# Ppl – Human Performance

By Rion Sigaya
Rion Sigaya, 3D animator
Jan Michael 'Rion' Sigaya, a former 3D animator turned licensed pilot with a Flight Instructor (FI) license, adeptly navigated the skies before unforeseen pandemic challenges led him back to his roots in the world of 3D animation.
Quizzes Created: 17 | Total Attempts: 226,264
, 3D animator
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Questions: 47 | Attempts: 13,797

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• 1.

### During a night flight, you observe a steady red light and a flashing red light ahead and at the same altitude. What is the general direction of movement of the other aircraft?

• A.

The other aircraft is crossing to the left.

• B.

The other aircraft is crossing to the right.

• C.

The other aircraft is approaching head-on.

A. The other aircraft is crossing to the left.
Explanation
When observing a steady red light and a flashing red light ahead and at the same altitude during a night flight, it indicates that the other aircraft is crossing to the left. This is because the steady red light represents the left wingtip of the other aircraft, while the flashing red light represents the tail of the other aircraft. Therefore, the general direction of movement of the other aircraft would be crossing to the left.

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• 2.

### During a night flight, you observe steady red and green lights ahead and at the same altitude. What is the general direction of movement of the other aircraft?

• A.

The other aircraft is crossing to the left.

• B.

The other aircraft is flying away from you.

• C.

The other aircraft is approaching head-on.

C. The other aircraft is approaching head-on.
Explanation
When observing steady red and green lights ahead and at the same altitude during a night flight, this indicates that the other aircraft is approaching head-on. In aviation, red lights are typically located on the left side of an aircraft, while green lights are located on the right side. Therefore, seeing both red and green lights ahead and at the same altitude suggests that the other aircraft is coming towards you in a head-on direction.

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• 3.

### During a night flight, you observe a steady white light and a flashing red light ahead and at the same altitude. What is the general direction of movement of the other aircraft?

• A.

The other aircraft is flying away from you.

• B.

The other aircraft is crossing to the left.

• C.

The other aircraft is crossing to the right.

A. The other aircraft is flying away from you.
Explanation
The flashing red light indicates that the other aircraft is moving away from you. In aviation, red lights are used to indicate the left side of the aircraft, so if the red light is flashing, it suggests that the other aircraft is crossing to the left. However, since the question states that the white light is steady, it indicates that the other aircraft is not changing its position relative to you. Therefore, the only logical conclusion is that the other aircraft is flying away from you.

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• 4.

### The best method to use when looking for other traffic at night is to

• A.

Look to the side of the object and scan slowly.

• B.

Scan the visual field very rapidly.

• C.

Look to the side of the object and scan rapidly.

A. Look to the side of the object and scan slowly.
Explanation
The best method to use when looking for other traffic at night is to look to the side of the object and scan slowly. This is because peripheral vision is more sensitive to detecting movement and dim lights, making it easier to spot other vehicles or objects on the side. By scanning slowly, one can effectively cover a wider area and increase the chances of identifying potential hazards or oncoming traffic. Rapid scanning may cause important details to be missed, increasing the risk of accidents.

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• 5.

### The most effective method of scanning for other aircraft for collision avoidance during nighttime hours is to use

• A.

Regularly spaced concentration on the 3-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions.

• B.

A series of short regularly spaced eye movements to search each 30-degree sector.

• C.

Peripheral vision by scanning small sectors and utilizing off center viewing.

C. Peripheral vision by scanning small sectors and utilizing off center viewing.
Explanation
The most effective method of scanning for other aircraft for collision avoidance during nighttime hours is to use peripheral vision by scanning small sectors and utilizing off center viewing. This allows the pilot to scan a wider area and detect any potential aircraft in their peripheral vision. By scanning small sectors, the pilot can focus on specific areas and increase their chances of spotting other aircraft. Utilizing off center viewing also helps to increase the field of vision and improve the ability to detect aircraft that may be approaching from different angles.

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• 6.

### Large accumulations of carbon monoxide in the human body result in

• A.

• B.

Loss of muscular power.

• C.

An increased sense of well-being.

B. Loss of muscular power.
Explanation
Large accumulations of carbon monoxide in the human body can lead to a condition called carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs when carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in the blood, preventing oxygen from being transported to the body's tissues. Without sufficient oxygen, the muscles are unable to function properly, resulting in a loss of muscular power. This can cause weakness, fatigue, and difficulty in performing physical tasks.

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• 7.

### Which statement best defines hypoxia?

• A.

A state of oxygen deficiency in the body.

• B.

An abnormal increase in the volume of air breathed.

• C.

A condition of gas bubble formation around the joints or muscles.

A. A state of oxygen deficiency in the body.
Explanation
Hypoxia is a condition characterized by a state of oxygen deficiency in the body. It occurs when there is a decrease in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues and organs. This can be caused by various factors such as high altitude, respiratory diseases, or impaired lung function. Hypoxia can have serious consequences on the body's functioning and can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, and confusion. It is important to address and treat hypoxia promptly to prevent further complications.

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• 8.

### The most effective method of scanning for other aircraft for collision avoidance during daylight hours is to use

• A.

Regularly spaced concentration on the 3-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions.

• B.

A series of short regularly spaced eye movements to search each 10-degree sector.

• C.

Peripheral vision by scanning small sectors and utilizing off center viewing.

B. A series of short regularly spaced eye movements to search each 10-degree sector.
Explanation
The most effective method of scanning for other aircraft for collision avoidance during daylight hours is to use a series of short regularly spaced eye movements to search each 10-degree sector. This method allows the pilot to cover a wide area of the sky by systematically scanning small sectors. By moving the eyes in short, regular intervals, the pilot can quickly detect any potential aircraft in their vicinity and take appropriate action to avoid a collision. This method maximizes the pilot's ability to maintain situational awareness and ensure the safety of the flight.

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• 9.

### Rapid or extra deep breathing while using oxygen can cause a condition known as

• A.

Hyperventilation.

• B.

Aero sinusitis.

• C.

Aerotitis.

A. Hyperventilation.
Explanation
Rapid or extra deep breathing while using oxygen can lead to an excessive intake of oxygen and a decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the body. This can disrupt the balance of gases in the blood, leading to a condition called hyperventilation. Hyperventilation can cause symptoms such as dizziness, shortness of breath, tingling in the hands and feet, and can sometimes result in fainting. Aero sinusitis and aerotitis are conditions related to sinus and ear inflammation respectively, and are not caused by rapid or deep breathing while using oxygen.

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• 10.

### Which technique should a pilot use to scan for traffic to the right and left during straight-and-level flight?

• A.

Systematically focus on different segments of the sky for short intervals.

• B.

Concentrate on relative movement detected in the peripheral vision area.

• C.

Continuous sweeping of the windshield from right to left.

A. Systematically focus on different segments of the sky for short intervals.
Explanation
During straight-and-level flight, a pilot should systematically focus on different segments of the sky for short intervals to scan for traffic. This technique allows the pilot to cover the entire field of view and increases the chances of detecting other aircraft. By dividing the sky into segments, the pilot can scan each area thoroughly and ensure that no traffic is missed. This method also helps in reducing eye fatigue and maintaining situational awareness.

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• 11.

### How can you determine if another aircraft is on a collision course with your aircraft?

• A.

The other aircraft will always appear to get larger and closer at a rapid rate.

• B.

The nose of each aircraft is pointed at the same point in space.

• C.

There will be no apparent relative motion between your aircraft and the other aircraft.

C. There will be no apparent relative motion between your aircraft and the other aircraft.
Explanation
An aircraft exhibiting a lack of apparent motion within a single scan quadrant is indicative of a potential collision course. Additionally, if a target displays no lateral or vertical movement but undergoes an increase in size, it is advisable to initiate evasive maneuvers.

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• 12.

### If a pilot experiences spatial disorientation during flight in a restricted visibility condition, the best way to overcome the effect is to

• A.

Rely upon the aircraft instrument indications.

• B.

Concentrate on yaw, pitch, and roll sensations.

• C.

Consciously slow the breathing rate until symptoms clear and then resume normal breathing rate.

A. Rely upon the aircraft instrument indications.
Explanation
When a pilot experiences spatial disorientation during flight in restricted visibility, relying upon the aircraft instrument indications is the best way to overcome the effect. Spatial disorientation occurs when a pilot's perception of their position and motion is different from reality, often leading to confusion and loss of control. By relying on the aircraft instrument indications, which provide accurate information about the aircraft's attitude and motion, the pilot can maintain control and overcome the disorientation. This is because the instruments are not affected by external factors such as visibility conditions, making them a reliable source of information for the pilot.

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• 13.

### Pilots are more subject to spatial disorientation if

• A.

They ignore the sensations of muscles and inner ear.

• B.

Body signals are used to interpret flight attitude.

• C.

Eyes are moved often in the process of cross-checking the flight instruments.

B. Body signals are used to interpret flight attitude.
Explanation
Pilots are more subject to spatial disorientation if they ignore the sensations of muscles and inner ear. This is because the body's senses, including the inner ear and muscle sensations, play a crucial role in interpreting flight attitude. These signals help pilots understand their position in space and maintain spatial orientation. Ignoring these signals can lead to a loss of situational awareness and increase the risk of spatial disorientation, where pilots may have difficulty accurately perceiving their position, motion, or attitude in relation to the Earth's surface.

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• 14.

### A person may not act as a crewmember of a civil aircraft if alcoholic beverages have been consumed by that person within the preceding

• A.

8 hours.

• B.

12 hours.

• C.

24 hours.

A. 8 hours.
Explanation
A person may not act as a crewmember of a civil aircraft if alcoholic beverages have been consumed by that person within the preceding 8 hours. This rule is in place to ensure that crewmembers are not impaired by alcohol while performing their duties, as it can affect their judgment, coordination, and ability to respond to emergencies. By having a minimum time requirement, it allows for the alcohol to be metabolized and eliminated from the body before the crewmember assumes their responsibilities.

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• 15.

### Which is true regarding the presence of alcohol within the human body?

• A.

A small amount of alcohol increases vision acuity.

• B.

An increase in altitude decreases the adverse effect of alcohol.

• C.

Judgment and decision-making abilities can be adversely affected by even small amounts of alcohol.

C. Judgment and decision-making abilities can be adversely affected by even small amounts of alcohol.
Explanation
Even small amounts of alcohol can have a negative impact on judgment and decision-making abilities. Alcohol acts as a depressant on the central nervous system, impairing cognitive functions such as reasoning, problem-solving, and critical thinking. This can lead to poor decision-making, impaired judgment, and increased risk-taking behaviors. It is important to note that alcohol affects individuals differently, and even a small amount can have varying effects depending on factors such as tolerance, body weight, and metabolism. However, it is generally recognized that alcohol can impair cognitive function and should be consumed responsibly.

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• 16.

### Why is hypoxia particularly dangerous during flights with one pilot?

• A.

Night vision may be so impaired that the pilot cannot see other aircraft.

• B.

Symptoms of hypoxia may be difficult to recognize before the pilot's reactions are affected.

• C.

The pilot may not be able to control the aircraft even if using oxygen.

B. Symptoms of hypoxia may be difficult to recognize before the pilot's reactions are affected.
Explanation
Hypoxia is particularly dangerous during flights with one pilot because the symptoms of hypoxia may be difficult to recognize before the pilot's reactions are affected. This means that the pilot may not be aware of the lack of oxygen in their body until it is too late, leading to impaired decision-making and delayed response times. This can be extremely dangerous as it increases the risk of accidents and decreases the pilot's ability to control the aircraft effectively.

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• 17.

### Which statement is correct regarding the use of cockpit lighting for night flight?

• A.

Reducing the lighting intensity to a minimum level will eliminate blind spots.

• B.

The use of regular white light, such as a flashlight, will impair night adaptation.

• C.

Coloration shown on maps is least affected by the use of direct red lighting.

B. The use of regular white light, such as a flashlight, will impair night adaptation.
Explanation
Using regular white light, such as a flashlight, during night flights can impair night adaptation. Night adaptation refers to the ability of the eyes to adjust to low light conditions, allowing for better visibility in the dark. White light can disrupt this adaptation process and make it harder for the eyes to adjust to the darkness. Therefore, it is recommended to use cockpit lighting that is specifically designed for night flights, such as red lighting, which has less impact on night adaptation.

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• 18.

### What action should be taken if hyperventilation is suspected?

• A.

Breathe at a slower rate by taking very deep breaths.

• B.

Consciously breathe at a slower rate than normal.

• C.

Consciously force yourself to take deep breaths and breathe at a faster rate than normal.

B. Consciously breathe at a slower rate than normal.
Explanation
If hyperventilation is suspected, consciously breathing at a slower rate than normal is the correct action to take. Hyperventilation is a condition where a person breathes rapidly and shallowly, often due to anxiety or panic. By consciously slowing down the breathing rate, the person can help restore a more balanced level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Taking deep breaths or breathing at a faster rate may exacerbate the symptoms of hyperventilation.

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• 19.

### Which would most likely result in Hyperventilation?

• A.

Emotional tension, anxiety or fear.

• B.

The excessive consumption of alcohol.

• C.

An extremely slow rate of breathing and insufficient oxygen.

A. Emotional tension, anxiety or fear.
Explanation
Emotional tension, anxiety, or fear can most likely result in hyperventilation. When a person experiences intense emotions, their breathing pattern can become rapid and shallow. This leads to an imbalance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body, causing hyperventilation. The body's response to these emotions triggers the release of stress hormones, which can further exacerbate the breathing pattern. Hyperventilation can cause symptoms such as dizziness, shortness of breath, and tingling sensations.

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• 20.

### A pilot should be able to overcome the symptoms or avoid future occurrences of hyperventilation by

• A.

Closely monitoring the flight instruments to control the airplane.

• B.

Slowing the breathing rate, breathing into a bag, or talking aloud.

• C.

Increasing the breathing rate in order to increase lung ventilation.

B. Slowing the breathing rate, breathing into a bag, or talking aloud.
Explanation
To overcome the symptoms or avoid future occurrences of hyperventilation, a pilot should slow their breathing rate, breathe into a bag, or talk aloud. Slowing the breathing rate helps to regulate the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the body, reducing the risk of hyperventilation. Breathing into a bag helps to increase the carbon dioxide levels in the body, which can counteract the symptoms of hyperventilation. Talking aloud can also help to regulate breathing and distract the mind from the anxiety or stress that may be causing hyperventilation.

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• 21.

### The danger of spatial disorientation during flight in poor visual conditions may be reduced by

• A.

Shifting the eyes quickly between the exterior visual field and the instrument panel

• B.

Having faith in the instruments rather than taking a chance on the sensory organs.

• C.

Leaning the body in the opposite direction of the motion of the aircraft.

B. Having faith in the instruments rather than taking a chance on the sensory organs.
Explanation
Having faith in the instruments rather than taking a chance on the sensory organs is the correct answer because spatial disorientation occurs when a pilot's perception of their position and motion is different from reality. In poor visual conditions, relying on sensory organs such as the inner ear can lead to a false sense of orientation. By trusting the instruments, which provide accurate and reliable information, pilots can reduce the risk of spatial disorientation and make safer decisions during flight. Shifting the eyes quickly between the exterior visual field and the instrument panel can help gather additional information, but it is not as effective as relying on the instruments themselves. Leaning the body in the opposite direction of the aircraft's motion does not directly address the issue of spatial disorientation.

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• 22.

### A state of temporary confusion resulting from misleading information being sent to the brain by various sensory organs is defined as

• A.

Spatial disorientation

• B.

Hyperventilation

• C.

Hypoxia

A. Spatial disorientation
Explanation
Spatial disorientation refers to a state of temporary confusion that occurs when the brain receives misleading information from the sensory organs. This can happen when the sensory inputs, such as visual cues or inner ear signals, do not match with each other or with the person's perception of their surroundings. This can lead to a loss of spatial awareness and difficulty in accurately determining one's position, orientation, or motion. It is a common phenomenon experienced by pilots, especially in poor visibility conditions, and can have serious consequences if not managed properly.

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• 23.

### What effect does haze have on the ability to see traffic or terrain features during flight?

• A.

Haze causes the eyes to focus at infinity.

• B.

The eyes tend to overwork in haze and do not detect relative movement easily.

• C.

All traffic or terrain features appear to be farther away than their actual distance.

C. All traffic or terrain features appear to be farther away than their actual distance.
Explanation
Haze affects visibility during flight by making all traffic or terrain features appear to be farther away than they actually are. This can be misleading for pilots as it distorts their perception of distance, potentially leading to misjudgments or errors in navigation.

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• 24.

### What preparation should a pilot make to adapt the eyes for night flying?

• A.

Wear sunglasses after sunset until ready for flight.

• B.

Avoid red light up to 30 minutes before the flight.

• C.

Avoid bright white lights at least 30 minutes before the flight.

C. Avoid bright white lights at least 30 minutes before the flight.
Explanation
To adapt the eyes for night flying, a pilot should avoid bright white lights at least 30 minutes before the flight. This is because exposure to bright white lights can cause temporary blindness or impair night vision, making it difficult for the pilot to see clearly in the dark. By avoiding bright white lights before the flight, the pilot's eyes will have time to adjust to the low light conditions, enhancing their ability to see and navigate safely during night flying.

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• 25.

### Hypoxia susceptibility due to inhalation of carbon monoxide increases as

• A.

Humidity decreases.

• B.

Altitude increases.

• C.

Oxygen demand increases.

B. Altitude increases.
Explanation
Altitude increases the susceptibility to hypoxia due to inhalation of carbon monoxide. At higher altitudes, the air pressure decreases, resulting in lower oxygen levels. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in the blood, reducing its ability to transport oxygen. Therefore, at higher altitudes, the combination of lower oxygen levels and inhalation of carbon monoxide can lead to a greater risk of hypoxia.

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• 26.

### Hypoxia is the result of which of these conditions?

• A.

Excessive oxygen in the bloodstream.

• B.

Insufficient oxygen reaching the brain.

• C.

Excessive carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.

B. Insufficient oxygen reaching the brain.
Explanation
Hypoxia is a condition characterized by a lack of oxygen reaching the brain. This can occur due to various reasons such as respiratory disorders, high altitudes, or certain medical conditions. When there is insufficient oxygen in the bloodstream, it can lead to symptoms like dizziness, confusion, and shortness of breath. Excessive oxygen in the bloodstream is not the cause of hypoxia, as it is necessary for proper brain function. Similarly, excessive carbon dioxide in the bloodstream may cause respiratory acidosis but is not directly related to hypoxia.

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• 27.

### Which is a common symptom of hyperventilation?

• A.

Drowsiness.

• B.

Decreased breathing rate.

• C.

Euphoria- sense of well-being.

A. Drowsiness.
Explanation
Drowsiness is a common symptom of hyperventilation. When a person hyperventilates, they tend to breathe rapidly and shallowly, which can lead to an imbalance of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the body. This can result in drowsiness or feeling sleepy.

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• 28.

### As hyperventilation progresses a pilot can experience

• A.

Decreased breathing rate and depth.

• B.

Heightened awareness and feeling of well-being.

• C.

Symptoms of suffocation and drowsiness.

C. Symptoms of suffocation and drowsiness.
Explanation
As hyperventilation progresses, the body takes in too much oxygen and expels too much carbon dioxide, leading to a condition called respiratory alkalosis. This can cause symptoms such as lightheadedness, tingling in the extremities, and a feeling of suffocation. Drowsiness may also occur as the body tries to compensate for the changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the correct answer is symptoms of suffocation and drowsiness.

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• 29.

### To overcome the symptoms of hyperventilation, a pilot should

• A.

Swallow or yawn.

• B.

Slow the breathing rate.

• C.

Increase the breathing rate.

B. Slow the breathing rate.
Explanation
To overcome the symptoms of hyperventilation, a pilot should slow the breathing rate. When a person hyperventilates, they tend to breathe rapidly and shallowly, which can lead to an imbalance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Slowing down the breathing rate helps to restore this balance by allowing more carbon dioxide to accumulate in the bloodstream. This can alleviate symptoms such as dizziness, tingling, and shortness of breath that are commonly associated with hyperventilation. Swallowing or yawning may provide temporary relief, but slowing the breathing rate is the most effective way to address the underlying issue.

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• 30.

### Which would most likely result in hyperventilation?

• A.

Insufficient oxygen.

• B.

Excessive carbon monoxide.

• C.

Insufficient carbon dioxide.

C. Insufficient carbon dioxide.
Explanation
Hyperventilation is a condition where a person breathes rapidly and excessively, leading to a decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the body. Insufficient carbon dioxide, as stated in the correct answer, can result in hyperventilation because it disrupts the balance of gases in the body. When there is a decrease in carbon dioxide, it can cause the blood vessels in the brain to constrict, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, shortness of breath, and tingling in the extremities. Therefore, insufficient carbon dioxide is most likely to result in hyperventilation.

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• 31.

### Abrupt head movement during a prolonged constant rate turn in the IMC or simulated instrument conditions can cause

• A.

Pilot disorientation.

• B.

False horizon.

• C.

Elevator illusion.

A. Pilot disorientation.
Explanation
Abrupt head movement during a prolonged constant rate turn in the IMC or simulated instrument conditions can cause pilot disorientation. This is because sudden movements of the head can disrupt the pilot's perception of their spatial orientation, leading to a loss of situational awareness. In the absence of visual cues, the pilot may struggle to accurately interpret the aircraft's attitude and motion, potentially resulting in incorrect control inputs and a loss of control of the aircraft. Therefore, it is crucial for pilots to maintain smooth and deliberate head movements during instrument flight to avoid disorientation.

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• 32.

### Without visual aid, pilot often interprets centrifugal force as a sensation of

• A.

Rising or falling.

• B.

Turning.

• C.

Motion reversal.

A. Rising or falling.
Explanation
Without visual aid, a pilot often interprets centrifugal force as a sensation of rising or falling. This is because when an aircraft is turning, the centrifugal force pushes the pilot outward, creating a feeling of being pulled away from the center of the turn. This sensation can be misinterpreted as either rising or falling, depending on the individual's perception. However, it is important to note that centrifugal force does not actually cause the aircraft to rise or fall, but rather creates a force that is felt by the pilot.

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• 33.

### An abrupt change from climb to straight-and-level flight can create the illusion of

• A.

Tumbling backwards.

• B.

A nose up attitude.

• C.

A descent with the wings level.

A. Tumbling backwards.
Explanation
An abrupt change from climb to straight-and-level flight can create the illusion of tumbling backwards. This illusion occurs because the sudden transition can cause the inner ear to perceive a change in orientation, leading to a sensation of tumbling or spinning backwards. This can be disorienting and misleading to the pilot, as it may cause them to make incorrect control inputs in an attempt to correct the perceived motion. It is important for pilots to be aware of this illusion and rely on their instruments for accurate information about their aircraft's actual orientation.

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• 34.

### A rapid acceleration during takeoff can create the illusion of

• A.

Spinning in the opposite direction.

• B.

Being in a nose up attitude.

• C.

Diving into the ground.

B. Being in a nose up attitude.
Explanation
During takeoff, when an aircraft rapidly accelerates, the sensation of being in a nose-up attitude can be created. This illusion occurs because our inner ear, which helps us maintain balance, is sensitive to changes in acceleration. When the aircraft accelerates quickly, the inner ear senses the change in acceleration but cannot accurately determine the direction, leading to the illusion of the nose being raised. This can cause the pilot to incorrectly perceive the aircraft's attitude, potentially leading to incorrect control inputs.

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• 35.

### A slopping cloud formation, an obscured horizon, and a dark scene spread with ground lights and stars can create an illusion known as

• A.

Elevator illusions.

• B.

Auto kinesis.

• C.

False horizons.

C. False horizons.
Explanation
False horizons refer to an optical illusion that occurs when a sloping cloud formation, an obscured horizon, and a dark scene spread with ground lights and stars create the appearance of a false or nonexistent horizon. This phenomenon can be disorienting for pilots and can lead to spatial disorientation.

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• 36.

### Due to visual illusion, when landing on a narrower-than-usual runway, the aircraft will appear to be

• A.

Higher than actual, leading to a lower-than-normal approach.

• B.

Lower than actual, leading to a higher-than-normal approach.

• C.

Higher than actual, leading to a higher-than-normal approach.

A. Higher than actual, leading to a lower-than-normal approach.
Explanation
When landing on a narrower-than-usual runway, the visual illusion created makes the aircraft appear higher than it actually is. As a result, the pilot may perceive that the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is, leading to a lower-than-normal approach. This illusion can be caused by the narrowing of the visual field due to the narrower runway, which makes the aircraft appear to be higher in relation to the surrounding environment.

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• 37.

### What visual illusion creates the same effect as a narrower-than-usual runway?

• A.

An up sloping runway.

• B.

A wider-than-usual runway.

• C.

A down sloping runway.

A. An up sloping runway.
Explanation
An up sloping runway creates the same effect as a narrower-than-usual runway because it gives the illusion of a shorter runway. When the runway is sloping upwards, it appears to be steeper and gives the pilot the perception that there is less distance available for landing or takeoff. This can be challenging for pilots as they need to adjust their approach and landing techniques accordingly to ensure a safe landing or takeoff.

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• 38.

### It can take up to ___ hours for the body to dispose of carbon monoxide.

• A.

10 hours

• B.

24 hours

• C.

48 hours

C. 48 hours
Explanation
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that is produced by the incomplete combustion of fuels. When inhaled, it binds to hemoglobin in the blood, reducing its ability to carry oxygen. The body eliminates carbon monoxide through a process called oxidation, which converts it into carbon dioxide. This process takes time, and it typically takes around 48 hours for the body to completely eliminate carbon monoxide. During this time, symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may persist, and medical attention should be sought if necessary.

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• 39.

### The only medicine found safe for flying if taken at minimal dosage are:

• A.

Aspirin and Antacids

• B.

Analgesics and Anesthetics

• C.

Decongestants and Antihistamines

A. Aspirin and Antacids
Explanation
Aspirin and antacids are the only medicines considered safe for flying when taken in minimal dosages. Analgesics and anesthetics can have adverse effects on the body during flights, as they may cause drowsiness or impair cognitive function. Decongestants and antihistamines can also have side effects such as drowsiness or dizziness, which can be dangerous while flying. Aspirin helps reduce pain and inflammation, while antacids help relieve symptoms of heartburn or indigestion, both of which can be common during flights. Therefore, taking aspirin and antacids in minimal dosages is the safest option for flying.

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• 40.

### Flashing lights inside clouds during night time can induce:

• A.

Inversion illusion

• B.

Flicker vertigo

• C.

Coriolis illusion

B. Flicker vertigo
Explanation
Flicker vertigo is a phenomenon that occurs when a person is exposed to rapid, alternating light and dark stimuli. This can cause dizziness, disorientation, and even nausea. In the context of flashing lights inside clouds during night time, the rapid changes in light intensity could potentially trigger flicker vertigo in individuals who are sensitive to this type of visual stimulation.

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• 41.

### Hazardous attitude which contribute to poor pilot judgment can be effectively counteracted by:

• A.

Early recognition of hazardous thoughts

• B.

Taking meaningful steps to be more assertive with attitudes

• C.

Redirecting that hazardous attitudes so that appropriate action can be taken

C. Redirecting that hazardous attitudes so that appropriate action can be taken
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that hazardous attitudes can be counteracted by redirecting them in order to take appropriate action. This means that when a pilot recognizes that they are having a hazardous thought or attitude, they should consciously redirect it towards a more positive and safe mindset. By doing so, they can then take the necessary actions to ensure the safety of the flight. This approach helps to prevent poor pilot judgment and promotes better decision-making in hazardous situations.

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• 42.

### What does good cockpit stress management begin with:

• A.

Knowing what causes stress

• B.

Eliminating life and cockpit stress issues

• C.

Good life stress management

C. Good life stress management
Explanation
Good cockpit stress management begins with good life stress management. This means effectively managing stress outside of the cockpit, such as in personal life and relationships. By addressing and minimizing stressors in one's personal life, pilots can better cope with stressors that may arise in the cockpit. This can lead to improved focus, decision-making, and overall performance while flying.

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• 43.

### Examples of classic behavioural traps that experienced pilots may fall into are: trying to:

• A.

Assume additional responsibilities and assert PIC authority

• B.

Promote situational awareness and then necessary changes in behaviour

• C.

Complete a flight as planned, please passengers, meet schedules, and demonstrate the “right stuff”

C. Complete a flight as planned, please passengers, meet schedules, and demonstrate the “right stuff”
Explanation
Experienced pilots may fall into the trap of trying to complete a flight as planned, please passengers, meet schedules, and demonstrate the "right stuff." This means that they may prioritize meeting their own personal and professional goals over safety. They may feel pressure to adhere to a schedule or to impress passengers with their skills and abilities. However, this can lead to a disregard for potential risks and a failure to make necessary changes in behavior based on situational awareness. It is important for pilots to prioritize safety above all else and make decisions based on what is best for the flight and its passengers.

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• 44.

### When a pilot recognized a hazardous thought, he or she then should correct it by stating the corresponding antidote, which of the following is the antidote for ANTI-AUTHORITY:

• A.

Not so fast, Think first

• B.

It won’t happen to me. It could happen to me

• C.

Don’t tell me. Follow the rules. They are usually right

C. Don’t tell me. Follow the rules. They are usually right
Explanation
The antidote for ANTI-AUTHORITY is "Don't tell me. Follow the rules. They are usually right." This response emphasizes the importance of following established procedures and rules, rather than relying on personal judgment or dismissing authority. It encourages the pilot to recognize the significance of rules and regulations in ensuring safety and to prioritize adherence to them.

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• 45.

### Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) is a:

• A.

Systematic approach to the mental process used by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action for a given set of circumstances

• B.

Decision making process which relies on good judgment to reduce risks associated with each flight

• C.

Mental process of analyzing all information in a particular situation and making a timely decision on what action to take

A. Systematic approach to the mental process used by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action for a given set of circumstances
Explanation
ADM is a systematic approach that pilots use to consistently determine the most appropriate course of action based on the circumstances they are facing. It involves analyzing all available information, considering potential risks, and making decisions that prioritize safety. This approach relies on good judgment and helps reduce the risks associated with each flight. By following ADM, pilots can make timely decisions that enhance safety and ensure the best possible outcome in any given situation.

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• 46.

### What should a pilot do when recognizing a thought as hazardous:

• A.

Avoid developing this hazardous thought

• B.

Develop this hazardous thought and follow through with modified action

• C.

Label that thought as hazardous, then correct that thought by stating the corresponding learned antidote

C. Label that thought as hazardous, then correct that thought by stating the corresponding learned antidote
Explanation
When a pilot recognizes a thought as hazardous, they should label it as such and then correct it by stating the corresponding learned antidote. This means acknowledging that the thought is potentially dangerous and taking steps to counteract it with a learned response or solution. By doing so, the pilot can effectively address and mitigate any risks or negative consequences associated with the hazardous thought.

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• 47.

### The aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) process identifies the steps involved in good decision making. One of these steps includes a pilot:

• A.

Making a rational evaluation of the required actions

• B.

Developing the “right stuff” attitude

• C.

Identifying personal attitudes hazardous to safe flight

C. Identifying personal attitudes hazardous to safe flight
Explanation
The correct answer is identifying personal attitudes hazardous to safe flight. This step in the ADM process involves the pilot recognizing any personal attitudes or beliefs that may pose a risk to safe flying. By identifying these attitudes, the pilot can take steps to mitigate their impact on decision making and ensure that they prioritize safety above all else. This is an important aspect of good decision making in aviation, as personal attitudes can often cloud judgment and lead to unsafe actions.

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Rion Sigaya |3D animator |
Jan Michael 'Rion' Sigaya, a former 3D animator turned licensed pilot with a Flight Instructor (FI) license, adeptly navigated the skies before unforeseen pandemic challenges led him back to his roots in the world of 3D animation.

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• Current Version
• Apr 26, 2024
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Jan 12, 2019
Quiz Created by
Rion Sigaya

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