El Dorado Cosmetology: Scalp And Hair! Quiz

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El Dorado Cosmetology: Scalp And Hair! Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The branch of science that focuses on the hair, its diseases, and its care is called:

    • A.

      Biology

    • B.

      Dermatology

    • C.

      Trichology

    • D.

      Hairology

    Correct Answer
    C. Trichology
    Explanation
    Trichology is the branch of science that focuses on the hair, its diseases, and its care. It specifically deals with the study of hair and scalp disorders, hair loss, hair growth, and the overall health of the hair. Trichologists are experts in diagnosing and treating various hair and scalp conditions, as well as providing guidance on hair care practices and treatments. Therefore, Trichology is the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 2. 

    The two main divisions of the hair are the hair shaft and the:

    • A.

      Hair Root

    • B.

      Follicle

    • C.

      Bulb

    • D.

      Arrector Pili

    Correct Answer
    A. Hair Root
    Explanation
    The hair root is the correct answer because it is one of the two main divisions of the hair. The hair root is located beneath the surface of the skin and is responsible for anchoring the hair in the follicle. It contains the hair bulb, which is the living part of the hair that produces new cells. The hair root also contains the papilla, which supplies nutrients to the hair follicle. Overall, the hair root plays a crucial role in hair growth and maintenance.

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  • 3. 

    The hair root is made up of three main structures, the follicle, bulb, and:

    • A.

      Hair Stream

    • B.

      Medulla

    • C.

      Dermal Papilla

    • D.

      Cuticle

    Correct Answer
    C. Dermal Papilla
    Explanation
    The hair root is composed of three main structures: the follicle, bulb, and dermal papilla. The follicle surrounds and protects the hair bulb, which is the living part of the hair that produces new cells. The dermal papilla is a small, specialized structure at the base of the hair bulb. It contains blood vessels that supply nutrients to the hair follicle and play a crucial role in hair growth and development. The medulla, on the other hand, is the innermost layer of the hair shaft, not a part of the hair root. The cuticle is the outermost layer of the hair shaft, responsible for protecting the inner layers.

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  • 4. 

    The follicle is the tube-like depression in the skin that contains the:

    • A.

      Hair Shaft

    • B.

      Cuticle

    • C.

      Hair Root

    • D.

      Sabaceous Gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Hair Root
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Hair Root. The follicle is a tube-like depression in the skin that surrounds and protects the hair root. The hair root is the part of the hair that is embedded in the follicle and is responsible for hair growth. It is nourished by blood vessels in the scalp and contains cells that produce new hair cells. The hair shaft, on the other hand, is the visible part of the hair that extends beyond the skin's surface. The cuticle is the outermost layer of the hair shaft, and the sebaceous gland is a gland associated with the hair follicle that produces sebum, which helps to moisturize and protect the hair and skin.

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  • 5. 

    The lower part of the hair root is the club-shaped:

    • A.

      Arrector Pili

    • B.

      Hair Shaft

    • C.

      Dermal Papilla

    • D.

      Hair Bulb

    Correct Answer
    D. Hair Bulb
    Explanation
    The hair bulb is the correct answer because it is the lower part of the hair root that is club-shaped. The hair bulb is located at the base of the hair follicle and contains the dermal papilla, which provides nourishment to the hair follicle. The hair shaft refers to the visible part of the hair that extends beyond the scalp. The arrector pili is a small muscle attached to the hair follicle that causes the hair to stand up when it contracts.

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  • 6. 

    The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides:

    • A.

      Pheomelanin

    • B.

      Sebum

    • C.

      Eumelanin

    • D.

      Nutrients

    Correct Answer
    D. Nutrients
    Explanation
    The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides nutrients to the hair follicles. Nutrients are essential for the growth and maintenance of healthy hair. They provide the necessary building blocks and energy for hair cells to function properly. Without an adequate supply of nutrients, the hair follicles may become weak and unable to produce strong and healthy hair strands. Therefore, the presence of blood and nerve supply in the dermal papilla ensures that the hair follicles receive the necessary nutrients for optimal hair growth.

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  • 7. 

    At the base of the follicle is a tiny involuntary muscle called the:

    • A.

      Arrector Pili

    • B.

      Dermal Papilla

    • C.

      Orbicularis Oculi

    • D.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    A. Arrector Pili
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Arrector Pili. The arrector pili muscle is a small involuntary muscle located at the base of the hair follicle. When this muscle contracts, it causes the hair to stand up, resulting in what is commonly known as "goosebumps." This muscle is responsible for regulating body temperature by trapping a layer of air close to the skin, providing insulation. It also plays a role in expressing emotions, such as fear or excitement, by causing the hair to stand on end.

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  • 8. 

    The sabaceous glands secrete a substance called:

    • A.

      Keratin

    • B.

      Lymph

    • C.

      Melanin

    • D.

      Sebum

    Correct Answer
    D. Sebum
    Explanation
    Sebum is the correct answer because sebaceous glands are responsible for secreting sebum, which is an oily substance that lubricates and moisturizes the skin and hair. Sebum helps to keep the skin and hair hydrated and protects them from drying out. It also helps to maintain the pH balance of the skin and has antibacterial properties. Therefore, sebum plays a crucial role in keeping the skin and hair healthy.

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  • 9. 

    The hair shaft is made up of three layers; the cuticle, cortex, and:

    • A.

      Root

    • B.

      Bulb

    • C.

      Follicle

    • D.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    D. Medulla
    Explanation
    The hair shaft is composed of three layers: the cuticle, cortex, and medulla. The cuticle is the outermost layer that protects the hair, while the cortex is the middle layer responsible for the hair's strength, color, and texture. The medulla, located at the center of the hair shaft, is a soft and spongy layer that is not always present in all hair types. It helps to provide structural support to the hair. Therefore, the correct answer is Medulla.

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  • 10. 

    A healthy, compact cuticle serves as the hair's:

    • A.

      Source of Melanin

    • B.

      Nerve Supply

    • C.

      Primary Defense

    • D.

      Source of Nutrients

    Correct Answer
    C. Primary Defense
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Primary Defense." A healthy, compact cuticle acts as the hair's outermost layer, protecting it from external factors such as UV radiation, pollutants, and physical damage. It helps to retain moisture and prevent the hair from becoming dry and brittle.

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  • 11. 

    The layer of hair is generally only present in thick, coarse hair is the:

    • A.

      Dermal Papilla

    • B.

      Medulla

    • C.

      Cortex

    • D.

      Cuticle

    Correct Answer
    B. Medulla
    Explanation
    The medulla is the correct answer because it is the innermost layer of the hair shaft and is typically only present in thick, coarse hair. It is composed of loosely packed cells and air spaces, giving the hair a spongy appearance. In contrast, the cortex is the middle layer of the hair shaft and is present in all hair types, while the cuticle is the outermost layer and is present in all hair as well. The dermal papilla, on the other hand, is not a layer of the hair, but rather a small, specialized structure at the base of the hair follicle that provides nutrients to the growing hair.

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  • 12. 

    The cortex accounts for about ____ of the total weight of the hair.

    • A.

      50%

    • B.

      90%

    • C.

      25%

    • D.

      10%

    Correct Answer
    B. 90%
    Explanation
    The cortex, which is the middle layer of the hair shaft, is responsible for providing strength, elasticity, and color to the hair. It is the thickest layer and makes up the majority of the hair's weight. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the cortex accounts for a large percentage of the total weight of the hair, and 90% seems like a plausible estimate.

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  • 13. 

    Swelling the hair raises the ____ and allows liquids to penetrate.

    • A.

      Root

    • B.

      Medulla

    • C.

      Cortex

    • D.

      Cuticle

    Correct Answer
    D. Cuticle
    Explanation
    The cuticle is the outermost layer of the hair shaft. It consists of overlapping scales that form a protective barrier around the hair. When the hair swells, the cuticle scales lift, creating gaps between them. This allows liquids to penetrate the hair shaft more easily.

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  • 14. 

    Permanent haircolors, perm solutions, and chemical relaxers must have an alkaline pH in order to:

    • A.

      Penetrate the Cuticle Layer

    • B.

      Penetrate the Medulla

    • C.

      Remove the Cortex

    • D.

      Remove the Cuticle Layer

    Correct Answer
    A. Penetrate the Cuticle Layer
    Explanation
    Permanent haircolors, perm solutions, and chemical relaxers must have an alkaline pH in order to penetrate the cuticle layer. The cuticle layer is the outermost protective layer of the hair shaft, and it consists of overlapping scales that need to be lifted for these chemical processes to work effectively. Alkaline pH helps to open up the cuticle scales, allowing the products to enter the hair shaft and make the desired changes to the hair structure.

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  • 15. 

    Permanent waving, chjemical relaxing, and oxidation haircoloring cause changes that occur in the:

    • A.

      Cuticle

    • B.

      Roots

    • C.

      Cortex

    • D.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    C. Cortex
    Explanation
    Permanent waving, chemical relaxing, and oxidation haircoloring cause changes that occur in the cortex of the hair. The cortex is the middle layer of the hair shaft and is responsible for the hair's strength, elasticity, and color. These chemical processes alter the structure of the cortex, allowing for the desired changes in texture or color. The cuticle, roots, and medulla may also be affected to some extent, but the cortex is the primary site of change in these processes.

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  • 16. 

    By the time the hair shaft emerges from the scalp, its cells are keranitinized and:

    • A.

      Are Actively Reproducing

    • B.

      Have Retained Their Nucleus

    • C.

      Are No Longer Living

    • D.

      Live Several More Years

    Correct Answer
    C. Are No Longer Living
    Explanation
    The hair shaft is composed of dead cells that have undergone keratinization, a process in which the cells lose their nucleus and become hardened. Therefore, by the time the hair shaft emerges from the scalp, it is no longer living.

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  • 17. 

    Hair is made up of five elements; carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen:

    • A.

      Oxygen and sulfur

    • B.

      Copper and oxygen

    • C.

      Oxygen and sodium

    • D.

      Sulfur and chlorine

    Correct Answer
    A. Oxygen and sulfur
    Explanation
    Hair is primarily composed of a protein called keratin, which is made up of various elements including carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen. However, sulfur is also an essential component of hair as it helps to form disulfide bonds, which give hair its strength and structure. Oxygen is also present in hair as it is a component of both keratin and water, which is essential for maintaining hair hydration. Therefore, the correct answer is oxygen and sulfur.

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  • 18. 

    Of tyhe five elements in human hair, the element that makes up the lowest percentage is:

    • A.

      Sulfur

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Carbon

    • D.

      Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    A. Sulfur
    Explanation
    Sulfur is the element that makes up the lowest percentage in human hair. This is because sulfur is only present in small amounts in the protein structure of hair, while elements like nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen are more abundant.

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  • 19. 

    Amino acids are linked together by chemical bonds called:

    • A.

      Hydrogen bonds

    • B.

      Peptide bonds

    • C.

      Side bonds

    • D.

      Salt bonds

    Correct Answer
    B. Peptide bonds
    Explanation
    Amino acids are linked together by chemical bonds called peptide bonds. Peptide bonds are formed through a condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid, resulting in the release of a water molecule. These peptide bonds create a chain-like structure known as a polypeptide, which is the basis for protein formation. Hydrogen bonds, side bonds, and salt bonds are not involved in the linking of amino acids.

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  • 20. 

    Side bonds account for the hair's:

    • A.

      Color

    • B.

      Elasticity

    • C.

      Porosity

    • D.

      Fragility

    Correct Answer
    B. Elasticity
    Explanation
    Side bonds account for the hair's elasticity. Side bonds are chemical bonds that hold the protein structure of the hair together. These bonds are responsible for the hair's strength, flexibility, and ability to stretch and return to its original shape. When the side bonds are intact, the hair has good elasticity and can withstand styling and manipulation without breaking. However, when these bonds are weakened or damaged, the hair becomes less elastic and more prone to breakage.

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  • 21. 

    Polypeptide chains are cross-linked together by these side bonds:

    • A.

      Disulfide, bisulfide, and salt bonds

    • B.

      Hydrogen, salt, and disulfide bonds

    • C.

      Polypeptide, hydrogen, and salt bonds

    • D.

      Salt, hydrogen, and peptide bonds

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydrogen, salt, and disulfide bonds
    Explanation
    Polypeptide chains are cross-linked together by hydrogen, salt, and disulfide bonds. Hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atom of one amino acid and the oxygen or nitrogen atom of another amino acid. Salt bonds, also known as ionic bonds, occur between positively and negatively charged amino acids. Disulfide bonds are covalent bonds formed between two cysteine amino acids through the oxidation of their sulfur atoms. These side bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure of proteins.

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  • 22. 

    Compared to hydrogen and salt bonds, disulfide bonds are:

    • A.

      Stronger

    • B.

      More easily broken

    • C.

      More numerous

    • D.

      Weaker

    Correct Answer
    A. Stronger
    Explanation
    Disulfide bonds are stronger compared to hydrogen and salt bonds. Disulfide bonds form between two sulfur atoms in a protein chain and are covalent in nature. They are stronger because the covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons between the sulfur atoms, resulting in a more stable and stronger bond. In contrast, hydrogen bonds are weaker and form between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom, while salt bonds are also weaker and form due to the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions.

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  • 23. 

    Cystine is created when a disulfide bond joins the ____ atoms of twoo neighboring cysteine amino acids.

    • A.

      Nitrogen

    • B.

      Sulfur

    • C.

      Carbon

    • D.

      Hydrogen

    Correct Answer
    B. Sulfur
    Explanation
    Cystine is created when a disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine amino acids. This bond forms between the sulfur atoms in the side chains of cysteine residues, resulting in the formation of cystine. The disulfide bond is a covalent bond that plays a crucial role in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure of proteins.

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  • 24. 

    Permanent waving and chemical hair relaxing change the shape of the hair by chemically changing the:

    • A.

      Peptide bonds

    • B.

      Salt bonds

    • C.

      Hydrogen bonds

    • D.

      Disulfide bonds

    Correct Answer
    D. Disulfide bonds
    Explanation
    Permanent waving and chemical hair relaxing change the shape of the hair by chemically changing the disulfide bonds. Disulfide bonds are strong chemical bonds that hold together the protein structure of the hair. By breaking and reforming these bonds, the hair can be reshaped and styled. This process is achieved using chemical solutions that alter the disulfide bonds, allowing the hair to be permanently curled or straightened. Peptide bonds, salt bonds, and hydrogen bonds are also present in the hair, but they are not as strong as disulfide bonds and do not have the same impact on changing the hair's shape.

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  • 25. 

    The agents that easily break hydrogen bonds are:

    • A.

      Chemical relaxers

    • B.

      Water or heat

    • C.

      Changes in pH

    • D.

      Permanent waves

    Correct Answer
    B. Water or heat
    Explanation
    Water or heat can easily break hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are relatively weak bonds that form between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom such as oxygen or nitrogen. Water molecules, for example, can break these bonds by providing a medium for the hydrogen bonds to dissociate. Heat can also break hydrogen bonds by increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules, causing them to move more vigorously and break the bonds holding them together. Therefore, both water and heat can disrupt hydrogen bonds, making them agents that easily break these bonds.

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  • 26. 

    The ratio of eumelanin to pheomelanin determines:

    • A.

      Natural hair texture

    • B.

      Haircolor processing time

    • C.

      Natural wave pattern

    • D.

      Natural hair color

    Correct Answer
    D. Natural hair color
    Explanation
    The ratio of eumelanin to pheomelanin determines natural hair color. Eumelanin is responsible for darker hair colors such as black or brown, while pheomelanin is responsible for lighter hair colors such as blonde or red. The varying levels of these two pigments in the hair follicles determine the overall hair color that an individual has.

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  • 27. 

    The range of red and ginger to yellow/blonde tones in natural hair color is provided by:

    • A.

      Pheomelanin

    • B.

      Melanin

    • C.

      Red melanin

    • D.

      Eumelanin

    Correct Answer
    A. Pheomelanin
    Explanation
    Pheomelanin is responsible for providing the range of red and ginger to yellow/blonde tones in natural hair color. It is a type of melanin that produces these lighter shades of hair. Melanin, red melanin, and eumelanin are not specifically associated with these particular hair colors.

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  • 28. 

    The pigment in the cortex that gives natural color to the hair is known as:

    • A.

      Melanin

    • B.

      Aniline

    • C.

      Disulfide

    • D.

      Sebum

    Correct Answer
    A. Melanin
    Explanation
    Melanin is the pigment in the cortex of the hair that gives it its natural color. It is responsible for determining whether hair is black, brown, red, or blonde. Melanin is produced by specialized cells called melanocytes, which are located in the hair follicles. The amount and type of melanin produced by these cells determine the specific color of an individual's hair.

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  • 29. 

    The quality of hair that is described as straight, wavy, curly, or extremely curly is:

    • A.

      Wave pattern

    • B.

      Porosity

    • C.

      Density

    • D.

      Texture

    Correct Answer
    A. Wave pattern
    Explanation
    The quality of hair that is described as straight, wavy, curly, or extremely curly is referred to as the wave pattern. This refers to the natural shape and pattern of the hair strands, determining whether they are straight, have slight waves, are curly, or have extremely curly coils.

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  • 30. 

    An oval cross-section is typical of:

    • A.

      Wavy hair

    • B.

      Straight hair

    • C.

      Extremely curly hair

    • D.

      All hair types

    Correct Answer
    A. Wavy hair
    Explanation
    An oval cross-section is typical of wavy hair because it is neither completely round nor completely flat. Wavy hair has a slight curve to it, which gives it an oval shape when viewed in cross-section. This shape allows wavy hair to have some volume and movement, but not as much as extremely curly hair. Straight hair, on the other hand, typically has a round cross-section, while extremely curly hair tends to have a flat or elliptical cross-section. Therefore, wavy hair is the most fitting option for an oval cross-section.

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  • 31. 

    In general, coiled hair;

    • A.

      Is very elastic

    • B.

      Has a coarse texture

    • C.

      Is very strong

    • D.

      Has a fine texture

    Correct Answer
    D. Has a fine texture
    Explanation
    Coiled hair is known to have a fine texture. This means that each individual strand of hair is thin and delicate. Fine hair is often characterized by its smoothness and lack of thickness. It can be easily manipulated and styled, but it may also be prone to breakage and damage.

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  • 32. 

    The four most important factors in a hair analysis are texture, density, porosity, and:

    • A.

      Elasticity

    • B.

      Color

    • C.

      Length

    • D.

      Hairline

    Correct Answer
    A. Elasticity
    Explanation
    Elasticity is an important factor in hair analysis because it determines the hair's ability to stretch and return to its original shape without breaking. It indicates the hair's strength and health. Hair with good elasticity is less prone to breakage and damage, while hair with low elasticity is more likely to break and have issues such as split ends. Therefore, assessing elasticity helps in understanding the overall condition and quality of the hair.

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  • 33. 

    Hair texture is a term that refers to the hair's:

    • A.

      Degree of straightness or curliness

    • B.

      Ability to stretch

    • C.

      Ability to absorb moisture

    • D.

      Diameter

    Correct Answer
    D. Diameter
    Explanation
    Hair texture refers to the diameter of the hair strands. It is a term used to describe how thin or thick the individual strands of hair are. Hair can have a fine texture, which means the strands are thin, or a coarse texture, which means the strands are thick. The diameter of the hair can affect its appearance and how it behaves. For example, fine hair may appear limp and lack volume, while coarse hair may be more prone to frizz and require more styling products to manage.

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  • 34. 

    Porosity is defined as the hair's:

    • A.

      Ability to stretch

    • B.

      Thickness or thinness

    • C.

      Degree of straightness or curliness

    • D.

      Ability to absorb moisture

    Correct Answer
    D. Ability to absorb moisture
    Explanation
    Porosity refers to the hair's ability to absorb moisture. It determines how well the hair can retain and hold onto moisture. Hair with high porosity tends to absorb moisture easily but may also lose it quickly, while hair with low porosity has difficulty absorbing moisture. Understanding the porosity of the hair is important for determining the right hair care routine and products to maintain optimal moisture balance.

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  • 35. 

    Of all the hair types, the hair with the largest diameter is:

    • A.

      Gray

    • B.

      Fine

    • C.

      Straight

    • D.

      Coarse

    Correct Answer
    D. Coarse
    Explanation
    Coarse hair refers to hair strands that have a larger diameter compared to other hair types. This means that the individual strands of coarse hair are thicker and have a wider circumference. Coarse hair is often characterized by its rough texture and can be more resistant to styling and manipulation. It is typically more prone to frizz and can require extra care and moisture to maintain its health and appearance.

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  • 36. 

    Fine hair has the smallest diameter and is more likely than medium or coarse hair to be:

    • A.

      Difficult to process

    • B.

      Resistant to processing

    • C.

      Under processed during chemical services

    • D.

      Damaged by chemical services

    Correct Answer
    D. Damaged by chemical services
    Explanation
    Fine hair has the smallest diameter, which means it is more delicate and fragile compared to medium or coarse hair. Due to its delicate nature, fine hair is more susceptible to damage caused by chemical services such as coloring, perming, or straightening. The chemicals used in these processes can be harsh and can weaken the hair structure, leading to breakage, dryness, and overall damage. Therefore, fine hair is more likely to be damaged by chemical services.

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  • 37. 

    The measure of how many individual hair strands there are on 1 square inch of scalp is the hair's:

    • A.

      Density

    • B.

      Texture

    • C.

      Coarseness

    • D.

      Porosity

    Correct Answer
    A. Density
    Explanation
    Density refers to the number of individual hair strands on a specific area of the scalp, typically measured per square inch. It is a measure of how closely packed the hair strands are on the scalp. Texture, coarseness, and porosity, on the other hand, refer to different characteristics of the hair, such as its feel, thickness, and ability to absorb moisture. Therefore, density is the correct answer as it specifically relates to the number of hair strands on the scalp.

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  • 38. 

    The color of the hair is generally related to the:

    • A.

      A porosity of the hair

    • B.

      Condition of the hair

    • C.

      Number of hairs on the head

    • D.

      Texture of the hair

    Correct Answer
    C. Number of hairs on the head
    Explanation
    The color of the hair is generally related to the number of hairs on the head. The more hair follicles a person has, the denser their hair will appear, which can affect the overall color perception. This is because the color of the hair is determined by the amount and type of melanin pigment present in each hair strand. With a larger number of hair strands, there is a higher chance of variation in the amount and distribution of melanin, which can result in different hair colors.

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  • 39. 

    Among the various natural hair colors, ____ is generally the thickest (has the highest density)

    • A.

      Black hair

    • B.

      Brown hair

    • C.

      Blonde hair

    • D.

      Red hair

    Correct Answer
    C. Blonde hair
    Explanation
    Blonde hair is generally the thickest among the various natural hair colors because it contains the highest amount of hair strands per square inch. This high density of hair strands gives the appearance of thickness.

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  • 40. 

    Resistant hair is hair with

    • A.

      Normal porosity

    • B.

      High porosity

    • C.

      Average porosity

    • D.

      Low porosity

    Correct Answer
    D. Low porosity
    Explanation
    Low porosity hair refers to hair that has tightly closed cuticles, making it resistant to moisture and product absorption. This type of hair tends to repel water and takes longer to dry. It also has difficulty absorbing and retaining moisture, which can lead to dryness and product buildup. Therefore, low porosity hair is considered resistant because it resists the penetration of moisture and products.

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  • 41. 

    Overly porous hair is usually caused by:

    • A.

      Strand testing

    • B.

      Brushing hair before shampooing

    • C.

      Conditioning treatments

    • D.

      Overprocessing

    Correct Answer
    D. Overprocessing
    Explanation
    Overly porous hair is usually caused by overprocessing. Overprocessing refers to excessive use of chemical treatments such as coloring, perming, or relaxing, which can damage the hair cuticle and make it more porous. When the hair cuticle is damaged, it becomes more prone to absorbing and losing moisture, leading to dryness, breakage, and frizz. This can result in hair that feels rough, brittle, and lacks shine. Therefore, overprocessing is the most likely cause of overly porous hair among the given options.

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  • 42. 

    Hair can be streched up to 50% of its original length when it is:

    • A.

      Dry

    • B.

      Damaged

    • C.

      Permed

    • D.

      Wet

    Correct Answer
    D. Wet
    Explanation
    When hair is wet, it becomes more flexible and elastic due to the presence of water. This allows the hair to be stretched up to 50% of its original length without breaking or causing damage. Once the hair dries, it loses moisture and becomes more rigid, making it less prone to stretching. Therefore, the correct answer is wet.

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  • 43. 

    When follicles slope in the same direction, the hair growing from them is called a:

    • A.

      Whorl

    • B.

      Hair stream

    • C.

      Follicle stream

    • D.

      Cowlick

    Correct Answer
    B. Hair stream
    Explanation
    When follicles slope in the same direction, the hair growing from them is called a hair stream. This term refers to the pattern in which hair grows from the scalp, with the follicles aligned in a specific direction. This can create a distinct flow or stream of hair, which can be observed when the hair is styled or brushed. It is important to note that a hair stream is different from a whorl, which refers to a circular pattern of hair growth, and a cowlick, which is a section of hair that stands up or grows in a different direction than the rest.

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  • 44. 

    Inactive sebaceous glands are generally the cause of:

    • A.

      Dry hair and scalp

    • B.

      Canities

    • C.

      Abnormal hair loss

    • D.

      Oily hair and scalp

    Correct Answer
    A. Dry hair and scalp
    Explanation
    Inactive sebaceous glands refer to glands that are not producing enough sebum, which is the natural oil that moisturizes the hair and scalp. When these glands are inactive, the hair and scalp can become dry. This lack of moisture can lead to dryness, itchiness, and flakiness of the scalp, as well as brittle and dry hair. Therefore, inactive sebaceous glands are generally the cause of dry hair and scalp.

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  • 45. 

    Vellus hair is characterized by all the following except:

    • A.

      Found on infants

    • B.

      More abundant on men

    • C.

      Lacking a medulla

    • D.

      Not pigmented

    Correct Answer
    B. More abundant on men
    Explanation
    Vellus hair is fine, short, and usually unpigmented hair that covers most of the body. It is typically found on infants and is not as abundant on men as it is on women. Therefore, the statement "more abundant on men" is incorrect.

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  • 46. 

    Some vellus hair is replaced with terminal hair because of hormonal changes during:

    • A.

      Middle age

    • B.

      Infancy

    • C.

      Puberty

    • D.

      Early childhood

    Correct Answer
    C. Puberty
    Explanation
    During puberty, hormonal changes occur in the body, particularly an increase in androgen hormones such as testosterone. These hormonal changes stimulate the growth of terminal hair, which is thicker, darker, and longer than vellus hair. This is why some vellus hair, which is fine and light, is replaced with terminal hair during puberty.

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  • 47. 

    Hair growth occurs in cycles of three phases; anagen, catagen, and;

    • A.

      Biogen

    • B.

      Transition

    • C.

      Telogen

    • D.

      Growth phase

    Correct Answer
    C. Telogen
    Explanation
    Hair growth occurs in cycles, and the three phases of this cycle are anagen, catagen, and telogen. The anagen phase is the active growth phase, where the hair follicle is producing new cells and the hair is growing. The catagen phase is a transitional phase, where the hair follicle starts to shrink and detach from the blood supply. Finally, the telogen phase is the resting phase, where the hair follicle is inactive and the hair is not growing. During this phase, the old hair eventually falls out, making way for new hair to grow in the next anagen phase. Therefore, the correct answer is telogen.

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  • 48. 

    The anagen phase of the hair growth cycle is the:

    • A.

      Final phase

    • B.

      Resting place

    • C.

      Growth phase

    • D.

      Transition period

    Correct Answer
    C. Growth phase
    Explanation
    The anagen phase of the hair growth cycle is the growth phase. During this phase, the hair follicles are actively producing new hair, and the hair shaft is continuously growing. This phase can last for several years, and the length of the anagen phase can vary among individuals. After the anagen phase, the hair enters the catagen phase, followed by the telogen phase, which is the resting phase, before the cycle starts again with a new anagen phase.

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  • 49. 

    The phase during which the follicle canal shrinks and detaches from the dermal papilla is the:

    • A.

      Catagen phase

    • B.

      Anagen phase

    • C.

      Telogen phase

    • D.

      Final phase

    Correct Answer
    A. Catagen phase
    Explanation
    During the catagen phase, the follicle canal shrinks and detaches from the dermal papilla. This is a transitional phase between the active growth phase (anagen) and the resting phase (telogen) of the hair follicle. In the catagen phase, the hair stops growing and the lower part of the hair follicle collapses, causing the hair to detach from its blood supply. This phase lasts for a short period of time before the hair enters the telogen phase, where it remains in a resting state before eventually falling out.

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  • 50. 

    At any one time, about 90% of scalp hair is in the;

    • A.

      Anagen phase

    • B.

      Catagen phase

    • C.

      Dormant phase

    • D.

      Telogen phase

    Correct Answer
    A. Anagen phase
    Explanation
    The anagen phase is the active growth phase of the hair follicle. During this phase, the hair grows continuously and can last for several years. The catagen phase is a transitional phase where the hair follicle shrinks and detaches from the blood supply. The dormant phase refers to the resting phase of the hair follicle, where no growth occurs. The telogen phase is the final phase, where the hair is shed and replaced by new hair. Since the question asks about the percentage of hair in a specific phase at any one time, the correct answer is the anagen phase, as it is the phase with the highest percentage of hair.

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