Research & Statistics 566

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Review questions for Research & Statistics 566


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which type of planning involves constructing or selecting measuring instruments? Pyrczak p 4

    • A.

      Whom

    • B.

      How

    • C.

      When

    • D.

      Under what circumstances

    Correct Answer
    B. How
    Explanation
    The type of planning that involves constructing or selecting measuring instruments is "how". This refers to the process of determining how to measure and collect data in order to evaluate the effectiveness or success of a plan. By constructing or selecting appropriate measuring instruments, planners can gather the necessary data to assess the outcomes and make informed decisions.

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  • 2. 

    The term empiricism refers to what? Pyrczak p3

    Correct Answer
    using direct observation to obtain knowledge
    Explanation
    Empiricism refers to the practice of acquiring knowledge through direct observation. This means that individuals rely on their senses and personal experiences to gather information and form conclusions. Empiricists believe that knowledge can only be gained through direct observation and experimentation, rather than relying on innate ideas or reasoning alone. By observing and experiencing the world around us, we can gather evidence to support or refute hypotheses, leading to the development of scientific theories and understanding of the world.

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  • 3. 

    Does everyday observation employ the empirical approach? Pyrczak p3

    Correct Answer
    yes
    Explanation
    Everyday observation does employ the empirical approach because it involves gathering information through direct observation and personal experience. This approach relies on using the senses to gather data and make observations about the world around us. By relying on what we can see, hear, touch, taste, and smell, everyday observation follows the principles of the empirical approach, which emphasizes the importance of evidence and observation in understanding the world.

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  • 4. 

    When researchers systematically use the empirical approach to acquire knowledge, we say that they are engaging in what? Pyrczak p3

    Correct Answer
    empirical research
    Explanation
    The correct answer is empirical research because empirical research refers to the systematic use of the empirical approach to acquire knowledge. This approach involves gathering data through direct observation or experimentation, and analyzing it to draw conclusions and make informed decisions. Empirical research is widely used in various fields, including social sciences, natural sciences, and psychology, to investigate and understand phenomena based on evidence and facts rather than speculation or theory.

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  • 5. 

    What is the name for a subset of a population? Pyrczak p3

    Correct Answer
    sample
    Explanation
    A subset of a population is referred to as a sample. In research or statistical analysis, a sample is a smaller group that is selected from a larger population in order to study and draw conclusions about the entire population. The sample is chosen in a way that it represents the characteristics and diversity of the population, allowing researchers to make generalizations and inferences about the larger group based on the findings from the sample.

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  • 6. 

    Even the best plans for research often cannot be fully executed for physical reasons. What are some other reasons for this? Pyrczak p4

    Correct Answer
    ethical, legal, or financial constraints
    Explanation
    Some research plans may not be fully executed due to ethical constraints, such as concerns about the potential harm or discomfort that participants may experience. Legal constraints, such as regulations or restrictions on certain types of research, can also limit the execution of research plans. Additionally, financial constraints, such as limited funding or resources, may prevent researchers from carrying out their planned studies to their fullest extent. These factors can all contribute to the inability to fully execute research plans, even if they are well-designed.

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  • 7. 

    The observations that researchers make result in what? Pyrczak p4

    Correct Answer
    data
    Explanation
    Researchers make observations in order to collect data. Data refers to the information or facts that are gathered through observation or experimentation. It can be in the form of numerical values, measurements, or qualitative descriptions. The purpose of collecting data is to analyze and interpret it in order to draw conclusions, make predictions, or support or refute hypotheses. Therefore, the correct answer is data.

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  • 8. 

    Are the data that researchers collect always "scores"? Pyrczak p4

    Correct Answer
    No
    Explanation
    The answer "No" suggests that the data that researchers collect are not always "scores." This implies that researchers gather various types of data, which may include qualitative information, observations, measurements, or other forms of data that are not solely represented by numerical scores. Researchers collect data to gain insights and support their research objectives, and these data can take different forms depending on the nature of the study. Therefore, it is incorrect to assume that all the data collected by researchers are scores.

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  • 9. 

    In recent decades, researchers have increasingly used what term to refer to the individuals being studied? Pyrczak p5

    Correct Answer
    participants
    Explanation
    In recent decades, researchers have started using the term "participants" to refer to the individuals being studied. This term is more inclusive and respectful compared to previous terms like "subjects" or "patients." "Participants" implies that individuals are actively involved in the research process and have willingly agreed to take part in the study. This change in terminology reflects a shift towards a more ethical and collaborative approach in research.

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  • 10. 

    What is science? Bordens & Abbott p G10

    Correct Answer
    a set of methods used to collect information about phenomena in a particular area of interest and build a reliable base of knowledge about them
    Explanation
    Science is a systematic approach that involves using specific methods to gather data and information about various phenomena in a specific field of interest. The goal of science is to establish a dependable foundation of knowledge by utilizing these methods to collect accurate and reliable information. By following a set of scientific methods, scientists can ensure that their findings are based on evidence and can be replicated and validated by others in the scientific community.

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  • 11. 

    What do scientists do? Bordens & Abbot p G10

    Correct Answer
    adopt the methods of science in his or her quest for knowledge
    Explanation
    Scientists adopt the methods of science in their quest for knowledge. This means that they follow a systematic and evidence-based approach to study and understand the natural world. They use observation, experimentation, data collection, and analysis to gather information and make informed conclusions. By adopting the methods of science, scientists aim to minimize bias and subjectivity, and instead rely on empirical evidence to support their claims and theories. This approach allows scientists to continually expand their knowledge and contribute to the advancement of various fields of study.

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  • 12. 

    What is meant by the statement that the scientific method is an attitude? Bordens & Abbot p3

    Correct Answer
    a scientific person is skeptical and does not accept things at face value
    Explanation
    The statement that the scientific method is an attitude means that a scientific person approaches information and evidence with skepticism, not accepting things at face value. They understand the importance of questioning and critically analyzing data, theories, and claims before drawing conclusions. This attitude promotes objectivity, open-mindedness, and a commitment to seeking the truth through empirical evidence and logical reasoning.

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  • 13. 

    How do basic and applied research differ, and how are they similar? Bordens & Abbot p4

    Correct Answer
    basic research investigates issues relevant to the confirmation or disconfirmation of theoretical or empirical positions. Applied research generates information that can be applied directly to a real-world problem. Both investigate and gather information.
    Explanation
    Basic research and applied research differ in terms of their objectives and applications. Basic research aims to explore and understand fundamental principles and theories, seeking to confirm or disconfirm theoretical or empirical positions. On the other hand, applied research focuses on generating information that can be directly applied to solve real-world problems. Despite their differences, both types of research share the common goal of investigating and gathering information.

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  • 14. 

    How are problems framed in research therms? Bordens & Abbott p5

    Correct Answer
    as scientifically testable research questions
    Explanation
    Problems in research are framed as scientifically testable research questions. This means that researchers formulate their problems in a way that allows them to design experiments or collect data to find answers. By framing problems in this manner, researchers can apply scientific methods to gather evidence, analyze data, and draw conclusions. This approach ensures that research is conducted rigorously and contributes to the advancement of knowledge in a systematic and reliable manner.

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  • 15. 

    What is confirmation bias? Bordens & Abbot p G2

    Correct Answer
    the human tendency to seek out information that confirms what is already believed.
    Explanation
    Confirmation bias refers to the natural inclination of individuals to selectively look for and interpret information that supports their preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. This bias can lead people to disregard or downplay evidence that contradicts their beliefs, resulting in a skewed perception of reality. It is a cognitive bias that can affect decision-making processes and hinder objective analysis.

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  • 16. 

    Why should you care about learning about research, even if you are not planning a career in research? Bordens & Abbott p6

    Correct Answer
    so you can critically analyze information and separate scientifically verified facts from unverified conjecture
    Explanation
    Learning about research is important even if you are not planning a career in research because it enables you to develop critical thinking skills. By understanding research methods and principles, you can evaluate information more effectively and distinguish between scientifically verified facts and unverified conjecture. This is crucial in today's information-driven society, where misinformation and fake news are prevalent. Being able to critically analyze information allows you to make informed decisions and avoid being misled by unreliable sources.

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  • 17. 

    What are the two steps suggested by Cialdini (1994) for exploring the causes of behavior and how do they relate to explaining behavior? Bordens & Abbot p7

    Correct Answer
    scouting which is observing naturally occurring behavior and trapping which is identifying the factors that might affect the behavior you have observed.
    Explanation
    Cialdini (1994) suggests two steps for exploring the causes of behavior: scouting and trapping. Scouting involves observing naturally occurring behavior, while trapping involves identifying the factors that might affect the observed behavior. These two steps are related to explaining behavior because scouting allows researchers to gather initial information and observations, while trapping helps them to analyze and understand the factors that influence the behavior. By combining these two steps, researchers can develop a comprehensive understanding of the causes behind a particular behavior.

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  • 18. 

    What is pseudoscience and how does it differ from science? Bordens & Abbot p8

    Correct Answer
    ideas based on theories put forth as scientific when they are not scientific. Scientific ideas are falsifiable pseudoscience is not
    Explanation
    Pseudoscience refers to ideas that are presented as scientific but are not actually scientific. These ideas are not based on empirical evidence or rigorous scientific methods. In contrast, scientific ideas are based on theories that can be tested and proven false, making them falsifiable. Pseudoscience, on the other hand, cannot be proven false or tested through scientific methods. This fundamental difference between pseudoscience and science lies in the ability to validate or invalidate the ideas based on empirical evidence and scientific principles.

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  • 19. 

    What are the main characteristic of scientific explanations? Describe each. Bordens & Abbot p10

    Correct Answer
    a tentative (subject to change) explanation of phenomenon based on objective (without bias) observation and logic that can be empirically tested
    Explanation
    Scientific explanations are characterized by being tentative, meaning they are subject to change as new evidence emerges. They are based on objective observation, meaning they are free from bias and personal opinions. These explanations are also logical, relying on rational thinking and reasoning. Lastly, scientific explanations are empirically tested, meaning they can be tested and verified through experiments and data collection.

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  • 20. 

    How do scientific and commonsense explanations differ? Bordens & Abbot p11

    Correct Answer
    scientific explanations are constantly evaluated for consistency with the evidence and with known principles, for parsimony, and for generality. Commonsense explanations are based on our own sense of what is true about the world around us.
    Explanation
    Scientific explanations are different from commonsense explanations because they are rigorously evaluated for consistency with evidence, known principles, parsimony, and generality. In contrast, commonsense explanations are based on our personal understanding and beliefs about the world. Scientific explanations require empirical evidence and adherence to established principles, while commonsense explanations rely on our intuitive understanding and subjective judgments.

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  • 21. 

    How do scientific and belief-based explanations differ? Bordens & Abbot p13

    Correct Answer
    scientific explanations are constantly evaluated for consistency with the evidence and with known principles, for parsimony, and for generality. Requires evidence. Belief-based explanations are accepted because they come from a trusted source or appear to be consistent with the larger framework of belief. No evidence required.
    Explanation
    Scientific explanations are based on evidence and are constantly evaluated for consistency with known principles, evidence, parsimony, and generality. In contrast, belief-based explanations are accepted without evidence because they come from a trusted source or seem to align with the larger framework of belief. The key difference lies in the requirement of evidence for scientific explanations, while belief-based explanations do not necessitate evidence.

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  • 22. 

    What kinds of questions do scientists refrain from investigating? Bordens & Abbot p10

    Correct Answer
    Ones that cannot be empirically tested.
    Explanation
    Scientists refrain from investigating questions that cannot be empirically tested because the scientific method relies on observation, experimentation, and evidence-based reasoning. Without the ability to test a hypothesis or gather empirical data, scientists cannot apply their rigorous methodologies and draw reliable conclusions. Therefore, questions that cannot be empirically tested fall outside the scope of scientific inquiry.

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  • 23. 

    How can faulty inferences invalidate a scientific explanation? Bordens & Abbot p14

    Correct Answer
    An incorrect inference about the causes for observed behavior will produce an incorrect explanation for the behavior
    Explanation
    Faulty inferences can invalidate a scientific explanation because they lead to incorrect explanations for observed behavior. When scientists make incorrect inferences about the causes of behavior, they are essentially making assumptions or drawing conclusions based on faulty or incomplete information. This can result in a distorted understanding of the behavior and lead to inaccurate explanations. Scientific explanations rely on accurate and logical reasoning, so when faulty inferences are made, the validity of the explanation is compromised.

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  • 24. 

    What are pseudoexplanations, and how do you avoid them? Bordens & Abbot p G9 &17

    Correct Answer
    an explanation proposed for a phenomenon that simply relables the phenomenon without really explaining it. Look for independent measures of the behavior and the proposed explanatory concept.
    Explanation
    Pseudoexplanations are explanations that do not truly explain a phenomenon but rather just relabel it. To avoid pseudoexplanations, one should look for independent measures of the behavior and the proposed explanatory concept. This means seeking additional evidence or data that supports the explanation and is not solely reliant on subjective interpretation or labeling. By relying on objective and independent measures, one can ensure that the explanation is valid and not just a superficial relabeling of the phenomenon.

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  • 25. 

    What are the defining characteristics and weaknesses of the method of authority and the rational method? Bordens & Abbot p19

    Correct Answer
    the method of authority relies on the expertise of others, they may be incorrect. The rational method depends on logical reasoning deduced from self-evident truths that may be incorrect.
    Explanation
    The method of authority is characterized by relying on the expertise of others, but it has a weakness in that those experts may be incorrect. On the other hand, the rational method relies on logical reasoning based on self-evident truths, but it also has a weakness in that those self-evident truths may be incorrect. In both methods, there is a possibility of error or incorrect information.

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  • 26. 

    What is the scientific method, and why is it preferred in science? Bordens & Abbot p. G10

    Correct Answer
    the process of observing phenomena, developing hypotheses, empirically testing the hypotheses, and refining and revising hypotheses. Preferred because it is falsifiable.
    Explanation
    The scientific method is a systematic approach used in scientific inquiry that involves observing phenomena, developing hypotheses, empirically testing the hypotheses, and refining and revising hypotheses based on the results. It is preferred in science because it allows for the formulation of testable hypotheses and the ability to gather empirical evidence to support or refute these hypotheses. This emphasis on empirical testing makes the scientific method falsifiable, meaning that it can be proven false if the evidence does not support the hypotheses. This helps to ensure the reliability and validity of scientific findings.

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  • 27. 

    What are the steps involved in the research process? Bordens & Abbot p23-25

    Correct Answer
    developoing a research idea and hypothesis choosing a research design choosing subjects deciding on what to observe and appropriate measures conducting your study analyzing your results reporting your results starting the whole process over again
    Explanation
    The given answer correctly outlines the steps involved in the research process. It starts with developing a research idea and hypothesis, followed by choosing a research design, selecting subjects, deciding on what to observe and appropriate measures, conducting the study, analyzing the results, reporting the findings, and then starting the process over again for further research. This sequence represents a logical and systematic approach to conducting research.

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  • 28. 

    Define research. Bordens & Abbot p G10

    Correct Answer
    the principal method for acquiring knowledge and uncovering the causes for behavior
    Explanation
    The given answer accurately defines research as the principal method for acquiring knowledge and uncovering the causes for behavior. Research involves systematic investigation, gathering and analyzing of data to gain a deeper understanding of a particular topic or phenomenon. It is through research that new knowledge is generated and theories are tested, allowing us to uncover the underlying causes and factors that influence human behavior.

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  • 29. 

    Define circular explanation or tautology. Bordens & Abbot p G2

    Correct Answer
    an explanation of behavior that refers to factors whose only proof of existence is the behavior they are being called on to explain
    Explanation
    A circular explanation or tautology is an explanation of behavior that relies on factors that can only be proven to exist because of the behavior they are being used to explain. In other words, the explanation is circular because it uses the behavior itself as evidence for the factors that caused the behavior. This type of explanation does not provide any new or meaningful insight into the behavior and can be considered logically flawed.

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  • 30. 

    Define variable. Bordens & Abbot p G12

    Correct Answer
    any quantity or quality that can take on a range of values
    Explanation
    The given answer accurately defines a variable as a quantity or quality that can have a range of values. In mathematics and statistics, variables are used to represent unknowns or changing values in equations or experiments. They can be numerical or categorical, and their values can vary depending on different factors or conditions. Variables are essential in analyzing data and solving problems in various fields such as science, economics, and social sciences.

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  • 31. 

    Define hypothesis. Bordens & Abbot p G5

    Correct Answer
    a tentative statement, subject to empirical test, about the expected relationship between variables
    Explanation
    The correct answer defines a hypothesis as a tentative statement that can be tested empirically to determine the expected relationship between variables. This means that a hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction about how two or more variables are related, and it can be verified or refuted through observation and experimentation.

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  • 32. 

    Define deductive reasoning. Bordens & Abbott p G3

    Correct Answer
    reasoning that goes from the general to the specific. Forms the foundation of the rational method of inquiry.
    Explanation
    Deductive reasoning is a type of reasoning that starts with general principles or premises and applies them to specific situations or conclusions. It involves drawing logical conclusions based on the given information and using established rules or principles. This type of reasoning is essential in the rational method of inquiry as it provides a structured and systematic approach to problem-solving and decision-making. By starting with general principles and applying them to specific cases, deductive reasoning helps in making accurate and reliable conclusions.

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  • 33. 

    Define pilot study. Bordens & Abbott p G8

    Correct Answer
    a small study, scaled-down version of a study used to test the validity of experimental procedures and measures
    Explanation
    A pilot study is a smaller version of a study that is conducted to test the effectiveness and reliability of experimental procedures and measures. It allows researchers to identify any potential issues or flaws in their methodology before conducting a larger-scale study. By conducting a pilot study, researchers can make any necessary adjustments or improvements to their procedures, ensuring that the main study is conducted smoothly and accurately.

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  • 34. 

    In which type of study are treatments given in order to see how participants respond? Pyrczak p7

    Correct Answer
    experiment
    Explanation
    In an experiment, treatments are given to participants in order to observe and analyze their responses. This type of study allows researchers to determine the effectiveness or impact of a particular treatment or intervention on the participants. By comparing the responses of the treatment group to a control group or different treatment groups, researchers can draw conclusions about the effects of the treatments being studied.

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  • 35. 

    In an experiment, are the responses the "independent variable" or the "dependent variable"? Pyrczak p7

    Correct Answer
    dependent variable
    Explanation
    In an experiment, the dependent variable refers to the variable that is being measured or observed. It is the outcome or result that is expected to change as a result of manipulating the independent variable. In this case, the responses of the participants are being measured or observed, making them the dependent variable.

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  • 36. 

    What is the purpose of an experiment? Pyrczak p7

    Correct Answer
    to identify cause-and-effect relationships
    Explanation
    The purpose of an experiment is to identify cause-and-effect relationships. Through an experiment, researchers manipulate variables to determine their impact on the outcome. This allows them to establish a causal relationship between the independent variable (the cause) and the dependent variable (the effect). By controlling other factors and conducting the experiment in a controlled environment, researchers can isolate the variables and draw conclusions about the cause-and-effect relationship.

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  • 37. 

    In an experiment, a researcher used group counseling with some participants and used individual counseling with other participants in order to study the effectiveness of the two types of counseling on raising the participants' self-esteem. In this study, the two tyupes of counseling constitute the ___________.Pyrczak p7

    • A.

      Dependent variable

    • B.

      Independent variable

    Correct Answer
    B. Independent variable
    Explanation
    The independent variable in this study is the type of counseling used, either group counseling or individual counseling. The researcher manipulated this variable by assigning participants to either the group counseling condition or the individual counseling condition. The purpose of this manipulation was to study the effectiveness of the two types of counseling on raising the participants' self-esteem. The dependent variable, on the other hand, would be the participants' self-esteem, which is expected to be influenced by the independent variable.

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  • 38. 

    In which type of study do researchers try not to change the participants? Pyrczak p8

    Correct Answer
    nonexperimental study
    Explanation
    In a nonexperimental study, researchers aim to observe and gather data without manipulating or changing the participants in any way. This type of study is typically conducted to examine existing variables and relationships between them, without any intervention or manipulation by the researchers. Instead, researchers observe and analyze data as it naturally occurs, allowing them to draw conclusions about the relationships between variables without influencing or altering the participants' characteristics or behaviors.

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  • 39. 

    What is the definition of a nonexperimental study? Pyrczak p8

    Correct Answer
    a study in which observations are made to determine the status of what exists at a given point in time without the administering of treatments
    Explanation
    A nonexperimental study is a type of research design where observations are made to assess the current state or condition of a particular subject or phenomenon at a specific moment in time. In this type of study, no treatments or interventions are administered to manipulate the variables being studied. Instead, the researcher relies on existing data or observations to draw conclusions about the subject of interest. Nonexperimental studies are often used in social sciences or observational research where it may not be feasible or ethical to manipulate variables or administer treatments.

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  • 40. 

    What term is used to refer to all members of a group in which a researcher has an interest? Pyrczak p11

    Correct Answer
    population
    Explanation
    The term "population" is used to refer to all members of a group in which a researcher has an interest. This could be a group of individuals, objects, or events that share common characteristics and are of interest to the researcher. The population is the entire group that the researcher wants to study and draw conclusions about, and it is important to define the population clearly in order to ensure the validity and generalizability of the research findings.

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  • 41. 

    If samples yield "statistics," what do populations yield? Pyrczak p11

    Correct Answer
    parameters
    Explanation
    When samples yield "statistics," it means that they provide information about a specific group or subset of a population. In contrast, populations yield "parameters," which refer to the characteristics or attributes of an entire population. Parameters are typically used to make inferences or draw conclusions about the entire population based on the information obtained from a sample. Therefore, the correct answer is parameters.

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  • 42. 

    What is the most important characteristic of a godd sample? Pyrczak p11

    Correct Answer
    freedom from bias
    Explanation
    The most important characteristic of a good sample is freedom from bias. This means that the sample should be representative of the population and should not favor any particular group or attribute. Bias can lead to inaccurate and unreliable results, as it introduces systematic errors into the data. Therefore, ensuring that a sample is free from bias is crucial in obtaining valid and generalizable findings.

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  • 43. 

    If a researcher uses a sample of volunteers from a population, should we presume that the sample is biased? Pyrczak p 12

    Correct Answer
    yes
    Explanation
    If a researcher uses a sample of volunteers from a population, it is reasonable to presume that the sample is biased. This is because volunteers may not represent the entire population accurately, as they may possess certain characteristics or motivations that differ from the general population. Therefore, the findings from this sample may not be generalizable to the larger population, leading to biased results.

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  • 44. 

    What type of sampling eliminates bias in the selection of participants? Pyrczak p12

    Correct Answer
    simple random sampling
    Explanation
    Simple random sampling is a type of sampling technique where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. This eliminates bias in the selection of participants because it ensures that every individual in the population has an equal opportunity to be included in the sample. By randomly selecting participants, the sample is more likely to be representative of the entire population, reducing the potential for bias and increasing the generalizability of the findings.

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  • 45. 

    Briefly describe how one could select a simple random sample. Pyrczak p12

    Correct Answer
    put the names of all members of a population on slips of paper, mix them up and have a blindfolded assistant select the number desired for the sample
    Explanation
    This explanation suggests that one way to select a simple random sample is by putting the names of all members of a population on slips of paper, mixing them up, and having a blindfolded assistant randomly select the desired number of slips for the sample. This method ensures that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected, making it a simple random sample.

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  • 46. 

    Does random sampling produce sampling errors? Pyrczak p13

    Correct Answer
    yes
    Explanation
    Random sampling does produce sampling errors. This is because random sampling involves selecting a sample from a larger population in a way that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. However, due to the inherent variability in any population, the sample selected may not perfectly represent the entire population, leading to sampling errors. These errors can occur when the sample does not accurately reflect the characteristics or attributes of the population, resulting in potential biases and inaccuracies in the conclusions drawn from the sample.

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  • 47. 

    The amount of random sampling error obtained from unbiased samples tends to be small when what is done? Pyrczak p13

    Correct Answer
    large samples are used
    Explanation
    When large samples are used, the amount of random sampling error obtained from unbiased samples tends to be small. This is because larger samples provide a more representative and accurate representation of the population. With a larger sample size, the random variation in the data is reduced, leading to a smaller margin of error. Therefore, using large samples increases the precision and reliability of the results obtained from unbiased sampling.

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  • 48. 

    Is selecting a large sample an effective way to reduce the effects of bias in sampling? Pyrczak p13

    Correct Answer
    no
    Explanation
    Selecting a large sample is not an effective way to reduce the effects of bias in sampling. Bias can occur due to various factors such as self-selection, non-response, or sampling from a non-representative population. Increasing the sample size alone does not address these sources of bias. Instead, it is important to use appropriate sampling techniques, such as random sampling or stratified sampling, to ensure that the sample is representative of the population of interest. Additionally, reducing bias requires careful consideration of the study design and implementation to minimize potential sources of bias.

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  • 49. 

    According to Pyrczak, is all research in which biased samples are used worthless? Pyrczak p13

    Correct Answer
    no
    Explanation
    Pyrczak argues that not all research using biased samples is worthless. The statement "no" suggests that Pyrczak does not believe that biased samples render all research worthless. This implies that there may be instances where research using biased samples can still provide valuable insights or contribute to the existing body of knowledge. However, without further context or information, it is difficult to provide a more detailed explanation.

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  • 50. 

    What is the name of the lowest scale of measurement? Pyrczak p17

    Correct Answer
    nominal
    Explanation
    The lowest scale of measurement is called nominal. Nominal measurement involves categorizing data into distinct groups or categories, without any numerical or quantitative value assigned to them. It is the simplest form of measurement where data is classified into different labels or names. In nominal measurement, the categories are mutually exclusive and there is no inherent order or hierarchy among them. This type of measurement is often used for variables such as gender, ethnicity, or marital status, where individuals are simply grouped into different categories based on their characteristics.

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