described the earliest human societies as being within which level of societal development?
    • A. 

      Theological stage

    • B. 

      Scientific stage

    • C. 

      Post-scientific stage

    • D. 

      Metaphysical stage

  • 8. 
    According to Comte, societies in which stage of development begin to see society as a natural--rather than a suppernatural--phenomenon?
    • A. 

      Theological stage

    • B. 

      Metaphysical stage

    • C. 

      Scientific stage

    • D. 

      Post-scientific stage

  • 9. 
    _______is way of understanding the world based on science.
    • A. 

      Free will

    • B. 

      Negativity

    • C. 

      Theology

    • D. 

      Postivism

  • 10. 
    • A. 

      Structural-functional approach

    • B. 

      Symbolic-interaction approach

    • C. 

      Social-conflict approach

    • D. 

      None of the above is correct

  • 11. 
    The social-conflict approach draws attention to:
    • A. 

      How elements contribute to overall operation of society

    • B. 

      How people construct meaning through interaction

    • C. 

      The stable aspects of society

    • D. 

      Patterns of social inequality

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      Herbert Spencer

    • B. 

      Talcott Parsons

    • C. 

      Karl Marx

    • D. 

      Emille Durkheim

  • 13. 
    • A. 

      Participant observation

    • B. 

      Survey

    • C. 

      Secondary research

    • D. 

      Experiment

  • 14. 
    W.E.B. Du Bois' Africana theory was pert of the social-conflict approach.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    Durkheim documented that catergories of people with weaker social ties have lower suicide rates
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    • A. 

      Culture

    • B. 

      Social system

    • C. 

      Society

    • D. 

      Social structure

  • 17. 
    The unpleasant and even frightening exprience of encountering a strange way of life is called:
    • A. 

      Value conflict

    • B. 

      Cultural diffusion

    • C. 

      Acculturation

    • D. 

      Culture shock

  • 18. 
    Cultural transmission refers to process of:
    • A. 

      Passing cultural patterns from one generation to another

    • B. 

      Learning culture

    • C. 

      Using writing to record cultural patterns

    • D. 

      Using the oral tradition

  • 19. 
    The language spoken by poeple in more nations of world than any other is:
    • A. 

      Spanish

    • B. 

      Hindi

    • C. 

      Chinese

    • D. 

      English

  • 20. 
    Until about 10,000 years ago, most poeple in world lived in______societies.
    • A. 

      Horticultural and pastoral

    • B. 

      Agrarian

    • C. 

      Industrial

    • D. 

      Hunting and gathering

  • 21. 
    Are discussed in class, which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Technology is equally distributed throughout a society's population

    • B. 

      Nations with more advanced technology are generally superior to nations with less advanced

    • C. 

      Advanced technology improves life in some ways, but also threatens it in others ways

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 22. 
    The spread of technomedia means that culture is now less likely to be:
    • A. 

      Based on made-up heroes.

    • B. 

      Viewed on a screen.

    • C. 

      Passed down from one generation to the next.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 23. 
    The term "subculture" refers to:
    • A. 

      Popular culture.

    • B. 

      Culture of the past.

    • C. 

      Cultural patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population.

    • D. 

      High culture.

  • 24. 
    If you were to attend a New York Ballet performance, you would be experiencing:
    • A. 

      Popular culture

    • B. 

      Virtual culture

    • C. 

      High cultural

    • D. 

      Cultural transmission

  • 25. 
    Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as:
    • A. 

      Established culture

    • B. 

      High culture

    • C. 

      Popular culture

    • D. 

      Virtual culture

  • 26. 
    Multiculturalism is defined as:
    • A. 

      The idea that the United States should have only one dominant culture.

    • B. 

      Efforts to establish English as the official language of the United States.

    • C. 

      Efforts to encourage immigration to the United States.

    • D. 

      An educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equality of all cultural traditions.

  • 27. 
    The most widely spoken language in the United States, other than English, is:
    • A. 

      Spanish

    • B. 

      Italian

    • C. 

      German

    • D. 

      French

  • 28. 
    Counterculture refers to:
    • A. 

      High culture

    • B. 

      Popular culture

    • C. 

      People who were born in another country

    • D. 

      Cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held

  • 29. 
    Ethnocentrism refers to:
    • A. 

      Taking pride in one's ethnicity.

    • B. 

      Judging another culture as better than one's own.

    • C. 

      Judging another culture by its own standards.

    • D. 

      Judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture.

  • 30. 
    The practice of persons from one culture judging any other culture by its own standards is called:
    • A. 

      Cultural relativism

    • B. 

      Cultural integration

    • C. 

      Ethnocentrism

    • D. 

      Cultural diffusion

  • 31. 
    Afrocentrism refers to the dominnce of European cultural patterns.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 32. 
    Cultural relativism means evaluating another culture according to the standards of your own
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 33. 
    • A. 

      Socialization

    • B. 

      Behavior

    • C. 

      Human nature

    • D. 

      Personality

  • 34. 
    • A. 

      Nature is far more important than nature.

    • B. 

      Nature via nurture

    • C. 

      Humans have powerful instincts the same way other animals do.

    • D. 

      None of the above is correct

  • 35. 
    Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of:
    • A. 

      Generalized other.

    • B. 

      Superego.

    • C. 

      Ego.

    • D. 

      Id.

  • 36. 
    In Freud's model of personality, what represents the presence of culture within the individual?
    • A. 

      ID

    • B. 

      SUPEREGO

    • C. 

      EGO

    • D. 

      EROS

  • 37. 
    Jean Piaget's focus was on:
    • A. 

      How children are stimulated by their environment.

    • B. 

      Cognition: how people think and understand.

    • C. 

      The role of heredity in shaping human behavior.

    • D. 

      How children develop their motor skills.

  • 38. 
    According to Piaget, in what stage of human development do individuals eperience the world only through sensory contact?
    • A. 

      Sensorimotor stage

    • B. 

      Preoperational stage

    • C. 

      Formal operational stage

    • D. 

      Concrete operational stage

  • 39. 
    Jean Piaget called the level of development do individuals first use language and other cultural symbols the _______stage.
    • A. 

      Preoperational

    • B. 

      Sensorimotor

    • C. 

      Formal operational

    • D. 

      Concrete operational

  • 40. 
    George Herbert Mead considered the self to be:
    • A. 

      The presence of culture within the individual.

    • B. 

      Present in infants at the time of their birth.

    • C. 

      The part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image.

    • D. 

      The presence of culture within the individual.

  • 41. 
    By "taking the role of other," or the "ME" part of self, Mead had in mind:
    • A. 

      A trading self-centeredness for a focus on helping other people.

    • B. 

      Recognizing that people have different views of most situations.

    • C. 

      Imagining a situation in terms of past experience.

    • D. 

      Imagining a situation from another person's point of view.

  • 42. 
    Family is important to the socialization process because:
    • A. 

      Parents greatly affect a child's self-concept.

    • B. 

      Families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion.

    • C. 

      Family members are often what Mead called "significant others"

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 43. 
    Patterns of socialization vary by class; in child-rearing, lower-class parents stress_________, while well-to-do parents stress___________.
    • A. 

      Creativity; obedience

    • B. 

      Independence; protecting children

    • C. 

      Obedience; socializing at that level

    • D. 

      Independence; dependence

  • 44. 
    Ageism refers to:
    • A. 

      The fact that young people know little of the experiences of growing old.

    • B. 

      The rising share of elderly people in U.S. society.

    • C. 

      Prejudice and discrimination against the elderly.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 45. 
    _________refers to efforts to radically change someone's personality through carefully controlling the environment.
    • A. 

      Degradation

    • B. 

      Total Socialization

    • C. 

      Anticipatory socialization

    • D. 

      Resocialization

  • 46. 
    Socialization takes place entirely in childhood.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
    According to Jean Piaget, language and other symbols are first used in the preoperational stage.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 48. 
    A peer group is a social group whose members share common interests, social position, and a similar age.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 49. 
    By saying that the sociological perspective shows us "the strange in the familiar," the text argues that sociologists:
    • A. 

      Believe that people often behave in strange ways.

    • B. 

      Believe that even people who are most familiar to us have some very strange habits.

    • C. 

      Focus on bizarre elements of society.

    • D. 

      Systematically and scientifically, we find that many of our preconceived notions are totally inaccurate and that much of what passes for common sense is nothing more than common nonsense.

  • 50. 
    When people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in:
    • A. 

      Group rejection

    • B. 

      Group conformity

    • C. 

      Future directedness

    • D. 

      Anticipatory socialization

  • 51. 
    The process by which people act react in relation to others is called:
    • A. 

      Social connectedness

    • B. 

      Social exchange

    • C. 

      Social interaction

    • D. 

      Social reaction

  • 52. 
    _________defines who and what we are in relation to others.
    • A. 

      Role

    • B. 

      Role set

    • C. 

      Status

    • D. 

      Ideal culture

  • 53. 
    At a given time, you occupy a number of statuses. These are you:
    • A. 

      Mores.

    • B. 

      Status set.

    • C. 

      Social range.

    • D. 

      Occupational range

  • 54. 
    • A. 

      Passive role

    • B. 

      Achieved status

    • C. 

      Ascribed status

    • D. 

      Master status

  • 55. 
    • A. 

      Achieved status

    • B. 

      Active role

    • C. 

      Master status

    • D. 

      Central role

  • 56. 
    • A. 

      Ascribed status

    • B. 

      Achieved status

    • C. 

      Master status

    • D. 

      Central role

  • 57. 
    • A. 

      Having serious physical or mental disability

    • B. 

      Being white in the United States

    • C. 

      Having a job as a carpenter

    • D. 

      All of above are correct

  • 58. 
    Assume a surgeon chooses not to operate on her own son because the personal involvement of motherhood could impair her professional objectivity as a physician. Which of the following is involved?
    • A. 

      Role exit

    • B. 

      Role strain

    • C. 

      Role ambiguity

    • D. 

      Role conflict

  • 59. 
    Sociologists use what term to refer to the behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
    • A. 

      Role

    • B. 

      Master status

    • C. 

      Role set

    • D. 

      Status set

  • 60. 
    • A. 

      Role conflict

    • B. 

      Role strain

    • C. 

      Role ambiguity

    • D. 

      Role exit

  • 61. 
    • A. 

      Role conflict

    • B. 

      Role strain

    • C. 

      Role ambiguity

    • D. 

      Role exit

  • 62. 
    The term "presentation of self" refers to:
    • A. 

      Helping another "save face"

    • B. 

      Interaction that is highly formal

    • C. 

      Trying to take attention away from others

    • D. 

      Efforts to create impressions in the minds of others

  • 63. 
    The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance is referred to as:
    • A. 

      Enthnomethodology

    • B. 

      The social construction of reality

    • C. 

      Dramaturgical analysis

    • D. 

      The Thomas theorem

  • 64. 
    In terms of dramaturgical analysis, helping another person to "save face" or avoid embarrassment, is called:
    • A. 

      "saving" a role

    • B. 

      Role kindness

    • C. 

      Tact

    • D. 

      Role renewal

  • 65. 
    Women often take the family name of men upon marriage. In sociological terms, this  is an example of how language can be used to convey.
    • A. 

      Power over others

    • B. 

      Personal knowledge of others

    • C. 

      The importance of others

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 66. 
    The idea of "getting" a joke, according to the text, depends on: 
    • A. 

      Having a different social background than the joke teller.

    • B. 

      Understanding the two realities presented in the joke and appreciating their difference.

    • C. 

      Understanding why someone is telling a joke.

    • D. 

      Knowing the joke teller well.

  • 67. 
    • A. 

      A micro-system

    • B. 

      A crowd

    • C. 

      A dyad

    • D. 

      A social group

  • 68. 
    • A. 

      A crowd

    • B. 

      A category

    • C. 

      A group

    • D. 

      A population

  • 69. 
    A secondary group is a social group that:
    • A. 

      We experience late in life

    • B. 

      Engages in unimportant activities

    • C. 

      Is generally much smaller than a primary group

    • D. 

      Is impersonal and tries to accomplish some specific goal

  • 70. 
    • A. 

      Bureaucratic

    • B. 

      Democratic

    • C. 

      Authoritarian

    • D. 

      Laissez-faire

  • 71. 
    • A. 

      Democratic

    • B. 

      Laissez-faire

    • C. 

      Authoritarian

    • D. 

      Bureucratic

  • 72. 
    • A. 

      Democratic leaders

    • B. 

      Authoritarian leaders

    • C. 

      Bureaucratic leaders

    • D. 

      Laissez-faire leaders

  • 73. 
    Formal organizations are:
    • A. 

      Networks that have clear boundaries

    • B. 

      Small groups with elected leaders

    • C. 

      Large secondary groups organized to achieve goals efficiently

    • D. 

      Government agencies with multiple goals

  • 74. 
    • A. 

      Dyads are less stable than groups with many members.

    • B. 

      Dyads are more stable than groups with many members.

    • C. 

      Typically, dyads have little potential for meaningful bonds.

    • D. 

      Typically, dyads involve less intense interaction.

  • 75. 
    • A. 

      A triad

    • B. 

      A pair

    • C. 

      A bond

    • D. 

      A dyad

  • 76. 
    • A. 

      In-group

    • B. 

      Network

    • C. 

      Out-group

    • D. 

      Reference group

  • 77. 
    • A. 

      Tunnel vision

    • B. 

      Groupthink

    • C. 

      Doublethink

    • D. 

      Bureaucratic ritualism

  • 78. 
    • A. 

      Utilitarian organization

    • B. 

      Coercive organization

    • C. 

      Normative organization

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 79. 
    From the point of view of a patient who is involuntarily committed, what type of formal organization is a mental hospital?
    • A. 

      A normative organization

    • B. 

      A utilitarian organization

    • C. 

      A coercive organization

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 80. 
    The term "bureaucracy" refers to:
    • A. 

      A large, normative organization

    • B. 

      An organization model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

    • C. 

      An organizational model that operates informally

    • D. 

      Any source of inefficiency in organizational operation

  • 81. 
    • A. 

      Bureaucracy

    • B. 

      Oligarchy

    • C. 

      Democracy

    • D. 

      Formal organization

  • 82. 
    • A. 

      Crime

    • B. 

      Juvinile delinquency

    • C. 

      Deviance

    • D. 

      Legal infraction

  • 83. 
    The term "McDonaldization of society" refers to:
    • A. 

      The spread of McDonald's restaurants around the world.

    • B. 

      Society becoming more filled with inefficient "red tape".

    • C. 

      McDonald's organizational principles coming to dominate much of society.

    • D. 

      The less and less predictable nature of today's society.

  • 84. 
    • A. 

      Uniformity

    • B. 

      Efficiency

    • C. 

      Control through automation

    • D. 

      Creativity

  • 85. 
    "Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crime:
    • A. 

      Is a violation of norms enacted into laws

    • B. 

      Is always less serious

    • C. 

      Is always more serious

    • D. 

      Involves a larger share of the population

  • 86. 
    • A. 

      Civil law

    • B. 

      The criminal justice system

    • C. 

      Socialization

    • D. 

      The normative system

  • 87. 
    Here are four assertions about the social foundation of deviance; select the one that is FALSE.
    • A. 

      People become deviant as others define them that way

    • B. 

      Deviance exists only in relation to other cultural norms

    • C. 

      Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere

    • D. 

      Norms and the way people define situations involve social power

  • 88. 
    Robert Merton's strain theory of deviance uses the term_______to refer to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting conventional means to get there.
    • A. 

      Innovation

    • B. 

      Rebellion

    • C. 

      Retreatism

    • D. 

      Ritualism

  • 89. 
    In his strain theory, Robert Merton would use which of the following terms to describe people, including alcoholics and drug addicts, who "drop out."
    • A. 

      Ritualist

    • B. 

      Retreatist

    • C. 

      Innovator

    • D. 

      Rebel

  • 90. 
    • A. 

      Organized crime

    • B. 

      Street crime

    • C. 

      White-collar crime

    • D. 

      Victimless crime

  • 91. 
    Organized crime refers to:
    • A. 

      Illegal actions by people with white-collar jobs.

    • B. 

      Any business that supplies illegal goods or services.

    • C. 

      Crime involving cooperation between two or more businesses.

    • D. 

      Illegal actions on the part of a corporation or large business.

  • 92. 
    _______refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf.
    • A. 

      Organized crime

    • B. 

      Capitalist crime

    • C. 

      Embezzlement

    • D. 

      Corporate crime

  • 93. 
    • A. 

      Habeas corpus

    • B. 

      Mens rea

    • C. 

      Homo sapien

    • D. 

      Mea culpa

  • 94. 
    A hate crime is defined as:
    • A. 

      A criminal act motivated by racial or other bias

    • B. 

      Any violation of anti-discrimination laws

    • C. 

      Any crime involving powerful emotions

    • D. 

      Any crime against a minority individual

  • 95. 
    "Crimes against persons" includes ALL BUT WHICH of the following?
    • A. 

      Burglary

    • B. 

      Murder

    • C. 

      Forcible rape

    • D. 

      Aggravated assault

  • 96. 
    Stealing a bicycle from a front yard is one example of which criminal offense?
    • A. 

      Auto-theft

    • B. 

      Robbery

    • C. 

      Burglary

    • D. 

      Larceny-theft

  • 97. 
    Prostitution is widely regarded as what kind of crime?
    • A. 

      Victimless crime

    • B. 

      Organized crime

    • C. 

      Crime against the person

    • D. 

      Crime against property

  • 98. 
    Most people arrested for a violent crime are:
    • A. 

      African American

    • B. 

      White

    • C. 

      People of mixed race

    • D. 

      Of Hispanic or Asian ancestry

  • 99. 
    In the United States, men account for______of all arrests for violent crime.
    • A. 

      About 20 percent

    • B. 

      About 40 percent

    • C. 

      About 60 percent

    • D. 

      About 80 percent

  • 100. 
    The likelihood a person will be arrested for a street crime rises sharply:
    • A. 

      During the late teenage years

    • B. 

      During the middle thirties

    • C. 

      In the late twenties

    • D. 

      At about age forty

  • 101. 
    • A. 

      Gender roles

    • B. 

      Sex

    • C. 

      Gender

    • D. 

      Sexual chromosomes

  • 102. 
    The development of breats and deeper voices in males are examples of:
    • A. 

      Gender norms

    • B. 

      Primary sex characteristics

    • C. 

      Secondary sex characteristics

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 103. 
    At birth, males and females are distinguished by_________, which are the genitals: organs used for reproduction.
    • A. 

      Primary sex characteristics

    • B. 

      Gender

    • C. 

      Secondary sex characteristics

    • D. 

      Sexual chromosomes

  • 104. 
    One norm found everywhere is the incest taboo, which refers to:
    • A. 

      Norms forbidding old people from engaging in sex

    • B. 

      Norms forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives

    • C. 

      Norms forbidding young children from engaging in sex

    • D. 

      Norms forbidding women from becoming sexually active before marriage

  • 105. 
    ______refers to a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person.
    • A. 

      Sexual orientation

    • B. 

      Sexual experience

    • C. 

      Sexual identity

    • D. 

      Sex role

  • 106. 
    Sexual attraction to someone of the same sex is called:
    • A. 

      Homosexuality

    • B. 

      Heterosexuality

    • C. 

      Asexuality

    • D. 

      Bisexuality

  • 107. 
    Sexual attraction to people of both sexes is called:
    • A. 

      Asexuality

    • B. 

      Bisexuality

    • C. 

      Heterosexuality

    • D. 

      Homosexuality

  • 108. 
    The weight of evidence indicated that sexual orientation is caused mostly by:
    • A. 

      Human biology, although society plays some role.

    • B. 

      The way young children are raised.

    • C. 

      How societies construct sexuality.

    • D. 

      Individual choice.

  • 109. 
    Critics of easily available pornography agrue that:
    • A. 

      It unfairly depicts women as the playthings of men.

    • B. 

      It encourages violence against women.

    • C. 

      It encourages a breakdown in morals.

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct.

  • 110. 
    Social stratification refers to:
    • A. 

      Specialization in productive work

    • B. 

      The idea that all people are created equal

    • C. 

      Society ranking categories of people in a hierarchy

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 111. 
    A child's sex is  determined shortly before birth by chromosomes contributed by the mother. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 112. 
    Because of social stratification:
    • A. 

      Some people have more privileges and opportunities than others do.

    • B. 

      Working hard is the only way people can become wealthy.

    • C. 

      All people begin life on a level playing field.

    • D. 

      What people get out of life is pretty much what they put into it.

  • 113. 
    In all societies:
    • A. 

      All children begin life with the same social standing

    • B. 

      Children will change their social position many times over the course of their lives

    • C. 

      Parents pass their social position on to their children

    • D. 

      Children determine their own social position based on their own efforts

  • 114. 
    A caste system is defined as:
    • A. 

      A meritocracy

    • B. 

      Any social system in which categories of people are unequal

    • C. 

      Social stratification based on ascription or birth

    • D. 

      Social stratification based on individual achievement

  • 115. 
    In a caste system:
    • A. 

      There is little or no social mobility

    • B. 

      Social position typically changes over one's life

    • C. 

      Children are likely to end up with social standing different from that of their parents

    • D. 

      People earn their social position through their efforts

  • 116. 
    The term "meritocracy" refers to social stratification:
    • A. 

      In which people "know their place."

    • B. 

      Based entirely on merit

    • C. 

      With no social mobility

    • D. 

      As found in the United States

  • 117. 
    A college professor who has advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power can be described as having:
    • A. 

      A low status consistency

    • B. 

      Downward social mobility

    • C. 

      Horizontal social mobility

    • D. 

      High status consistency

  • 118. 
    Ideology refers to:
    • A. 

      How social inequality fosters greed in individuals

    • B. 

      The study of social inequality

    • C. 

      Plato's belief that stratification was good for society

    • D. 

      Cultural beliefs that justify social stratification

  • 119. 
    The common ideology of a class system treats______as a sign of personal talent and effort and poverty as a reslut of______.
    • A. 

      Charity; bad fortune

    • B. 

      Family name; forces outside one's control

    • C. 

      Merit; flaws in society

    • D. 

      Wealth; personal inadequacy

  • 120. 
    • A. 

      Our gender

    • B. 

      Our race

    • C. 

      The family we are born into

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 121. 
    Gender refers to:
    • A. 

      People's sexual orientation

    • B. 

      The personal traits and social positions that members of society attach to being female and male

    • C. 

      The degree of inequality between men and women in society

    • D. 

      The secondary sex characteristics of individuals

  • 122. 
    • A. 

      Patriarchy

    • B. 

      Monarchy

    • C. 

      Matriarchy

    • D. 

      Gerontocracy

  • 123. 
    • A. 

      Secondary sex characteristics

    • B. 

      Gender roles

    • C. 

      Primary sex characteristics

    • D. 

      Sexual orientation

  • 124. 
    • A. 

      "comparable worth"

    • B. 

      "pink-collar ghetto"

    • C. 

      "glass ceiling"

    • D. 

      "hidden sexism"

  • 125. 
    Intersection theory focuses on:
    • A. 

      Ways in which men and women cooperate in the workplace

    • B. 

      The interplay of race, class, and gender often leading to multiple disadvantages

    • C. 

      Migration of women from all over the world to the United States

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 126. 
    While race refers to_______considered important by society, ethinicity refers to_____.
    • A. 

      Biological traits; cultural traits

    • B. 

      Differences; what we have in common

    • C. 

      Cultural traits; biological traits

    • D. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 127. 
    • A. 

      Race

    • B. 

      Stereotype

    • C. 

      Ethnicity

    • D. 

      Minority

  • 128. 
    • A. 

      Scapegoating

    • B. 

      Discrimination

    • C. 

      Prejudice

    • D. 

      Racism

  • 129. 
    • A. 

      Racism

    • B. 

      Prejudice

    • C. 

      Scapegoating

    • D. 

      Discrimination

  • 130. 
    Institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that:
    • A. 

      Some people hold rigidly biased attitudes

    • B. 

      People come to accept minorities

    • C. 

      Biased was pronounced in this nation's history

    • D. 

      Bias is built into the operation of today's institutions

  • 131. 
    Assimilation refers to the pattern by which:
    • A. 

      People regain a lost cultural heritage

    • B. 

      Minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category

    • C. 

      People come to accept minorities

    • D. 

      Minority categories become more equal in social standing

  • 132. 
    • A. 

      Pluralism

    • B. 

      Racial typology

    • C. 

      Assimilation

    • D. 

      Miscegenation

  • 133. 
    Multiculturalists oppose assimilation because:
    • A. 

      This suggests that minorities are the ones who need to do all the changing

    • B. 

      It does not happen in this country

    • C. 

      The United States has provided a better life for all categories of people

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 134. 
    • A. 

      Assimilation

    • B. 

      Pluralism

    • C. 

      Segregation

    • D. 

      Miscegentation

  • 135. 
    The holocaust, in which the Nazis murdered million of Jews, is an example of:
    • A. 

      Genocide

    • B. 

      Miscegenation

    • C. 

      Assimilation

    • D. 

      Hypersegregation

  • 136. 
    • A. 

      Out-group

    • B. 

      Minority

    • C. 

      Racial category

    • D. 

      Ethnic category

  • 137. 
    All but one of the following statements are correct. Which one is NOT correct?
    • A. 

      A minority does not have to be a numerical minority

    • B. 

      Usually, people can readily identify a member of a minority

    • C. 

      Minorities have a distinctive identity

    • D. 

      All people in a minority category are disadvantaged

  • 138. 
    Three states currently have a "minority-majority". Which of the following is NOT one of them?
    • A. 

      Florida

    • B. 

      New Mexico

    • C. 

      California

    • D. 

      Hawaii

  • 139. 
    The "beauty myth" refers to the idea that:
    • A. 

      Beautiful women are free from control by men

    • B. 

      Women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance

    • C. 

      Women today are as physically attractive as today's men are

    • D. 

      Men prefer women who are physically attractive

  • 140. 
    Sexual harassment became an issue in the united states in:
    • A. 

      The nineteenth century

    • B. 

      The 1990's

    • C. 

      The 1960's

    • D. 

      The colonial era

  • 141. 
    • A. 

      Women cannot operate high-tech equipment as well as men

    • B. 

      Women score lower on military intelligence tests

    • C. 

      Women are seen as nurturers rather than people who kill

    • D. 

      Women have less "history" and tradition in the armed forces

  • 142. 
    Little or no sexual attraction to people of either sex is called:
    • A. 

      Asexuality

    • B. 

      Homosexuality

    • C. 

      Bisexuality

    • D. 

      Heterosexuality

  • 143. 
    Elite prostitutes--young, attractive, and well eduated--are referred to as _______; while ______are at the bottom of the sex-worker hierarchy.
    • A. 

      Call girls; brothel workers

    • B. 

      Brothel workers; streetwalkers

    • C. 

      Streetwalkers; call girls

    • D. 

      Call girls; streetwalkers

  • 144. 
    The term "homophobia" refers to:
    • A. 

      Fear of pregnancy

    • B. 

      Fear of one's own sexuality

    • C. 

      Fear of close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

    • D. 

      Fear of experiencing sexual attraction to a child

  • 145. 
    • A. 

      34

    • B. 

      28

    • C. 

      42

    • D. 

      50

  • 146. 
    In the documentary, Race: The power of illusion, it was stated that we all have 35,000 or so genes for skin color, genes which control the color of melanin in our skin. Geneticist Mary Claire King said "different mutations occurred so that many with light skin lost the capacity to make dark melanin." Dark melanin blocks out UV light and is found where sunlight isless intense. Light melanin is found where sunlight is more intense.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 147. 
    Also, from the documentary Race: The power of illusion, it was stated "found in the blue hills of virginia, mixed races, able to pass for white, unclassifiable...were called the WIN tribe..." what was the racial make-up of these people known as the WIN tribe?
    • A. 

      Black and white

    • B. 

      Indian

    • C. 

      Hispanic

    • D. 

      Asian

    • E. 

      Both a&b

  • 148. 
    Based on the documentary, it was said that sickle cell disease is a disease attacking only those of African decent.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 149. 
    Hitler's aryan race was derived from ideas of U.S. race scientists.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False