Anatomy Exam About Eyes And Retina

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Anatomy Exam About Eyes And Retina - Quiz

The eye is our organ of sight. The eye has a number of components which include but are not limited to the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, macula, optic nerve, choroid and vitreous.
The retina is a thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye on the inside. It is located near the optic nerve. The purpose of the retina is to receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition.
Take this quiz to check your anatomical knowledge


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The sclera is adjacent to the retina.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The choroid is immediately adjacent to the retina followed by the sclera.

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  • 2. 

    What is the function of the RPE?

    • A.

      Prevent back scatter of light

    • B.

      Nourishment for the retina

    • C.

      Regeneration of photopigment

    • D.

      A and c

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A and c
    Explanation
    RPE is highly pigmented and will absorb light that is not absorbed by the photopigment. This prevents back scatter of light that would cause a blurry image.
    It's also important for the regeneration of photopigment. With retinal detachments, one cannot regenerate the photopigment.

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  • 3. 

    What is the main purpose of the outer limiting membrane (external liminting membrane)?

    • A.

      Outer segment regeneration

    • B.

      Sets up electrical charge across retina

    • C.

      Barrier for selective wavelengths of light

    Correct Answer
    B. Sets up electrical charge across retina
    Explanation
    ELM is an area where the photoreceptor fuse to create a barrier to the flow of ions to the retina. This is important for setting up an electrical charge across the retina.

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  • 4. 

    The inner plexiform layer contains synapses of the photoreceptors and bipolar cells

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Outer plexiform layer has synapses of PRs and BPs. Inner plexiform has synapses of BPs and GCs, as well as amacrine cells with GCs.

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  • 5. 

    Out of all the cells in the retina, what type has the most sub-types?

    • A.

      Bipolar

    • B.

      Ganglion

    • C.

      Amacrine

    • D.

      Horizontal

    Correct Answer
    C. Amacrine
    Explanation
    AMACRINE --> 25!

    Rods and Cones (4)
    BP (7)
    GC (10)
    H (2)
    A (25)
    Biplexiform (1)
    Interplexiform (2)

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  • 6. 

    Indicate what common features are found in all species in the anatomy of photoreceptors.

    • A.

      Outer segment

    • B.

      Inner segment

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Synaptic terminal

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Outer segment
    B. Inner segment
    C. Nucleus
    D. Synaptic terminal
    Explanation
    The common features found in all species in the anatomy of photoreceptors are the outer segment, inner segment, nucleus, and synaptic terminal. The outer segment is responsible for capturing light and converting it into electrical signals. The inner segment contains the organelles and metabolic machinery necessary for the cell's functioning. The nucleus houses the genetic material and controls the cell's activities. The synaptic terminal is where the photoreceptor communicates with other cells in the visual system. These features are essential for the photoreceptor's role in detecting and processing visual information.

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  • 7. 

    Cone OS is smaller than it's IS

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This is why it's cone shaped!

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  • 8. 

    Rod OS is larger than its IS

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rod IS and OS are the same size

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  • 9. 

    The nucleus in cones is closer to the IS than rods.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The nucleus in cones is closer to the OS than rods

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  • 10. 

    The cone foot plate (pedicle) is much larger than rods foot plate (spherule)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This is why cones can have so many more synaptic connections compared to rods.

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  • 11. 

    Photogiment discs have a high concentration of K inside

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    High concentration of Na on inside

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  • 12. 

    Indicate the components of a disc.

    • A.

      Lipoprotein

    • B.

      Carbohydrate

    • C.

      Visual pigment

    • D.

      Glycoprotein

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lipoprotein
    C. Visual pigment
    Explanation
    The components of a disc are lipoprotein and visual pigment. Lipoprotein is a combination of lipids (fats) and proteins, and it plays a crucial role in transporting lipids in the bloodstream. Visual pigment, on the other hand, is a light-sensitive molecule found in the retina of the eye, and it is responsible for the detection of light and the initiation of the visual process.

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  • 13. 

    How many different photopigments are there?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      4

    Correct Answer
    C. 4
    Explanation
    There's a different photopigment for each type of cone (3) and rod (1) = 4 total

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  • 14. 

    The function of the IS is:

    • A.

      Energy production

    • B.

      Homeostasis regulation

    • C.

      Produce the disc membranes

    Correct Answer
    A. Energy production
    Explanation
    The correct answer is energy production. The function of the IS (Inner Segment) is to produce energy. The IS is a part of the photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye and is responsible for converting light into electrical signals. This conversion process requires a significant amount of energy, which is produced by the IS. Therefore, energy production is the correct function of the IS.

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  • 15. 

    What is the cilium that connects the IS and OS made of?

  • 16. 

    The cilium acts as a connection/shuttle between the OS and IS.  What other function does it have?

    • A.

      Generates photopigment

    • B.

      Regenerates the OS

    • C.

      Regenerates the IS

    Correct Answer
    B. Regenerates the OS
    Explanation
    The cilium not only acts as a connection or shuttle between the outer segment (OS) and inner segment (IS) of a cell, but it also has the function of regenerating the OS. The outer segment is responsible for capturing light and converting it into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the inner segment for further processing. As the outer segment is constantly exposed to light and undergoes wear and tear, the cilium plays a crucial role in regenerating and maintaining the functionality of the outer segment, ensuring optimal visual function.

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  • 17. 

    The foveola contains which type of cells?

    • A.

      Rods

    • B.

      Cones

    • C.

      Glial cells

    • D.

      Oligodendrocytes

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Cones
    C. Glial cells
    Explanation
    central 1.2 degrees

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  • 18. 

    The fovea contains:

    • A.

      Rods

    • B.

      Cones

    • C.

      Oligodendrocytes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Rods
    B. Cones
    Explanation
    central 2.5 degrees

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  • 19. 

    The more eccentric we get from the fovea, the smaller the rods and cones become.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rods and cones get LARGER as we move more eccentrically

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  • 20. 

    There are 3 types of astrocytes and they are differentiated based on functional differences

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    There are 3 types of astrocytes but they are differentiated based on antaomical differences.

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  • 21. 

    Where are astrocytes commonly found?

    • A.

      Near blood vessels

    • B.

      Near optic nerve

    • C.

      Near fovea

    Correct Answer
    A. Near blood vessels
    Explanation
    They help form the BBB

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  • 22. 

    They are many oligodendrocytes in the retina

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    We don't want them in the retina because they produce myelin and myelin is not transparent and would therefore interfere with light transmission

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  • 23. 

    What is the funciton of Muller cells in the retina?

    • A.

      Physical support

    • B.

      Control the extracellular enviornment

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      Neither

    Correct Answer
    C. Both
    Explanation
    Muller cells in the retina serve both functions of providing physical support and controlling the extracellular environment. They are glial cells that span the entire thickness of the retina and help maintain its structural integrity. Muller cells also play a role in regulating the extracellular environment by transporting nutrients and ions, removing waste products, and maintaining the balance of neurotransmitters. Therefore, they serve both functions simultaneously.

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  • 24. 

    The Muller cells in the retina span from the internal limiting membrane to the inner pleixform layer.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The muller cells span fron the inner to outer limiting membrane --> they span the entire length of the retina

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  • 25. 

    Middle wavelength cones form a martix and inbetween the matrix there are short and long wavelength cones

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    SHORT cones form a matrix and the mid and long wavelength cones are found inbetween the matrix.

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  • 26. 

    In general, the most numerous types of cones are the long and mid wavelength cones.  The lease common are the short wavelength cones

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the long and mid wavelength cones are responsible for detecting a wider range of colors, including red, green, and yellow. These cones are more numerous in the human eye compared to the short wavelength cones, which are responsible for detecting blue and violet colors. Therefore, the long and mid wavelength cones are more common in general.

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  • 27. 

    Most of the cones are in the fovea, a minority is in the periphery.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Half the cones are in the fovea, the other half are in the periphery

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  • 28. 

    The myoid is closer to the OS than the ellipsoid

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The ellipsoid is closer to the OS than the myoid

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