Psych 001 Chapter 11 Final

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Psych 001 Chapter 11 Final - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _______ refers to the overall manner in which a person thinks, behaves and feels.

    • A.

      Motivation

    • B.

      Emotion

    • C.

      Personality

    • D.

      An external locus of control

    Correct Answer
    C. Personality
    Explanation
    Personality refers to the overall manner in which a person thinks, behaves, and feels. It encompasses a person's unique set of characteristics, traits, and patterns of behavior that define their individuality and distinguish them from others. Personality is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and social factors, and it plays a significant role in shaping an individual's attitudes, beliefs, and actions. It is an enduring and relatively stable aspect of a person's psychological makeup that influences their interactions with others and their overall approach to life.

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  • 2. 

    According to Freud, the most important and influential level of awareness is the:

    • A.

      Preconscious

    • B.

      Conscience

    • C.

      Conscious

    • D.

      Unconscious

    Correct Answer
    D. Unconscious
    Explanation
    According to Freud, the unconscious mind is the most important and influential level of awareness. The unconscious mind consists of thoughts, desires, and memories that are not readily accessible to conscious awareness, yet they greatly influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Freud believed that unresolved conflicts and repressed desires from the unconscious mind can manifest in various ways, such as dreams, slips of the tongue, and symptoms of psychological disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing the unconscious mind is crucial in psychoanalysis and gaining insight into an individual's psychological functioning.

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  • 3. 

    Information to answer the question "What color is your vehicle?" would be located in ______ according to the psychoanalytic theory.

    • A.

      The preconscious

    • B.

      The superego

    • C.

      The unconscious

    • D.

      The ego

    Correct Answer
    A. The preconscious
    Explanation
    According to the psychoanalytic theory, the preconscious is the part of the mind where information is readily available and can be easily brought into conscious awareness. Therefore, information about the color of one's vehicle would be located in the preconscious, as it is not currently in conscious awareness but can be easily accessed and retrieved.

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  • 4. 

    In psychoanalytic theory, since the _______ is the rational part of the personality, it sometimes plays referee between the wishes of the _______ and the _______.

    • A.

      Superego; id; ego

    • B.

      Ego; id; superego

    • C.

      Id; superego; ego

    • D.

      Unconscious; id; ego ideal

    Correct Answer
    A. Superego; id; ego
    Explanation
    In psychoanalytic theory, the superego is considered the rational part of the personality. It acts as a moral compass, enforcing societal norms and values. The id, on the other hand, represents our innate desires and instincts, seeking immediate gratification. The ego, positioned between the superego and the id, acts as a mediator or referee, balancing the conflicting demands of the two. It strives to find a compromise that satisfies both the desires of the id and the moral standards of the superego.

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  • 5. 

    Sixteen-year-old Evan is referred to as a perfectionist by his friends and family. Neither his parents nor his teachers put pressure on him because they all know Evan seems to be the most critical of himself. According to Freud, Evan likely

    • A.

      Has a fixation that occurred during the oral stage

    • B.

      Has a strong id

    • C.

      Has yet to resolve the Oedipus complex

    • D.

      Has a strong superego

    Correct Answer
    D. Has a strong superego
    Explanation
    According to Freud, the superego represents the moral and ethical standards of an individual. It is responsible for enforcing rules and societal norms. Evan's strong superego can be inferred from the fact that he is highly critical of himself and strives for perfection. This suggests that he internalizes high standards and expectations, which are characteristic of a strong superego.

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  • 6. 

    Strategies used by the ego to help reduce the anxiety caused by too much conflict between the id and superego are called

    • A.

      Defense mechanisms

    • B.

      Fixations

    • C.

      The psychosexual stages

    • D.

      Archetypes

    Correct Answer
    A. Defense mechanisms
    Explanation
    The ego, according to Freud, is the part of the mind that mediates between the impulsive desires of the id and the moral standards of the superego. When there is excessive conflict between these two opposing forces, the ego employs defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety. Defense mechanisms are psychological strategies used by the ego to distort reality, deny or repress uncomfortable thoughts and feelings, and protect the individual from psychological distress. These mechanisms include repression, denial, projection, displacement, and others. They serve as a way for the ego to maintain a balance and prevent overwhelming anxiety.

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  • 7. 

    "No girls allowed," "boys have cooties," "yuck, they're kissing!" are all comments typical of children in the _______ stage of psychosexual development.

    • A.

      Oral

    • B.

      Latency

    • C.

      Phallic

    • D.

      Genital

    Correct Answer
    B. Latency
    Explanation
    In the latency stage of psychosexual development, children typically display a lack of interest in sexual matters and a focus on developing social and intellectual skills. The comments mentioned in the question, such as "No girls allowed," "boys have cooties," and "yuck, they're kissing," reflect a stage where children begin to suppress their sexual feelings and instead channel their energy into other activities, such as forming same-sex friendships and engaging in hobbies. This stage is characterized by a temporary pause in sexual development before the onset of the next stage, the genital stage.

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  • 8. 

    In Jung's theory, the inherited part of the personality that stores the universal experiences of mankind is the:

    • A.

      Universal unconscious

    • B.

      Impersonal unconscious

    • C.

      Collective unconscious

    • D.

      Personal unconscious

    Correct Answer
    C. Collective unconscious
    Explanation
    The collective unconscious refers to the inherited part of the personality that stores the universal experiences of mankind, according to Jung's theory. This concept suggests that there are certain archetypes and symbols that are shared among all individuals, regardless of culture or upbringing. These collective experiences are believed to influence our thoughts, behaviors, and dreams on a subconscious level.

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  • 9. 

    Alfred Adler's theory is called _______ because of the emphasis on the wholeness of the person.

    • A.

      Analytical psychology

    • B.

      Individual psychology

    • C.

      Neurotic psychology

    • D.

      Holistic psychology

    Correct Answer
    B. Individual psychology
    Explanation
    Alfred Adler's theory is called "individual psychology" because it focuses on the individual as a whole, emphasizing the unique experiences, motivations, and goals of each person. It recognizes the importance of understanding an individual's subjective perceptions and their social context in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of their behavior and psychological well-being. This theory highlights the individual's sense of self, their striving for significance, and their ability to overcome challenges and develop a healthy lifestyle.

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  • 10. 

    All of the following are true of Karen Horney EXCEPT

    • A.

      She rejected the idea that early experiences played a role in later personality development

    • B.

      She felt that personality developed over a lifetime

    • C.

      She rejected the idea of penis envy

    • D.

      She believed that cultural and environmental variables were important in the development of personality.

    Correct Answer
    A. She rejected the idea that early experiences played a role in later personality development
    Explanation
    Karen Horney believed that personality developed over a lifetime and that cultural and environmental variables were important in the development of personality. However, she did not reject the idea that early experiences played a role in later personality development. Therefore, the correct answer is that she rejected the idea of penis envy.

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  • 11. 

    The neurotic personality and feminine psychology were two of the main themes in the work of:

    • A.

      Marian Rotter

    • B.

      Alfred Adler

    • C.

      Karen Horney

    • D.

      Anna Freud

    Correct Answer
    C. Karen Horney
    Explanation
    Karen Horney is the correct answer because she was a prominent psychoanalyst who focused on the neurotic personality and feminine psychology. Her work emphasized the impact of societal and cultural factors on individual development and challenged Freud's theories on female psychology. Horney believed that neurotic behaviors were driven by underlying feelings of insecurity and anxiety, and she proposed various coping mechanisms to address these issues. Her theories have had a significant influence on modern psychoanalysis and feminist psychology.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic in self-actualizing individuals?

    • A.

      Effective personal relationships

    • B.

      Personal strife

    • C.

      Frequent peak experiences

    • D.

      Autonomy

    Correct Answer
    B. Personal strife
    Explanation
    Self-actualizing individuals are known for their ability to reach their full potential and lead fulfilling lives. They typically have effective personal relationships, frequently experience peak moments, and value autonomy. However, personal strife is not a characteristic of self-actualizing individuals. These individuals tend to have a sense of inner peace and contentment, and they actively work towards resolving conflicts and maintaining positive relationships. Personal strife would be contradictory to the overall mindset and behavior of self-actualizing individuals.

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  • 13. 

    The notion that "I'll feel warmly toward you and respect you ONLY IF..." suggests

    • A.

      Reciprocal determinism

    • B.

      A weak superego

    • C.

      Unconditional positive regard

    • D.

      Conditions of worth

    Correct Answer
    D. Conditions of worth
    Explanation
    The notion that "I'll feel warmly toward you and respect you ONLY IF..." suggests conditions of worth. This means that the person's positive regard and respect for someone else is contingent upon certain conditions being met. They will only feel warmly toward and respect the person if they meet their expectations or fulfill certain requirements. This implies that their regard and respect are not unconditional, but rather dependent on specific conditions being fulfilled.

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  • 14. 

    Creating an environment where someone is accepted and not judged, no matter what, exemplifies

    • A.

      Unconditional positive regard

    • B.

      Reciprocal determinism

    • C.

      An internal locus of control

    • D.

      Conditions of worth

    Correct Answer
    A. Unconditional positive regard
    Explanation
    Unconditional positive regard refers to creating an environment where someone is accepted and not judged, regardless of their actions or behaviors. This means that they are valued and respected for who they are, without any conditions or expectations. It involves providing support, empathy, and understanding without any criticism or judgment. This approach promotes personal growth and self-acceptance, allowing individuals to feel safe and secure in expressing themselves and exploring their potential.

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  • 15. 

    In humanistic theory, the innate tendency to strive to realize one's potential, or to be all one can be, is termed:

    • A.

      Self-aggrandizement

    • B.

      Self-actualization

    • C.

      Self-efficacy

    • D.

      Self-worth

    Correct Answer
    B. Self-actualization
    Explanation
    Self-actualization refers to the innate drive within individuals to fulfill their potential and become the best version of themselves. It is a concept introduced by humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow, who believed that individuals have a hierarchy of needs, with self-actualization being the highest level. This concept suggests that individuals strive to achieve personal growth, self-discovery, and self-fulfillment. It involves pursuing meaningful goals, expressing one's creativity, and experiencing personal fulfillment. Self-actualization is about becoming the best version of oneself and reaching one's highest potential.

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  • 16. 

    Which psychologist believed that individuals often do not become fully functioning persons because, in childhood, they fail to receive unconditional positive regard from the parents?

    • A.

      Carl Rogers

    • B.

      Gordon Allport

    • C.

      Abraham Maslow

    • D.

      Hans Eysenck

    Correct Answer
    A. Carl Rogers
    Explanation
    Carl Rogers believed that individuals often do not become fully functioning persons because, in childhood, they fail to receive unconditional positive regard from their parents. Unconditional positive regard refers to the acceptance and love a person receives from others without any conditions or judgment. According to Rogers, when individuals do not receive this unconditional positive regard, they develop conditions of worth, where they believe they are only worthy of love and acceptance if they meet certain conditions or expectations. This leads to a lack of self-acceptance and the inability to fully develop their true potential.

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  • 17. 

    Loukas is a researcher who has spent his career studying personality in terms of characteristics and descriptions that are stable across time. Loukas is likely a _______.

    • A.

      Neuropsychologist

    • B.

      Trait theorist

    • C.

      Psychiatrist

    • D.

      Humanistic psychologist

    Correct Answer
    B. Trait theorist
    Explanation
    Loukas is likely a trait theorist because he focuses on studying personality in terms of stable characteristics and descriptions across time. Trait theorists believe that personality is composed of enduring traits that remain consistent over time and across situations. They aim to identify and measure these traits to understand and predict behavior. Loukas' emphasis on stability and characteristics aligns with the approach of trait theorists, making this the most suitable option.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is NOT considered one of the Big Five?

    • A.

      Extroversion

    • B.

      Conscientiousness

    • C.

      Neuroticism

    • D.

      Sociabillity

    Correct Answer
    D. Sociabillity
    Explanation
    Sociability is not considered one of the Big Five personality traits. The Big Five, also known as the Five Factor Model, includes extroversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and agreeableness. Sociability, which refers to the tendency to seek and enjoy social interactions, is related to extroversion but is not considered a separate trait in the Big Five framework.

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  • 19. 

    Shy and reserved fall within the ______ factor of the five-factor theory; outgoing and sociable describe the ______ factor of the five-factor theory

    • A.

      Extroversion; conscientiousness

    • B.

      Introversion; extroversion

    • C.

      Conscientiousness; neuroticism

    • D.

      Neuroticism; extroversion

    Correct Answer
    B. Introversion; extroversion
    Explanation
    Shy and reserved individuals are often described as introverted, which is a factor of the five-factor theory. On the other hand, outgoing and sociable individuals are often described as extroverted, which is another factor of the five-factor theory. The five-factor theory categorizes personality traits into five dimensions, and introversion and extroversion are two of these dimensions.

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  • 20. 

    Katrina and Carla are twin sisters of the fraternal type. They have different groups of friends, different interests, and different personalities. Katrina is described as oppositional, offensive, and unfriendly whereas Carla is described as warm, pleasant, and good-natured. These twins differ on the ______ factor of the five-factor model.

    • A.

      Conscientiousness

    • B.

      Openness to experience

    • C.

      Agreeableness

    • D.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    C. Agreeableness
    Explanation
    Based on the description provided, Katrina and Carla differ on the agreeableness factor of the five-factor model. This is because Katrina is described as oppositional, offensive, and unfriendly, which suggests a low level of agreeableness. On the other hand, Carla is described as warm, pleasant, and good-natured, indicating a higher level of agreeableness. The agreeableness factor in the five-factor model measures an individual's tendency to be cooperative, empathetic, and friendly towards others, which aligns with the contrasting personalities of Katrina and Carla.

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  • 21. 

    Albert Bandura proposed that personality results from an interaction of personal factors, like attitudes and cognitions, with environmental situations. Bandura called this interaction:

    • A.

      Reciprocal determinism

    • B.

      Self-efficacy determination

    • C.

      Openness to experience

    • D.

      Nature-nurture integration

    Correct Answer
    A. Reciprocal determinism
    Explanation
    Albert Bandura proposed that personality is a result of an interaction between personal factors, such as attitudes and cognitions, and environmental situations. This interaction is known as reciprocal determinism, where personal factors influence the environment, and the environment in turn influences personal factors. It suggests that individuals have the ability to shape and be shaped by their environment, and that behavior is not solely determined by either personal factors or environmental situations, but rather by the dynamic interplay between the two.

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  • 22. 

    Sixteen-year-old Enzo is involved in many activities at school, plays sports, and gets good grades. His parents report that he has been this way since he was little. Enzo reports having confidence in himself and his abilities. Conseequently, he tends to set higher and higher goals for himself and works diligently to achieve them. Enzo likely has

    • A.

      A low degree of self-efficacy

    • B.

      An external locus of control

    • C.

      A strong id

    • D.

      A high degree of self-efficacy

    Correct Answer
    D. A high degree of self-efficacy
    Explanation
    Enzo's confidence in himself and his abilities, as well as his tendency to set higher goals and work diligently to achieve them, suggests that he has a high degree of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief in their own ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish certain tasks. Enzo's consistent involvement in activities, good grades, and sports participation further support the idea that he has a strong belief in his capabilities and is motivated to excel.

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  • 23. 

    Merrisa believes that getting a good job after college is all about the connections someone has in addition to being at the right place at the right time. Merrisa also believes that if a person doesn't get the job he/she wants, it just was not meant to be. Merrisa is demonstrating

    • A.

      An internal locus of control

    • B.

      An external locus of control

    • C.

      Unconditional positive regard

    • D.

      High self-efficacy

    Correct Answer
    B. An external locus of control
    Explanation
    Merrisa's belief that getting a good job is dependent on external factors such as connections and timing, and that if she doesn't get the job she wants it is due to fate or circumstances beyond her control, suggests an external locus of control. This means that Merrisa believes that external forces have a greater influence on her outcomes rather than her own abilities or actions.

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  • 24. 

    From a behavioral geneticist's viewpoint, which of the following is true regarding how an individual develops personality? 

    • A.

      Adoption studies suggest that the personality factors of an individual are much more related to his/her adoptive parents than biological parents, especially if the individual was adopted at birth.

    • B.

      Identical twin studies make it very clear that our personality is only inherited and is based solely on our biological parents.

    • C.

      Research strongly suggests environment plays the largest role in the development of personality

    • D.

      The genes set the parameters of an individual's personality; the environment then may play a role in personality development within that genetically determined range.

    Correct Answer
    D. The genes set the parameters of an individual's personality; the environment then may play a role in personality development within that genetically determined range.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that genes set the parameters of an individual's personality, and the environment may play a role in personality development within that genetically determined range. This means that while genes provide a foundation for personality traits, the specific expression of those traits can be influenced by environmental factors. This viewpoint aligns with the understanding that both nature (genes) and nurture (environment) contribute to the development of personality. Adoption studies and identical twin studies provide evidence supporting this explanation.

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  • 25. 

    Studies on personality and culture reveal which of the following?      

    • A.

      Studies show that Guatemala and Equador have the highest degree of collectivism.

    • B.

      Research shows that the United States has the highest degree of collectivism.

    • C.

      According to personality research, Australia has the lowest degree of individualism.

    • D.

      Each culture has an equal degree of both individualism and collectivism.

    Correct Answer
    A. Studies show that Guatemala and Equador have the highest degree of collectivism.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Studies show that Guatemala and Equador have the highest degree of collectivism." This answer is supported by studies on personality and culture, which have found that these two countries have a strong emphasis on collective values and group harmony. This suggests that individuals in these cultures prioritize the needs of the group over their own individual needs and goals.

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  • 26. 

    _____ is a tool used in psychology and psychiatry in which an individual answers questions about his/her behaviors, thoughts, and feelings; it is then scored using a highly standardized procedure thereby yielding dimensions of the individual's personality.      

    • A.

      The TAT

    • B.

      The Rorschach

    • C.

      An inventory

    • D.

      The unstructured interview

    Correct Answer
    C. An inventory
    Explanation
    An inventory is a tool used in psychology and psychiatry to assess an individual's personality. It involves the individual answering questions about their behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. The inventory is then scored using a highly standardized procedure, which allows for the identification of dimensions of the individual's personality. This assessment method is widely used due to its reliability and validity in measuring various aspects of personality.

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  • 27. 

    The Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) are examples of what kind of tests?      

    • A.

      Objective tests

    • B.

      Projective tests

    • C.

      Achievement tests

    • D.

      Subjective tests

    Correct Answer
    B. Projective tests
    Explanation
    The Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) are examples of projective tests. Projective tests are psychological assessments that involve presenting individuals with ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or pictures, and asking them to interpret or respond to them. The responses are believed to reveal unconscious thoughts, feelings, or motivations. Unlike objective tests, which have clear and standardized scoring criteria, projective tests rely on subjective interpretations by the examiner.

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  • 28. 

    All of the following are true of projective tests, EXCEPT      

    • A.

      The answers can be anything.

    • B.

      They are considered completely objective.

    • C.

      There are no right or wrong answers.

    • D.

      They serve to tap into unconscious.

    Correct Answer
    B. They are considered completely objective.
    Explanation
    Projective tests are psychological assessments designed to reveal a person's unconscious thoughts, feelings, and desires. They present ambiguous stimuli and ask individuals to interpret or project their thoughts onto them. While projective tests are valuable tools for understanding a person's inner world, they are not considered completely objective. The interpretation of responses relies on the subjective judgment of the examiner, making it difficult to establish a standardized and objective scoring system. Therefore, the statement "they are considered completely objective" is not true for projective tests.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
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