The philosophy of humanism brought about a decrease in the power of the Roman Catholic Church.
Art began to reflect an increased emphasis on religious themes.
Nationalistic movements among the minority ethnic groups in the region declined.
The feudal system was developed to provide stability in a decentralized political structure.
Permanent occupation of the Holy Land by the Europeans
Long-term decrease in European trade
Conversion of most Muslims to Christianity
Spread of Middle Eastern culture and technology to Europe
The experiences of past civilizations
Experimentation and observation
Emotions and feelings
The teachings of the Catholic Church
Development of a socialist economy
Establishment of the guild system
Weakening of the power of the middle class
Expansion of world trade
The Crusades did not achieve their original goals, but they brought about many desirable changes in Europe.
Although the Crusaders captured the Holy Land, they were unable to bring about democratic reforms.
The Crusades helped bring about the fall of the Roman Empire.
The Crusaders prevented the Turks from capturing Constantinople for many centuries.
Conversion of the majority of Europeans to Protestantism
Weakening of the power of the middle class in Europe
Growth of trade between Europe and Asia
Development of feudalism in Europe
Emphasis on artistic creativity can discourage a society from pursuing reforms.
The development of guilds prevented artistic creativity.
The presence of a wealthy leisure class contributes to artistic achievement.
An economy based on subsistence agriculture encourages artistic development.
Accepting ideas based on Confucian thought
The teachings of the Roman Catholic Church
Magic and alchemy
Classical Roman and Greek writings
Superiority of medieval thought
Devotion to religion
Value of the individual
Obedience to government officials
Religious unity declines throughout Europe.
The Catholic Counter-Reformation begins.
The power of the Roman Catholic Church decreases.
Martin Luther posts the Ninety-five Theses.
Increased tension between Muslims and Christians
Destruction of Muslim military power
Creation of a large Christian state on the Red Sea
Restoration of the Byzantine Empire
Lower living standards for industrial workers
Decreased economic rivalry between kings
Increased political power for the clergy
Development of towns and cities
Strong rulers censored new ideas
Europe became increasingly isolated from other regions.
The emphasis on religious uniformity increased.
A wealthy class that supported the arts emerged.
The Church was no longer influential
The emphasis on individual worth increased
Economic activity declined
Art no longer contained religious themes
Led to a decline in the importance of the church in western Europe
Furthered cultural diffusion throughout western Europe
Introduced the Industrial Revolution to western Europe
Ended the western European quest for an overseas empire
Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations
John Locke in his treatises on government
Martin Luther in his Ninety-Five Theses
Karl Marx in The Communist Manifesto
A greater isolation of the region from the world
An increased demand for goods from the Middle East and Asia
The adoption of Islam as the official religion of many European nations
The strengthening of the feudal system
Social reform and political upheaval
Artistic and literary achievements
Stimulated by a spirit of inquiry
Supported by the working class
Limited to Italy, France, and Germany
Encouraged by the successes of the French Revolution
The social structure became very rigid.
Creativity in the arts was encouraged.
The political structure was similar to that of the Roman Empire.
Humanism decreased in importance.
The Greek and Roman civilizations are worthy of study
Class distinctions in society should be abolished
Religious doctrines are the only subject of value
The glorification of human beings is sinful
Trade and commerce increased and the feudal system was strengthened
Trade and commerce declined and the feudal system was strengthened
Trade and commerce increased and the feudal system was weakened
Trade and commerce declined and the feudal system was weakened
End the power of the Church in Europe
Reform corrupt practices of the clergy
Create a new and separate form of Christianity
Enhance his position in the Church
Decline in population growth in Europe
Shift of power from western Europe to eastern Europe
Spread of feudalism throughout western Europe
Expansion of European influence overseas