Clic Cosmetology: Properties Of The Hair And Scalp (Part 1)

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Quizzes Created: 8 | Total Attempts: 1,683
Questions: 45 | Attempts: 759

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Hair Quizzes & Trivia

Hairstyling services should be grounded in a thorough understanding of the growth, structure, and composition of hair. The scientific study of hair, its diseases, and care is called trichology, which comes from the Greek words trichos (hair) and ology (the study of). This informs you about the structure of the hair, the chemical composition of hair, hair analysis, hair growth, hair loss, disorders of the hair, and disorders of the scalp.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The part of the hair located below the surface of the scalp.

    • A.

      Hair root

    • B.

      Hair shaft

    Correct Answer
    A. Hair root
    Explanation
    The hair root refers to the part of the hair that is located below the surface of the scalp. It is responsible for anchoring the hair follicle in the scalp and contains the hair bulb, which is where the hair growth occurs. The hair root is also connected to the blood vessels and nerves in the scalp, providing nourishment and sensation to the hair.

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  • 2. 

    The portion of the hair that projects above the skin.

    • A.

      Hair root

    • B.

      Hair shaft

    Correct Answer
    B. Hair shaft
    Explanation
    The hair shaft refers to the portion of the hair that is visible above the skin's surface. It is the part of the hair that we can see and touch. The hair shaft is composed of dead cells that have been pushed up from the hair follicle, which is located beneath the skin. It is responsible for giving hair its length, color, and texture. The hair shaft can vary in thickness and texture depending on factors such as genetics and overall hair health.

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  • 3. 

    The tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root.

    • A.

      Hair bulb

    • B.

      Dermal papilla

    • C.

      Arrector pili

    • D.

      Follicle

    • E.

      Sebaceous glands

    Correct Answer
    D. Follicle
    Explanation
    Hair follicles are distributed all over the body, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.

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  • 4. 

    The lowest area or part of a hair strand. It is the thickened, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root.

    • A.

      Dermal papilla

    • B.

      Arrector pili

    • C.

      Hair bulb

    • D.

      Follicle

    • E.

      Sebaceous glands

    Correct Answer
    C. Hair bulb
    Explanation
    The lower part of the hair bulb fits over and covers the dermal papilla.

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  • 5. 

    A small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb.

    • A.

      Arrector pili

    • B.

      Dermal papilla

    • C.

      Hair bulb

    • D.

      Follicle

    • E.

      Sebaceous glands

    Correct Answer
    B. Dermal papilla
    Explanation
    The dermal papilla contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth.

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  • 6. 

    A minute, involuntary muscle fiber in the skin inserted in the base of the hair follicle.

    • A.

      Arrector pili

    • B.

      Hair bulb

    • C.

      Follicle

    • D.

      Sebaceous glands

    • E.

      Dermal papilla

    Correct Answer
    A. Arrector pili
    Explanation
    Fear or cold causes it to contract, which makes the hair stand up straight, resulting in "goose bumps."

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  • 7. 

    The oil glands of the skin, connected to the hair follicles.

    • A.

      Hair bulb

    • B.

      Follicle

    • C.

      Sebaceous glands

    • D.

      Dermal papilla

    • E.

      Arrector pili

    Correct Answer
    C. Sebaceous glands
    Explanation
    Sebaceous glands are connected to the hair follicles and are responsible for producing sebum, an oily substance that helps to moisturize and protect the skin and hair. Sebum is released through the hair follicles and helps to keep the skin and hair lubricated. These glands are located in the dermis layer of the skin and are most commonly found on the face, scalp, and upper back.

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  • 8. 

    The sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance called _______, which lubricates the hair and skin.

    Correct Answer
    sebum
    Explanation
    Sebum is the oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands. It acts as a natural lubricant for both the hair and skin. By keeping the hair and skin moisturized, sebum helps to prevent dryness and maintain their health. It also helps to protect the skin from environmental factors, such as bacteria and pollutants. Overall, sebum plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall health and condition of the hair and skin.

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  • 9. 

    The _______ is the outermost layer of the hair.

    • A.

      Cortex

    • B.

      Medulla

    • C.

      Cuticle

    Correct Answer
    C. Cuticle
    Explanation
    It consists of a single, overlapping layer of transparent, scale-like cells that overlap like shingles on a roof. Swelling the hair raises the cuticle layer and opens the space between the scales, which allows liquids to penetrate. A healthy cuticle layer protects the hair from penetration and prevents damage to hair fibers.

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  • 10. 

    The ________ is the middle layer of the hair. It is a fibrous protein core formed by elongated cells containing melanin pigment.

    • A.

      Medulla

    • B.

      Cortex

    • C.

      Cuticle

    Correct Answer
    B. Cortex
    Explanation
    About 90% of the total weight of hair comes from the cortex. The elasticity of the hair and it's nature color are the result of the unique protein structures located within the cortex. The changes involved in oxidation haircoloring, wet setting, thermal styling, permanent waving, and chemical hair relaxing all take place within the cortex.

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  • 11. 

    The __________ is the innermost layer, sometimes referred to as the pith of the hair. It is composed of round cells.

    • A.

      Medulla

    • B.

      Cortex

    • C.

      Cuticle

    Correct Answer
    A. Medulla
    Explanation
    It is quite common for very fine and naturally blonde hair to entirely lack a medulla. Generally, only thick coarse hair contains a medulla. All male bear hair contains a medulla. As far as cosmetology is concerned, the medulla is an "empty" air space and is not involved in salon services.

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  • 12. 

    Hair is composed of protein that grows from cells originating within the hair follicle. This is where the hair shaft begin. As soon as these living cells form, they begin their journey upward through the hair follicle. They mature in a process called ____________. As these newly formed cells mature, they fill up with a fibrous protein called keratin, then move upward, lose their nucleus and die.

    • A.

      COHNS elements

    • B.

      Anagen

    • C.

      Keratinization

    Correct Answer
    C. Keratinization
    Explanation
    By the time the hair shaft emerges from the scalp, the cells of the hair are completely keratinized and are no longer living. Hair is approximately 91% protein. The protein is made up of long chains of amino acids, which, in turn, are made up of elements.

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  • 13. 

    There are five elements that make up the human hair. These five elements are also the major elements found in skin and nails and are often referred to as the COHNS elements. What does COHNS stand for?

    • A.

      Calcium, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nickel, Silicon

    • B.

      Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur

    • C.

      Copper, Oxygen, Helium, Nitrogen, Sodium

    Correct Answer
    B. Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur
    Explanation
    Carbon: 51% in normal hair
    Oxygen: 21% in normal hair
    Hydrogen: 6% in normal hair
    Nitrogen: 17% in normal hair
    Sulfur: 5% in normal hair

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  • 14. 

    The units of structure in protein, are linked together end to end like pop beads.

    • A.

      Peptide bonds

    • B.

      Amino acids

    • C.

      Polypeptide chain

    Correct Answer
    B. Amino acids
    Explanation
    Amino acids are the units of structure in proteins that are linked together end to end like pop beads. Peptide bonds are the chemical bonds that connect amino acids in a protein chain, forming a polypeptide chain. Therefore, the correct answer is amino acids.

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  • 15. 

    The chemical bond that joins amino acids to each other is called a __________ or end bond.

    • A.

      Polypeptide chain

    • B.

      Hydrogen bond

    • C.

      Peptide bond

    Correct Answer
    C. Peptide bond
    Explanation
    A peptide bond is the correct answer because it is the chemical bond that joins amino acids together in a polypeptide chain. This bond forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid, resulting in the formation of a peptide bond. It is a covalent bond and is essential for the formation of proteins in living organisms.

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  • 16. 

    A long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds is called a polypeptide chain.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Polypeptide chains intertwine around each other in a spiral shape called a helix.

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  • 17. 

    The cortex, middle layer of the hair, is made up of millions of polypeptide chains. These polypeptide chains are cross-linked together, like a ladder, by three different types of side bonds. What are the three side bonds?

    • A.

      Hydrogen, sodium, disulfide

    • B.

      Hydrogen, sulfur, disulfide

    • C.

      Hydrogen, salt, disulfide

    Correct Answer
    C. Hydrogen, salt, disulfide
    Explanation
    These side bonds hold the hair fibers in place and account for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair. These side bonds are essential to wet sets, thermal styling, permanent waving, and chemical hair relaxing.

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  • 18. 

    A ___________ is a physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat.

    • A.

      Salt bond

    • B.

      Disulfide bond

    • C.

      Hydrogen bond

    Correct Answer
    C. Hydrogen bond
    Explanation
    Although individual hydrogen bonds are very weak, there are so many of them that they account for about one-third of the hair's overall strength.

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  • 19. 

    A ____________ is a physical side bond that is broken by changes in pH.

    • A.

      Disulfide bond

    • B.

      Salt bond

    • C.

      Hydrogen bond

    Correct Answer
    B. Salt bond
    Explanation
    Salt bonds are easily broken by strong alkaline or acidic solutions and account for about one-third of the hair's overall strength.

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  • 20. 

    A ____________ is a chemical side bond that is not broken by heat or water. A _________ joins the sulfur atoms of two neighboring cysteine amino acids to create cystine.

    • A.

      Disulfide bond

    • B.

      Salt bond

    • C.

      Hydrogen bond

    Correct Answer
    A. Disulfide bond
    Explanation
    Permanent waves and chemical hair relaxers change the shape of hair by chemically changing the hair's disulfide bonds. Thio permanent waves break disulfide bonds, which are re-formed by thio neutralizers. Hydroxide chemical hair relaxers break disulfide bonds, which are converted to lanthionine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair. The disulfide bonds that are broken by hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently and can never be re-formed.

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  • 21. 

    All natural hair color is the result of the pigment located within the cortex. _________ is the tiny grains of pigment in the cortex that give natural color to the hair.

    • A.

      Pheomelanin

    • B.

      Melanin

    • C.

      Eumelanin

    Correct Answer
    B. Melanin
    Explanation
    Melanin is the pigment located within the cortex of the hair that gives it its natural color. It is responsible for determining the darkness or lightness of the hair, as well as its shade, such as brown, black, or blonde. Melanin is produced by specialized cells called melanocytes, and its presence or absence in the cortex determines the color of the hair. Therefore, melanin is the correct answer as it accurately describes the tiny grains of pigment that give natural color to the hair.

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  • 22. 

    Provides brown and black color to hair.

    • A.

      Pheomelanin

    • B.

      Eumelanin

    • C.

      Melanin

    Correct Answer
    B. Eumelanin
    Explanation
    All natural hair color is the result of the ratio of eumelanin to pheomelanin, along with the total number and size of pigment granules.

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  • 23. 

    Provides natural hair colors from red and ginger to yellow/blonde tones.

    • A.

      Pheomelanin

    • B.

      Eumelanin

    • C.

      Melanin

    Correct Answer
    A. Pheomelanin
    Explanation
    All natural hair color is the result of the ratio of eumelanin to pheomelanin, along with the total number and size of pigment granules.

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  • 24. 

    The ___________ of the hair refers to the amount of movement in the hair strand and is described as straight, wavy, curly, or extremely curly.

    • A.

      Hair texture

    • B.

      Wave pattern

    • C.

      Hair density

    • D.

      Hair porosity

    Correct Answer
    B. Wave pattern
    Explanation
    Wave pattern is the result of genetics and racial background. Although there are exceptions, as a general rule, Asians tend to have extremely straight hair, Caucasians tend to have straight to wavy hair, and African Americans tend to have extremely curly hair. But straight, curly, and extremely curly hair occurs in all races.

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  • 25. 

    Several different theories seek to explain the cause of naturally curly hair. The most popular theory claims that the shape of the hair's cross-section determines the amount of curl. This theory states that hair with a round cross-section is straight, hair with an oval cross-section is wavy, and hair wit ha flat cross-section is curly.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Although it is true that cross-sections of straight hair tend to be round and curlier hair tends to be more oval, modern microscopes have shown that a cross-section of hair can be almost any shape, including triangular, and that the shape of the cross-section does not always relate to the amount of curl.

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  • 26. 

    __________ has a fairly regular and uniform diameter along a single strand. Cross sections are usually round.

    • A.

      Straight hair

    • B.

      Wavy hair

    • C.

      Extremely curly hair

    Correct Answer
    A. Straight hair
    Explanation
    Straight hair has a fairly regular and uniform diameter along a single strand, and its cross sections are usually round. This means that each strand of straight hair has a consistent thickness throughout its length, and the shape of the hair shaft is circular. In contrast, wavy and extremely curly hair often have irregular diameters and non-round cross sections, resulting in a more textured and varied appearance.

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  • 27. 

    Cross-sections of __________ are usually oval and have a fairly regular and uniform diameter along a single strand.

    • A.

      Extremely curly hair

    • B.

      Straight hair

    • C.

      Wavy hair

    Correct Answer
    C. Wavy hair
    Explanation
    Wavy hair is characterized by cross-sections that are usually oval and have a fairly regular and uniform diameter along a single strand. This means that the hair strands have a slight wave pattern, with a consistent width throughout. Unlike extremely curly hair, which has irregular and varied cross-sections, and straight hair, which has circular cross-sections, wavy hair falls in between, showcasing oval-shaped cross-sections.

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  • 28. 

    Cross sections of ___________ are highly oval and vary in shape and thickness along their length and is quite irregular, showing varying diameters along a single strand.

    • A.

      Straight hair

    • B.

      Extremely curly hair

    • C.

      Wavy hair

    Correct Answer
    B. Extremely curly hair
    Explanation
    Extremely curly hair grows in long twisted spirals. Some extremely curly hair has a natural tendency to form a coil like a telephone cord or the spring in an ink pen. Coiled hair usually has a fine texture, with many individual strands winding together to form the coiled locks that characterize this type of hair. Coiled hair usually has low elasticity, breaks, easily, and has a tendency to knot, especially on the ends.

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  • 29. 

    All successful salon services must begin with a thorough _____ of the client's hair type and its present condition in order to determine beforehand the results that can reasonably be expected from the service.

    Correct Answer
    analyiss
    analysis
    analisis
    Explanation
    Hair analysis is performed by observation using the sense of sight, touch, hearing, and smell. The four most important factors to consider in hair analysis are texture, porosity, elasticity, and density. Other factors you should also be aware of are growth pattern as well as dryness and oiliness.

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  • 30. 

    The thickness or diameter of the individual hair strand.

    • A.

      Hair density

    • B.

      Hair elasticity

    • C.

      Hair texture

    • D.

      Hair porosity

    Correct Answer
    C. Hair texture
    Explanation
    Hair texture can be classified as coarse, medium, or fine. Coarse hair has the largest diameter. Medium hair texture is the most common and is the standard to which other hair is compared. Medium hair is considered normal and does not pose any special problems or concerns. Fine hair has the smallest diameter and is more fragile, easier to process, and more susceptible to damage from chemical services.

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  • 31. 

    Measures the number of individual hair strands on one square inch of scalp. It indicates how many hairs there are on a person's head. The average head of hair contains about 100,000 individual hair strands.

    • A.

      Hair elasticity

    • B.

      Hair density

    • C.

      Hair texture

    • D.

      Hair porosity

    Correct Answer
    B. Hair density
    Explanation
    Hair density can be classified as low, medium, or high. The average hair density is about 2,200 hairs per square inch. Hair with high density has more hairs per square inch and hair with low density has fewer hairs per inch. The numbers of hairs on the head varies with the color of hair.
    Blonde: 140,000
    Brown: 110,000
    Black: 108,000
    Red: 80,000

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  • 32. 

    The ability of the hair to absorb moisture.

    • A.

      Hair density

    • B.

      Hair texture

    • C.

      Hair porosity

    • D.

      Hair elasticity

    Correct Answer
    C. Hair porosity
    Explanation
    Healthy hair with a compact cuticle layer is naturally resistant to penetration. Porous hair has a raised cuticle layer that easily absorbs water. Hair with low porosity is considered resistant hair. Hair with average porosity is considered normal hair. Hair with high porosity is considered overly porous hair and is the result of previous overprocessing. Overly porous hair is damaged, dry, fragile, and brittle.

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  • 33. 

    The ability of the hair to stretch and return to it's original length without breaking.

    • A.

      Hair texture

    • B.

      Hair density

    • C.

      Hair porosity

    • D.

      Hair elasticity

    Correct Answer
    D. Hair elasticity
    Explanation
    Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to 50 percent of it's original length and return to that same length without breaking. Dry hair stretches about 1/5 (20%) of it's length.

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  • 34. 

    A ___________ is hair flowing in the same direction. It is the result of follicles sloping in the same direction.

    • A.

      Whorl

    • B.

      Cowlick

    • C.

      Hair stream

    Correct Answer
    C. Hair stream
    Explanation
    Two streams flowing in opposite directions form a natural part in the hair.

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  • 35. 

    A ____________ is hair that forms in a circular pattern, as on the crown.

    • A.

      Cowlick

    • B.

      Whorl

    • C.

      Hair stream

    Correct Answer
    B. Whorl
    Explanation
    A whorl normally forms in the crown with all the hair from that point growing down.

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  • 36. 

    A ___________ is a tuft of hair that stands straight up.

    • A.

      Cowlick

    • B.

      Whorl

    • C.

      Hair stream

    Correct Answer
    B. Whorl
    Explanation
    Cowlicks are usually more noticeable at the front hairline, but they may be located anywhere.

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  • 37. 

    Dry hair and scalp is caused by inactive sebaceous glands and is aggravated by a dry winter or desert climate. The lack of natural oils (sebum) leads to a flaky scalp and hair that appears dull, dry, and lifeless. Dry hair and scalp be should be treated with products that contain moisturizers and emollients. Dry hair should not be confused with overly porous hair that has been damaged by thermal styling, environmental forces or chemical services.

  • 38. 

    The two main types of hair found on the body are vellus (or langugo) and terminal hair. ________ hair is short, fine, and downy. It is not pigmented and almost never has a medulla.

    • A.

      Vellus

    • B.

      Terminal

    Correct Answer
    A. Vellus
    Explanation
    It is commonly found on infants and can be present on children until puberty. On adults, vellus hair is usually found in places that are normally considered hairless (forehead, eyelids, and bald scalp), as well as nearly all other areas of the body, except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Women normally retain 55% more vellus hair than men. Vellus hair helps in the efficient evaporation of perspiration.

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  • 39. 

    The two main types of hair found on the body are vellus (or langugo) and terminal hair._________ hair is the long, soft hair found on the scalp, legs, arms, and bodies of males and females. It is coarser and with the exception of gray hair, it is pigmented.

    • A.

      Vellus

    • B.

      Terminal

    Correct Answer
    B. Terminal
    Explanation
    It usually has a medulla and is easily distinguished from vellus hair by it's dark color and coarse texture. Normally changes during puberty cause some areas of fine vellus hair to be replaced with thicker terminal hair. All hair follicles are capable of producing either vellus or terminal hair, depending on genetics, age and hormonal changes.

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  • 40. 

    Gray hair is caused by the absence of melanin.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gray hair grows from the hair bulb in exactly the same way that pigmented hair grows and has exactly the same structure, but without the melanin pigment.

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  • 41. 

    Hair growth occurs in cycles. Each complete cycle has three phases that are repeated over and over again throughout life. The three phases are anagen, catagen, and telogen.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hair growth does occur in cycles, with each cycle consisting of three phases - anagen, catagen, and telogen. These phases are repeated throughout an individual's life. Therefore, the statement "Hair growth occurs in cycles. Each complete cycle has three phases that are repeated over and over again throughout life" is true.

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  • 42. 

    During the ________ or growth phase, new hair is produced. The hair actively manufactures new keratinized cells in the hair follicle. During this phase, hair cells are produced faster than any other normal cell in the human body.

    • A.

      Catagen

    • B.

      Telogen

    • C.

      Anagen

    Correct Answer
    C. Anagen
    Explanation
    The average growth of healthy scalp hair is about 1/2 inch per month. Scalp hair grows faster on women than on men. Scalp hair grows rapidly between the ages of 15 and 30, but slows down sharply after the age of 50. About 90% of scalp hair is growing in the anagen phase at any one time. For each specific hair, the anagen phase generally lasts from three to five years, but it some cases, it can last as long as ten years.

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  • 43. 

    The _________ or transition phase is the brief transition period between the growth and resting phases of a hair follicle. It signals the end of the growth phase.

    • A.

      Catagen

    • B.

      Anagen

    • C.

      Telogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Catagen
    Explanation
    During the catagen phase, the follicle canal shrinks and detaches from the dermal papilla. The hair bulb disappears and the shrunken root end forms a rounded club. Less than 1% of scalp hair is in the catagen phase at any one time. The catagen phase is very short and lasts from one to two weeks.

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  • 44. 

    The ___________ or resting phase is the final phase in the hair cycle and lasts until the fully grown hair is shed.

    • A.

      Catagen

    • B.

      Anagen

    • C.

      Telogen

    Correct Answer
    C. Telogen
    Explanation
    The hair is either shed during the telogen phase or remains in place until the next anagen phase, when the new hair growing in pushes it out. About 10% of scalp hair is in the telogen phase at any one time. The telogen phase lasts for approximately three to six months. As soon as the telogen phase end, the hair returns to the anagen phase and begins the entire cycle again. On average, the entire growth cycle repeats itself once every four to five years.

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  • 45. 

    Shaving, clipping, and cutting the hair makes it grow back faster, darker, and coarser.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Shaving or cutting the hair has no effect on the hair growth. When hair is blunt cut to the same length, it grows back more evenly. Although it may seem to grow back faster, darker, and coarser, shaving or cutting hair has no effect on the hair growth.

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