Psych 111 Practice Test Three

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Psych 111 Practice Test Three - Quiz

Practice test #3 for the Psych 111 class.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Psychological Scientists often divide the way we experience the world into two distinct phases, they are:

    • A.

      Sensation and Transduction

    • B.

      Perception and Transduction

    • C.

      Sensation and Perception

    • D.

      Qualitative and Quantitative

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensation and Perception
    Explanation
    Psychological scientists often divide the way we experience the world into two distinct phases: sensation and perception. Sensation refers to the process of receiving and detecting sensory information from our environment, such as seeing, hearing, or feeling something. Perception, on the other hand, involves interpreting and making sense of this sensory information, allowing us to recognize and understand the world around us. These two processes work together to create our overall experience of the world.

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  • 2. 

    Sensation is the processing, organization and interpretation of sensory signals; it results in an internal representation of the stimulus.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The definition in the question is PERCEPTION.

    Sensation is the sense organs' responses to external stimuli and the transmission of these responses to the brain.

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  • 3. 

    The process of which sensory receptors produce neural impulses when they receive physical or chemical stimulation is known as:

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Judgment

    • C.

      Sensory adaptation

    • D.

      Transduction

    Correct Answer
    D. Transduction
    Explanation
    Transduction is the process by which sensory receptors convert physical or chemical stimulation into neural impulses. It is the initial step in the perception of sensory information. Sensory adaptation refers to the decrease in sensitivity to a constant stimulus over time. Judgment is the cognitive process of forming an opinion or evaluation. Therefore, the correct answer is transduction.

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  • 4. 

    Absolute Threshold is the level of intensity at which participants correctly detect a stimulus on ____ percent of the trials in which it is presented.

    • A.

      25

    • B.

      50

    • C.

      75

    • D.

      100

    Correct Answer
    B. 50
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 50 because the absolute threshold refers to the minimum level of intensity needed for participants to correctly detect a stimulus. In this case, it means that participants are able to detect the stimulus on 50% of the trials in which it is presented.

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  • 5. 

    How far away would a candle have to be on a dark, clear night for my brain to perceive it at a minimal level.

    • A.

      1 mile

    • B.

      10 miles

    • C.

      20 miles

    • D.

      30 miles

    Correct Answer
    D. 30 miles
    Explanation
    On a dark, clear night, the minimal level at which our brain can perceive a candle depends on various factors such as the brightness of the candle, the darkness of the surroundings, and the sensitivity of our eyes. In this case, the correct answer is 30 miles, indicating that the candle would need to be positioned at a distance of 30 miles for our brain to perceive it at the minimal level. This suggests that the candle would have to emit a significantly high amount of light or be placed in an extremely dark environment for it to be visible at such a long distance.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following are approximate sensory thresholds for each sense? (Check all answers that are correct).

    • A.

      Taste: One teaspoon of sugar in 1 gallon of water

    • B.

      Taste: One teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water

    • C.

      Touch: One grain of sand dropped on your cheek from a distance of 1 centimetre

    • D.

      Touch: A fly's wing falling on your cheek from a distance of 1 centimetre

    • E.

      Smell: One Big Mac diffused into the entire volume of two rooms.

    • F.

      Smell: One drop of perfume diffused into the entire volume of six rooms.

    • G.

      Hearing: The tick of a clock at 20 feet under quiet conditions.

    • H.

      Hearing: The chirping of a cricket from a distance of 3 football fields.

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Taste: One teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
    D. Touch: A fly's wing falling on your cheek from a distance of 1 centimetre
    F. Smell: One drop of perfume diffused into the entire volume of six rooms.
    G. Hearing: The tick of a clock at 20 feet under quiet conditions.
    Explanation
    The approximate sensory thresholds for each sense are as follows: for taste, one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water; for touch, a fly's wing falling on your cheek from a distance of 1 centimeter; for smell, one drop of perfume diffused into the entire volume of six rooms; and for hearing, the tick of a clock at 20 feet under quiet conditions.

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  • 7. 

    A difference threshold is calculated using whose law?

    • A.

      Weber's Law

    • B.

      Keiths's Law

    • C.

      Seabrook's Law

    • D.

      Pronger's Law

    • E.

      Doughty's Law

    • F.

      Niedermayer's Law

    Correct Answer
    A. Weber's Law
    Explanation
    Difference Threshold is calculated by Weber's Law, which mathematically is calculated by the change in a stimulus divided by the number of stimulus.

    A difference threshold is the just noticeable difference between two stimuli- the minimum amount of change required for a person to detect a difference.

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  • 8. 

    Signal detection theory states that detecting a stimulus requires making a judgment about its presence or absence, based on an objective interpretation of ambiguous information.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The interpretation of a stimulus is SUBJECTIVE. Not objective.

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  • 9. 

    A decrease in sensitivity due to a constant level of stimulation is defined in the textbook as:

    • A.

      Desensitization

    • B.

      Gustation

    • C.

      Sensory adaptation

    • D.

      Sensory decay

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensory adaptation
    Explanation
    Sensory adaptation refers to a decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation. This means that over time, our sensory receptors become less responsive to a stimulus that remains unchanged. This adaptation allows our senses to focus on detecting new or changing stimuli, rather than continuously responding to unchanging ones. Therefore, sensory adaptation is the correct term for this phenomenon.

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  • 10. 

    Gustation is:

    • A.

      The sense of taste

    • B.

      The sense of smell

    • C.

      The sense of touch

    • D.

      The sense of hearing

    Correct Answer
    A. The sense of taste
    Explanation
    Gustation refers to the sense of taste. It is the ability to perceive different flavors and sensations through the taste buds on the tongue. This sense allows us to distinguish between sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami flavors. It is closely related to our sense of smell, as the two senses work together to create our perception of flavor. The sense of touch, hearing, and smell are not directly related to gustation.

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  • 11. 

    People who experience especially intense taste sensations are known as:

    • A.

      Hypertasters

    • B.

      Supergustators

    • C.

      Supertasters

    • D.

      Freaks

    Correct Answer
    C. Supertasters
    Explanation
    People who experience especially intense taste sensations are not freaks...

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  • 12. 

    The thin layer of tissue within the nasal cavity that is embedded with small receptors that perform olfaction (the sense of smell) is known as:

    • A.

      Olfactory epithelium

    • B.

      Olfactory bulb

    • C.

      Papillae

    • D.

      Odorants

    Correct Answer
    A. Olfactory epithelium
    Explanation
    The correct answer is olfactory epithelium. The olfactory epithelium is a thin layer of tissue located within the nasal cavity. It contains small receptors that are responsible for detecting and interpreting different smells, thus enabling the sense of smell or olfaction. This specialized epithelium plays a crucial role in the detection and processing of odorants, allowing us to perceive and distinguish various scents. The olfactory epithelium is essential for our sense of smell and is responsible for transmitting signals to the brain for further processing and interpretation.

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  • 13. 

    The sense of touch is known as:

    • A.

      Audition

    • B.

      Haptic Sense

    • C.

      Gustatory Sense

    Correct Answer
    B. Haptic Sense
    Explanation
    The sense of touch is known as the haptic sense. This sense allows us to perceive and interpret physical sensations through the skin, such as pressure, temperature, and texture. It plays a crucial role in our daily lives, helping us navigate our environment, recognize objects, and experience physical sensations. Unlike audition, which refers to the sense of hearing, and gustatory sense, which refers to the sense of taste, haptic sense specifically pertains to the sense of touch.

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  • 14. 

    The main goal of gustation (aka Gustatory Sense) is to...

    • A.

      Encourage the consumption of foods through pleasant taste

    • B.

      Give ourselves variety in life

    • C.

      Improve smell

    • D.

      Keep poisons out

    Correct Answer
    D. Keep poisons out
    Explanation
    The main goal of gustation is to keep poisons out. Our sense of taste helps us identify and avoid potentially harmful substances by detecting bitter or unpleasant tastes. This is an important survival mechanism that protects us from ingesting toxic or spoiled foods.

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  • 15. 

    Judgments are not effected by context.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The context in which you make a judgment greatly effects how it is made.

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  • 16. 

    Frequency can help determines which of the following in sound (Check all that apply)

    • A.

      Pitch

    • B.

      Loudness

    • C.

      Vibrations per second

    • D.

      Location of sound

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pitch
    C. Vibrations per second
    D. Location of sound
    Explanation
    The tapered width of the basilar membrane translates frequency to location.

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  • 17. 

    Women are better at men in which of the following basic senses?

    • A.

      Touch

    • B.

      Sound

    • C.

      Hearing

    • D.

      Smell

    • E.

      Taste

    • F.

      All of the Above

    • G.

      None of the Above

    • H.

      Microwaving Pizza

    Correct Answer
    D. Smell
    Explanation
    Women are better at detecting and identifying odors than men, so be sure to wear deodorant boys...

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not an example of tactile stimulation?

    • A.

      Hot/Cold

    • B.

      Hair/Capsules

    • C.

      Sharp + Fast Pain/Dull + Slow Pain

    • D.

      Old/New

    Correct Answer
    D. Old/New
    Explanation
    Tactile stimulation refers to the sense of touch. Hot/cold, hair/capsules, and sharp/fast pain/dull/slow pain are all examples of tactile stimulation as they involve physical sensations that can be felt through touch. However, old/new does not involve any physical touch or sensation, making it not an example of tactile stimulation.

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  • 19. 

    What is the single most common medical complaint?

    • A.

      Hearing Voices

    • B.

      Bleeding

    • C.

      Seeing dead people

    • D.

      Pain

    Correct Answer
    D. Pain
    Explanation
    Pain is considered the single most common medical complaint because it is a universal experience that can occur in various parts of the body and can be caused by a wide range of factors such as injury, illness, or chronic conditions. Pain is a subjective sensation that individuals often seek medical attention for, making it a common complaint in healthcare settings. It can significantly impact a person's quality of life and may require medical intervention for relief.

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  • 20. 

    Pain signals are not sent by the receptors if there is no tissue damage.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Pain exists in the brain and can be felt without any tissue damage.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is a quality of pain?

    • A.

      Organic

    • B.

      Psychogenic

    • C.

      Acute

    • D.

      Chronic

    • E.

      Malignant

    • F.

      Benign

    • G.

      Continous

    • H.

      Episodic

    • I.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    I. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed are qualities of pain. Organic pain refers to pain caused by a physical injury or illness, while psychogenic pain is pain that is caused by psychological factors. Acute pain is sudden and short-term, while chronic pain is long-lasting. Malignant pain is associated with cancer, while benign pain is not. Continuous pain is constant, while episodic pain occurs intermittently. Therefore, all of these options are qualities of pain.

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  • 22. 

    Pain always feels negative.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Pain depends on your emotional interpretation of it. For example, some people enjoy the searing heat of a hot tub, or enjoy the soreness of muscles after exercise.

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  • 23. 

    Gate control theory states that for us to experience pain, pain receptors must be activated and a neural "gate" to the spinal cord must allow the signals through to the brain.

    • A.

      Hell yes

    • B.

      Hell no

    • C.

      Hell maybe

    Correct Answer
    A. Hell yes
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Hell yes." This answer may be a response to the statement about the Gate control theory. It could imply strong agreement or confirmation with the theory's explanation that pain receptors need to be activated and signals must pass through a neural "gate" to the brain for us to experience pain.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is not a factor of opening the pain gate?

    • A.

      Amount of activity in the pain fibers

    • B.

      Amount of activity in other peripheral fibers

    • C.

      This one

    • D.

      Messages that descend from the brain

    Correct Answer
    C. This one
    Explanation
    Couldn't think of a convincing wrong answer so have a free one...

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  • 25. 

    Check all conditions that open the gate.

    • A.

      E Extent of physical injury

    • B.

      Inappropriate activity level

    • C.

      Anxiety or worry

    • D.

      Medications and endorphins

    • E.

      Counterstimulation

    • F.

      Tension

    • G.

      Positive emotions

    • H.

      Relaxation

    • I.

      Intense concentration

    • J.

      Involvement and interest in activities

    • K.

      Depression

    • L.

      Focusing on pain

    • M.

      Boredom

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. E Extent of physical injury
    B. Inappropriate activity level
    C. Anxiety or worry
    F. Tension
    K. Depression
    L. Focusing on pain
    M. Boredom
  • 26. 

    Check all conditions that close the gate:

    • A.

      Extent of physical injury

    • B.

      Inappropriate activity level

    • C.

      Anxiety or worry

    • D.

      The presence of an Orc army at Helm's Deep

    • E.

      Counterstimulation

    • F.

      Tension

    • G.

      Positive emotions

    • H.

      Relaxation

    • I.

      Intense concentration

    • J.

      Involvement and interest in activities

    • K.

      Depression

    • L.

      Focusing on pain

    • M.

      Boredom

    • N.

      Medication/Endorphins

    Correct Answer(s)
    E. Counterstimulation
    G. Positive emotions
    H. Relaxation
    I. Intense concentration
    J. Involvement and interest in activities
    N. Medication/Endorphins
    Explanation
    The given answer includes conditions that can close the gate. Counterstimulation, positive emotions, relaxation, intense concentration, involvement and interest in activities, and medication/endorphins are all factors that can contribute to closing the gate. These conditions can help distract from physical injury, inappropriate activity level, anxiety or worry, tension, depression, focusing on pain, and boredom, allowing the gate to close.

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  • 27. 

    Having two ears helps us locate the source of the sound due to differences in timing and intensity between the two sounds.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Having two ears helps us locate the source of sound due to differences in timing and intensity between the two sounds. When a sound reaches one ear before the other, our brain processes this information to determine the direction from which the sound is coming. Additionally, the intensity or volume of the sound may be slightly different in each ear, allowing us to further pinpoint the source. Therefore, it is true that having two ears assists in sound localization.

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  • 28. 

    Cones (used for high color, high detail vision) vastly outnumber the rods in the typical human.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    There are about 6,000,000 cones in an eye and 160,000,000 rods.

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  • 29. 

    Rods are concentrated in the fovea while Cones are located around the periphery of the retina.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vice versa.

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  • 30. 

    About how much of the cortex may be involved in vision (at the most).

    • A.

      1/4

    • B.

      1/2

    • C.

      2/3

    • D.

      All

    Correct Answer
    B. 1/2
    Explanation
    Approximately half of the cortex may be involved in vision. This suggests that a significant portion of the brain's outer layer is dedicated to processing visual information. The involvement of such a large area indicates the importance of vision in human perception and cognition.

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  • 31. 

    Simple cells in the eye detect which of the following (choose the most specific answer):

    • A.

      Movement

    • B.

      Shapes

    • C.

      Lines

    • D.

      Patterns

    Correct Answer
    C. Lines
    Explanation
    Simple cells in the eye detect lines. This is because simple cells are responsible for detecting basic visual features such as edges and lines. These cells are found in the primary visual cortex and are sensitive to the orientation and position of lines in the visual field. They play a crucial role in processing visual information and are essential for our perception of shapes and objects.

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  • 32. 

    Light in the center of the visual field increases the firing frequency of neurons while light in the surround decreases firing.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because of the phenomenon known as center-surround organization in visual processing. In the visual system, there are specialized cells called receptive fields that respond to light stimuli. These receptive fields have a center region and a surrounding region. When light is presented in the center of the receptive field, the firing frequency of neurons increases. On the other hand, when light is presented in the surround region, the firing frequency of neurons decreases. This center-surround organization helps in enhancing contrast and detecting edges in visual stimuli.

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  • 33. 

    What component of visual perception would make the outfits above useful?

    • A.

      Receptive Field

    • B.

      Lateral inhibition

    • C.

      Low light vision

    • D.

      Looking really awesome

    Correct Answer
    B. Lateral inhibition
    Explanation
    Lateral inhibition is the sensing of edges, camouflage breaks up the edges when projected against a similar background.

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  • 34. 

    The Dorsal Stream is the "What" stream and the Ventral Stream is the "Where" stream. (Stream referring to different parts of the brain having different receptive fields.)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Reverse the two, dorsal is the where and ventral is the what.

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  • 35. 

    Subtractive color mixing occurs within the stimulus while additive color mixing occurs in the receptors.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Subtractive color mixing refers to the process of creating colors by subtracting certain wavelengths of light. It occurs within the stimulus, meaning that it happens when different colored pigments or dyes are mixed together. On the other hand, additive color mixing refers to the process of creating colors by adding different wavelengths of light together. It occurs in the receptors, which are the cells in our eyes that detect light. Therefore, the statement that subtractive color mixing occurs within the stimulus while additive color mixing occurs in the receptors is true.

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  • 36. 

    Bottom up processing is based on sensory information while top-down processing is based on our expectations.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Bottom-up processing refers to the way our brain processes information starting from the sensory receptors and moving towards higher-level cognitive processes. It involves taking in raw sensory data and building up a complete understanding of the stimulus. On the other hand, top-down processing involves using our existing knowledge, experiences, and expectations to interpret incoming sensory information. It relies on our cognitive processes to make sense of the world around us. Therefore, the statement that bottom-up processing is based on sensory information while top-down processing is based on our expectations is true.

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  • 37. 

    Which specific part of the brain is dedicated to facial recognition?

    • A.

      Homunculus

    • B.

      Fusiform Gyrus

    • C.

      Super Nintendoius

    • D.

      Primary Visual Cortex

    Correct Answer
    B. Fusiform Gyrus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Fusiform Gyrus. The Fusiform Gyrus is a specific part of the brain that is responsible for facial recognition. It is located in the temporal lobe and plays a crucial role in processing and identifying faces. This region is particularly active when individuals are engaged in tasks related to face recognition, such as identifying familiar faces or recognizing facial expressions.

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  • 38. 

    People are better at recognizing faces of their own race.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Research has shown that people are generally better at recognizing faces of their own race compared to faces of other races. This phenomenon is known as the own-race bias or the cross-race effect. It is believed to be influenced by various factors, including exposure and familiarity. People tend to have more experience and exposure to faces of their own race, leading to increased familiarity and better recognition. This bias can have implications in various fields, such as eyewitness testimony and criminal investigations, where accurate face recognition is crucial.

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  • 39. 

    How do you feel about this picture? (Question not graded)

    • A.

      Mike! Where did you get a picture of my mother?

    • B.

      Wow! That lady on the right is a total bombshell!

    • C.

      I'd rather read a crap book like Twilight than look at this

    • D.

      I will pay you money to take this picture away from me.

    • E.

      I would rather eat a live tarantula than stare at this picture any longer.

    Correct Answer
    B. Wow! That lady on the right is a total bombshell!
    Explanation
    God she is so hot...

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is not a monocular cue to depth perception?

    • A.

      Occlusion

    • B.

      Relative Size

    • C.

      Familiar Size

    • D.

      Linear Perspective

    • E.

      Texture gradient

    • F.

      Position relative to horizon

    • G.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    G. None of the Above
    Explanation
    Monocular cues are cues that come from one individual eye. They are also called pictorial depth cues because they are used by artists often.

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  • 41. 

    One of the most important cues to depth perception is:

    • A.

      Familiar Size

    • B.

      Linear Perspective

    • C.

      Binocular Disparity

    • D.

      Relative Size

    Correct Answer
    C. Binocular Disparity
    Explanation
    Binocular Disparity results from two eyes receiving slightly different images, which are then overlapped to create and compute distances between objects. It is a Binocular Visual Cue and therefore was not in the previous question.

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  • 42. 

    People living in more carpentered worlds are harder to fool with optical illusions based on some monocular cues.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    It is actually easier to fool them.

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  • 43. 

    The ability to detect where ones limbs are in space is known as:

    • A.

      Vestibular sense

    • B.

      Kinesthetic sense

    • C.

      Electroreception

    • D.

      Extrasensory Perception

    Correct Answer
    B. Kinesthetic sense
    Explanation
    The ability to detect where one's limbs are in space is known as kinesthetic sense. This sense allows us to have a sense of body position and movement without relying on visual cues. It is responsible for our ability to perform coordinated movements and maintain balance. Kinesthetic sense is important for activities such as dancing, playing sports, and even simple tasks like walking and reaching for objects. It involves receptors in our muscles, tendons, and joints that send signals to the brain, giving us a constant awareness of the position and movement of our body parts.

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  • 44. 

    A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future is known as...

    • A.

      Classical Conditioning

    • B.

      Stimulus Generalization

    • C.

      Stimulus Discrimination

    • D.

      Operant Conditioning

    Correct Answer
    D. Operant Conditioning
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning is a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood of it being repeated in the future. It involves the use of reinforcement or punishment to strengthen or weaken a behavior. This type of conditioning is based on the principle that behaviors that are followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated, while behaviors followed by negative consequences are less likely to be repeated. Therefore, operant conditioning is the correct answer as it best describes the learning process mentioned in the question.

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  • 45. 

    A bell is rang every time a dog is given food. Eventually, the dog starts drooling when the bell is rang along. Then, the bell rang but food is not given and the behavior is eventually extinguished. A few days later, the bell is rang and the dog starts drooling again. What is this known as, when an extinguished conditioned stimulus suddenly produces a conditioned response?

    • A.

      Stimulus discrimination

    • B.

      Stimulus generalization

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery

    Correct Answer
    C. Spontaneous recovery
    Explanation
    Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance of a conditioned response after it has been extinguished. In this scenario, the dog had learned to associate the sound of the bell with the presentation of food, but when the food was no longer given, the behavior of drooling in response to the bell was extinguished. However, after a few days, the dog started drooling again when the bell was rang, even though there was no food present. This reappearance of the conditioned response is known as spontaneous recovery.

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  • 46. 

    A response that does not have to be learned is known as:

    • A.

      Conditioned response

    • B.

      Conditioned stimulus

    • C.

      Unconditioned response

    • D.

      Unconditioned stimulus

    Correct Answer
    C. Unconditioned response
    Explanation
    An unconditioned response refers to a natural and automatic reaction that does not need to be learned. It is an innate response that occurs in response to an unconditioned stimulus without any prior conditioning or training. This response is typically reflexive and does not require any conscious effort or thought.

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  • 47. 

    In order to be a phobia, a fear must be: (check all that apply)

    • A.

      Out of proportion

    • B.

      Of an object that is no actual threat

    • C.

      Acquired

    • D.

      Present since birth

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Out of proportion
    C. Acquired
    Explanation
    A phobia is an irrational and excessive fear of a specific object, situation, or activity. It is characterized by a fear that is out of proportion to the actual threat posed by the object or situation. This means that the level of fear experienced by the individual is much higher than what would be considered normal or reasonable. Additionally, phobias are acquired, meaning that they are learned through personal experiences or observations. Therefore, the correct answer options are "Out of proportion" and "Acquired."

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  • 48. 

    Exposing people to small doses of a feared stimulus while having them engage in a pleasurable task fits into all of the following except:

    • A.

      Classical Conditioning

    • B.

      Operant Conditioning

    • C.

      Counterconditioning

    • D.

      Desensitization

    Correct Answer
    B. Operant Conditioning
    Explanation
    Exposing people to small doses of a feared stimulus while having them engage in a pleasurable task fits into classical conditioning, counterconditioning, and desensitization. In classical conditioning, the feared stimulus is paired with a pleasurable task to create a new association. Counterconditioning involves replacing a negative response with a positive one. Desensitization aims to reduce fear or anxiety by gradually exposing individuals to the feared stimulus. However, it does not fit into operant conditioning, which focuses on learning through consequences and rewards for behaviors.

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  • 49. 

    Exposure therapy treats anxieties by associating the unwanted behavior with an unpleasant state.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Exposure Therapy treats anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or reality) to the things they fear and avoid.

    Aversive conditioning treats unwanted behaviors by associating it with an unwanted state.

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  • 50. 

    Some stimuli are more effective in producing learning.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Some stimuli are more effective in producing learning. This statement is true because different stimuli can have varying levels of impact on an individual's ability to learn and retain information. Certain stimuli, such as those that are personally relevant or emotionally engaging, tend to be more effective in capturing attention and promoting learning. Additionally, stimuli that are presented in a clear and organized manner are also more likely to facilitate learning. Therefore, it can be concluded that not all stimuli are equally effective in producing learning.

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