Psychology - Life Span - Chapter 4 - Pt 2

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Psychology 237 Life Span


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What percent of developing organisms fails to properly implant?

    • A.

      50 %

    • B.

      40 %

    • C.

      60 %

    • D.

      70 %

    Correct Answer
    C. 60 %
    Explanation
    60% of developing organisms fail to properly implant. This means that out of every 100 developing organisms, 60 of them do not successfully implant in the appropriate location. This could be due to various factors such as genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, or uterine conditions. Proper implantation is crucial for the development of a healthy pregnancy, so a high failure rate can have significant implications for fertility and reproductive health.

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  • 2. 

    The neural tube eventually develops into:

    • A.

      The visual system

    • B.

      The skeletal system

    • C.

      The cardiovascular system

    • D.

      The central nervous system

    Correct Answer
    D. The central nervous system
    Explanation
    The neural tube is the embryonic structure that gives rise to the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. It is formed during early development and serves as the foundation for the development of the nervous system. Therefore, the correct answer is the central nervous system.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following happens during the fetal period?

    • A.

      The indifferent gonad differentiates

    • B.

      Implantation

    • C.

      The neural tube forms

    • D.

      The blastocyst becomes an embryo

    Correct Answer
    A. The indifferent gonad differentiates
    Explanation
    During the fetal period, the indifferent gonad differentiates. This refers to the process where the undifferentiated gonads in the developing fetus begin to develop into either male or female reproductive organs. This is an important step in sexual development and occurs around the 7th week of gestation. The differentiation of the gonads is influenced by genetic and hormonal factors, and ultimately determines the individual's biological sex.

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  • 4. 

    The age of viability refers to:

    • A.

      The moment when fusion occurs and the zygote is formed

    • B.

      The age at which the fetus can survive outside of the uterus with specialized medical care

    • C.

      The age at which the embryo becomes a fetus

    • D.

      The age at which a woman can conceive a child

    Correct Answer
    B. The age at which the fetus can survive outside of the uterus with specialized medical care
  • 5. 

    Eight-year-olds who had been born very early are more likely than those who were born "full-term" to:

    • A.

      Have allergies

    • B.

      Exhibit signs of depression

    • C.

      Have cerebral palsy

    • D.

      Suffer from sinus headaches

    Correct Answer
    C. Have cerebral palsy
    Explanation
    Premature birth is associated with a higher risk of cerebral palsy, a neurological condition that affects muscle control and movement. This is because babies born prematurely may have underdeveloped brains and be more susceptible to brain injuries. The other options, such as allergies, signs of depression, and sinus headaches, are not directly linked to premature birth. Therefore, the correct answer is that eight-year-olds who were born very early are more likely to have cerebral palsy.

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  • 6. 

    Advances in which area are critical in attaining the age of viability?

    • A.

      Lung functioning

    • B.

      Heart functioning

    • C.

      Weight gain

    • D.

      Brain functioning

    Correct Answer
    D. Brain functioning
    Explanation
    Advances in brain functioning are critical in attaining the age of viability because the brain plays a crucial role in the development and functioning of all other organs and systems in the body. It controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and temperature regulation, which are necessary for survival outside the womb. Additionally, the brain is responsible for cognitive and sensory processes, allowing the baby to interact with the environment and respond to stimuli. Therefore, the development and proper functioning of the brain are essential for a baby to reach the age of viability.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following statements about teratogens is true?

    • A.

      All teratogens increase the risk of damage

    • B.

      In order to be teratogen, a substance must always cause damage

    • C.

      The placenta screens out most harmful substances

    • D.

      Alcohol was the first teratogen to be formally identified

    Correct Answer
    A. All teratogens increase the risk of damage
    Explanation
    All teratogens increase the risk of damage. Teratogens are substances that can cause harm to a developing fetus, leading to birth defects or other developmental issues. While the extent of damage may vary depending on the specific teratogen and the timing and duration of exposure, all teratogens have the potential to increase the risk of damage to the developing fetus. It is important for pregnant individuals to avoid exposure to known teratogens to minimize the risk of harm to their baby.

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  • 8. 

    Why are women encouraged to stop using recreational drugs prior to pregnancy?

    • A.

      Most recreational drugs interfere with fertility

    • B.

      The embryonic stage is a critical period for physical structure and form

    • C.

      Both alcohol and tobacco have been associated with incomplete implantation

    • D.

      Genetic susceptibility to teratogens is greatest during the embryonic period

    Correct Answer
    B. The embryonic stage is a critical period for physical structure and form
    Explanation
    During the embryonic stage, the baby's physical structure and form start to develop. This is a critical period because any interference or damage during this time can have long-lasting effects on the baby's health and development. Therefore, women are encouraged to stop using recreational drugs prior to pregnancy to ensure that the baby's physical structure and form develop properly without any interference or harm caused by the drugs.

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  • 9. 

    A term that refers to the result of a combination of teratogens is:

    • A.

      Genetic vulnerability

    • B.

      Critical period

    • C.

      Interaction effect

    • D.

      Kangaroo care

    Correct Answer
    C. Interaction effect
    Explanation
    An interaction effect refers to the combined impact or influence of multiple factors or elements. In the context of teratogens, an interaction effect would indicate that the harmful effects observed are not solely due to one teratogen, but rather the result of the interaction between multiple teratogens. This suggests that the combination of these teratogens has a more significant or different effect than each teratogen individually.

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  • 10. 

    Jean and Sean are dyzygotic twins whose mother drank alcohol throughout her pregnancy. Jean shows symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome but Sean does not. The likely explanation for this difference between the twins is:

    • A.

      Jean's circulation absorbed more alcohol from the mother's blood than did Sean's

    • B.

      A teratogen's effects vary depending on when exposure occurs

    • C.

      Females are more vulnerable to prenatal alcohol exposure

    • D.

      A teratogen may or may not be harmful depending on the individual's genetic makeup

    Correct Answer
    D. A teratogen may or may not be harmful depending on the individual's genetic makeup
    Explanation
    The likely explanation for the difference between Jean and Sean is that a teratogen, such as alcohol, may or may not be harmful depending on the individual's genetic makeup. This means that while Jean may have been more susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol due to her genetic makeup, Sean may have had genetic factors that protected him from these effects. This highlights the importance of considering individual differences when it comes to the impact of teratogens during pregnancy.

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  • 11. 

    Tetracycline use during pregnancy:

    • A.

      Can harm the teeth

    • B.

      Can affect the development of the baby's facial features

    • C.

      Can cause heart abnormalities

    • D.

      Can cause limb deformities

    Correct Answer
    A. Can harm the teeth
    Explanation
    Tetracycline use during pregnancy can harm the teeth of the baby. This is because tetracycline can bind to calcium ions and become incorporated into the developing teeth, leading to permanent discoloration and enamel hypoplasia. It is important for pregnant women to avoid using tetracycline unless absolutely necessary, as it can have long-lasting effects on the dental health of the child.

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  • 12. 

    Eating undercooked meat or handling cat feces can lead to:

    • A.

      AIDS

    • B.

      Toxoplasmosis

    • C.

      Rubella

    • D.

      Malnutrition

    Correct Answer
    B. Toxoplasmosis
    Explanation
    Eating undercooked meat or handling cat feces can lead to toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite. It can be transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated food, such as undercooked meat, or by coming into contact with cat feces that contain the parasite. Symptoms of toxoplasmosis can vary, but may include flu-like symptoms, muscle aches, and swollen lymph nodes. In severe cases, it can cause damage to the brain, eyes, and other organs. Pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems are particularly at risk for complications from toxoplasmosis.

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  • 13. 

    The use of heroin during pregnancy:

    • A.

      May affect the baby's lungs

    • B.

      Can harm the baby's teeth

    • C.

      May cause premature labor

    • D.

      Can cause deafness

    Correct Answer
    C. May cause premature labor
    Explanation
    The use of heroin during pregnancy may cause premature labor. Heroin is a powerful opioid drug that can have detrimental effects on both the mother and the developing baby. It can lead to complications such as placental abruption, which can result in premature labor. Additionally, heroin use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of low birth weight and other adverse outcomes for the baby. Therefore, it is crucial for pregnant women to avoid using heroin to protect the health and well-being of both themselves and their unborn child.

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  • 14. 

    The use of caffeine during pregnancy:

    • A.

      Should be avoided

    • B.

      In combination with alcohol can be deadly

    • C.

      May cause an abnormally small head

    • D.

      Is not a problem as long as it is used in moderation

    Correct Answer
    D. Is not a problem as long as it is used in moderation
    Explanation
    The use of caffeine during pregnancy is not a problem as long as it is used in moderation. While excessive consumption of caffeine can have negative effects on the developing fetus, moderate intake is generally considered safe. It is important for pregnant women to limit their caffeine intake to avoid potential risks such as miscarriage or low birth weight. However, consuming caffeine in moderation, typically defined as less than 200 milligrams per day, is unlikely to cause harm to the baby. It is always advisable for pregnant women to consult with their healthcare provider for personalized advice regarding caffeine consumption.

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  • 15. 

    Antiviral drugs:

    • A.

      Can prevent prenatal transmission of HIV

    • B.

      Are highly teratogenic

    • C.

      Have been shown to increase the rate of spontaneous abortion

    • D.

      Interfere with brain development

    Correct Answer
    A. Can prevent prenatal transmission of HIV
    Explanation
    Antiviral drugs can prevent prenatal transmission of HIV by reducing the viral load in the mother, which in turn reduces the risk of transmission to the fetus during pregnancy, labor, and delivery. These drugs work by inhibiting the replication of the virus, thus decreasing the chances of the baby acquiring the infection. This prevention strategy has been proven effective in reducing the transmission rate and improving the health outcomes for infants born to HIV-positive mothers.

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  • 16. 

    The spontaneous onset of labor at approximately 266 days after conception is set in motion by:

    • A.

      Intervention by the mother's physician

    • B.

      Fetal hormones that pass into the mother's circulation

    • C.

      Rupture of the amniotic tissue

    • D.

      Stretching of mother's cervix by the fetal head

    Correct Answer
    B. Fetal hormones that pass into the mother's circulation
    Explanation
    Fetal hormones that pass into the mother's circulation are responsible for the spontaneous onset of labor at approximately 266 days after conception. These hormones trigger a cascade of events in the mother's body, including the release of prostaglandins, which help to soften and thin the cervix, and oxytocin, which stimulates contractions of the uterus. This hormonal signaling from the fetus to the mother's body plays a crucial role in initiating the labor process.

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  • 17. 

    Anoxia is to low birthweight as ___________ is to ________________.

    • A.

      Serious; common

    • B.

      Risk; deficita

    • C.

      Brain damage; mental retardation

    • D.

      Obesity; cerebral palsy

    Correct Answer
    A. Serious; common
    Explanation
    Anoxia is a condition characterized by a lack of oxygen supply, which can lead to serious health complications. Similarly, low birthweight is a serious condition that can have long-term effects on a baby's health. The relationship between anoxia and low birthweight is that both are serious conditions. In contrast, the relationship between the pair "serious" and "common" is that serious is the characteristic being compared to the frequency of occurrence, which is common.

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  • 18. 

    ____________ is a condition characterized by difficulties with movement and speech resulting from brain damage

    • A.

      Cerebral palsy

    • B.

      FAS

    • C.

      Asperger syndrome

    • D.

      Anoxia

    Correct Answer
    A. Cerebral palsy
    Explanation
    Cerebral palsy is a condition characterized by difficulties with movement and speech resulting from brain damage. It is a neurological disorder that affects muscle control and coordination. The brain damage can occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or in the early years of life. Symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary, but commonly include muscle stiffness or weakness, difficulty with fine motor skills, and problems with balance and coordination. This condition can significantly impact a person's daily life and may require ongoing therapy and support.

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  • 19. 

    Low birthweight infants have an increased risk of ___________ in adulthood

    • A.

      Cancer

    • B.

      Being overweight

    • C.

      Drug dependency

    • D.

      Schizophrenia

    Correct Answer
    B. Being overweight
    Explanation
    Low birthweight infants have an increased risk of being overweight in adulthood. This is because low birthweight is often associated with poor fetal growth and development, which can lead to metabolic changes and an increased likelihood of developing obesity later in life. Additionally, low birthweight infants may have a higher tendency to consume high-calorie diets or have sedentary lifestyles, further contributing to the risk of being overweight.

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  • 20. 

    What is the worst and most prevalent cause of SGA (small for gestational age)?

    • A.

      Tobacco

    • B.

      Caffeine

    • C.

      Cocaine

    • D.

      Alcohol

    Correct Answer
    A. Tobacco
    Explanation
    Tobacco is the worst and most prevalent cause of SGA (small for gestational age) because smoking during pregnancy restricts the oxygen and nutrient supply to the fetus, resulting in poor growth and development. The harmful chemicals in tobacco can also lead to placental abnormalities and increase the risk of preterm birth. Studies have consistently shown that smoking during pregnancy is strongly associated with SGA, making it a significant factor in causing this condition.

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  • 21. 

    The primary reason that adolescent mothers often have small babies is:

    • A.

      Maternal malnutrition

    • B.

      The mother's young age

    • C.

      Inadequate immunizations

    • D.

      Premature birth

    Correct Answer
    A. Maternal malnutrition
    Explanation
    Adolescent mothers often have small babies due to maternal malnutrition. During adolescence, mothers are still growing themselves and their bodies may not have enough nutrients to support the growth and development of the fetus. This can result in restricted fetal growth and low birth weight. Maternal malnutrition can also lead to other complications during pregnancy, such as preterm birth. Therefore, the lack of proper nutrition in adolescent mothers is the primary reason for small babies.

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  • 22. 

    Kangaroo care is a technique designed to help:

    • A.

      Babies with anoxia

    • B.

      Babies in intensive care

    • C.

      Low-birthweight babies

    • D.

      Mothers with postpartum depression

    Correct Answer
    C. Low-birthweight babies
    Explanation
    Kangaroo care is a technique that involves skin-to-skin contact between a parent and a baby, typically used for low-birthweight babies. This technique helps regulate the baby's body temperature, heart rate, and breathing, as well as promotes bonding and breastfeeding. It has been shown to improve the baby's weight gain, decrease the risk of infections, and enhance overall development. Kangaroo care is not specifically designed to help babies with anoxia, babies in intensive care, or mothers with postpartum depression.

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  • 23. 

    According to research, which statement is true of the concept of early skin-to-skin contact?

    • A.

      Early skin-to-skin contact is essential for humans

    • B.

      Early skin-to-skin contact is sometimes essential for humans

    • C.

      Early skin-to-skin contact is not essential for humans

    • D.

      Early skin-to-skin contact can be harmful to humans

    Correct Answer
    C. Early skin-to-skin contact is not essential for humans

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 05, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Nursing_student
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