Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration Quiz

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Renaissance, Reformation, & Exploration Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Analyze the geographic locations of the Italian city-states. What role did trade play in the Renaissance?

    • A.

      Wealth from trade led to higher prices for Renaissance art

    • B.

      Wealth from trade unified Renaissance Italy

    • C.

      Trade spread the Renaissance to the Muslim world

    • D.

      Wealth from trade fueled the Renaissance

    Correct Answer
    D. Wealth from trade fueled the Renaissance
    Explanation
    Trade played a significant role in fueling the Renaissance in Italy. The wealth generated from trade allowed individuals and city-states to invest in art, architecture, and education, which in turn contributed to the flourishing of the Renaissance. The increased prosperity from trade enabled patrons to commission and support artists, leading to the creation of masterpieces that defined the Renaissance period. Additionally, trade facilitated the exchange of ideas and knowledge, as merchants and scholars from different regions came into contact with each other. This exchange of ideas further stimulated intellectual and cultural growth during the Renaissance.

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  • 2. 

    How does the quotation connect to the Renaissance principle of humanism? "Walk forwards in the radiance of the past."—Petrarch

    • A.

      Humanity has already gained all knowledge and must return to it.

    • B.

      Humanity progresses by building upon past knowledge.

    • C.

      Humanity draws comfort from the achievements of past thinkers.

    • D.

      Humanity must abandon the limited thinking of ancient cultures.

    Correct Answer
    B. Humanity progresses by building upon past knowledge.
    Explanation
    The quotation "Walk forwards in the radiance of the past" suggests that humanity should move forward while being guided by the knowledge and achievements of the past. This aligns with the Renaissance principle of humanism, which emphasized the importance of studying and drawing inspiration from classical texts and ideas. It reflects the belief that progress and growth can be achieved by building upon the knowledge and wisdom of previous generations.

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  • 3. 

    Which answer best summarizes the main idea of the quotation? "How we live is so different from how we ought to live that he who studies what ought to be done rather than what is done will learn the way to his downfall rather than to his preservation."—Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince

    • A.

      A successful ruler must be observant and practical, not idealistic.

    • B.

      A successful ruler must be idealistic to overcome his opponents.

    • C.

      A successful ruler must consult his teachers to make decisions.

    • D.

      A successful ruler knows that his enemies will defer to him.

    Correct Answer
    A. A successful ruler must be observant and practical, not idealistic.
    Explanation
    The quotation suggests that there is a disconnect between how people actually live and how they should live. Machiavelli argues that studying what should be done rather than what is done will lead to downfall rather than preservation. Therefore, the best summary of the main idea of the quotation is that a successful ruler must be observant and practical, not idealistic. This implies that rulers should focus on the reality of their situation and make decisions based on practicality rather than idealistic notions.

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  • 4. 

    What event revolutionized the way people accessed and consumed ideas and information during the Renaissance?

    • A.

      Raphael's engraving technology led to mass produced art.

    • B.

      Gutenberg invented a printing press with movable type.

    • C.

      Erasmus called for the Bible to be printed in the vernacular.

    • D.

      Shakespeare popularized literature by re-energizing the theater.

    Correct Answer
    B. Gutenberg invented a printing press with movable type.
    Explanation
    During the Renaissance, Gutenberg's invention of the printing press with movable type revolutionized the way people accessed and consumed ideas and information. This invention allowed for the mass production of books and other printed materials, making them more accessible and affordable to a larger audience. It led to a significant increase in literacy rates and the dissemination of knowledge, ideas, and information across Europe. This development played a crucial role in the spread of Renaissance ideas, the advancement of science, and the democratization of knowledge.

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  • 5. 

    What valid conclusion that can be drawn from the data in the table? 

    • A.

      An unprecedented spread of information helped the Reformation grow.

    • B.

      The Renaissance could not have happened without Gutenberg's invention.

    • C.

      Europeans became more religious because most of the new books were bibles.

    • D.

      Europeans became less religious because most of the new books had humanist ideals.

    Correct Answer
    A. An unprecedented spread of information helped the Reformation grow.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the data in the table supports the conclusion that the Reformation grew due to an unprecedented spread of information. This can be inferred because the options "The Renaissance could not have happened without Gutenberg's invention" and "Europeans became more religious because most of the new books were bibles" do not directly relate to the data in the table. The option "Europeans became less religious because most of the new books had humanist ideals" contradicts the data, as it implies a decrease in religiousness while the table shows an increase in religious books. Therefore, the conclusion that the spread of information helped the Reformation grow is the most valid based on the given data.

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  • 6. 

    Summarize the main idea of the quotation. "The many great gardens of the world, of literature and poetry, of painting and music, of religion and architecture, all make the point as clear as possible: The soul cannot thrive in the absence of a garden. If you don't want paradise, you are not human; and if you are not human, you don't have a soul."—Thomas More

    • A.

      Political, cultural, religious, and social reforms are needed to attain paradise.

    • B.

      Humans already occupy paradise, so attempts to improve our lives are unnecessary.

    • C.

      The arts, education, and spirituality make us human.

    • D.

      Religious faith and commitment to classical ideals of learning will save us.

    Correct Answer
    C. The arts, education, and spirituality make us human.
    Explanation
    The main idea of the quotation is that the arts, education, and spirituality are essential aspects of being human. The quote suggests that gardens, which symbolize these aspects, are necessary for the soul to thrive. It implies that without these elements, a person cannot truly be considered human and lacks a soul. The quote does not mention political, cultural, religious, or social reforms, or the concept of paradise, so the other answer choices are not supported by the quotation.

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  • 7. 

    Which is the best example of a theocracy?

    • A.

      A government run by religious leaders.

    • B.

      A government run by divine monarchs.

    • C.

      A government run by citizens of all religions.

    • D.

      A government run by elected representatives.

    Correct Answer
    A. A government run by religious leaders.
    Explanation
    The best example of a theocracy is a government run by religious leaders. In a theocracy, religious leaders hold the highest positions of power and make decisions based on religious principles. This type of government is often associated with a specific religion or religious group, and the laws and policies of the state are influenced by religious teachings. Theocracy is different from other forms of government, such as a monarchy or democracy, because it places religious authority at the center of political power.

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  • 8. 

    Which statement belongs in the final box?

    • A.

      Individual liberties are threatened as northern European societies transform into Protestant theocracies.

    • B.

      Christian unity collapses, bringing a new political order that is divided between East and West.

    • C.

      Religious conflict spreads across Europe, bringing an era of change and upheaval.

    • D.

      The Peasant's Revolt and the Peace of Augsburg settle religious differences in Europe.

    Correct Answer
    C. Religious conflict spreads across Europe, bringing an era of change and upheaval.
    Explanation
    The statement "Religious conflict spreads across Europe, bringing an era of change and upheaval" belongs in the final box because it accurately summarizes the overall theme and impact of the events described in the previous statements. The statement acknowledges the religious conflicts that occurred during this period and highlights the significant changes and upheaval that resulted from these conflicts. It implies that the religious conflicts had far-reaching consequences and shaped the course of European history.

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  • 9. 

    Which city-state was in the best location to benefit from trade-based cultural exchange with the Islamic civilization just across the Mediterranean?

    • A.

      Florence

    • B.

      Milan

    • C.

      Venice

    • D.

      Papal States

    Correct Answer
    A. Florence
    Explanation
    Florence was in the best location to benefit from trade-based cultural exchange with the Islamic civilization just across the Mediterranean. Located in central Italy, Florence had access to major trade routes and was strategically positioned between the Islamic world and other European cities. This allowed for the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultural influences, leading to the flourishing of art, architecture, and intellectual pursuits in Florence during the Renaissance period.

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  • 10. 

    Use the chart to describe a historically significant difference between Renaissance and medieval thought. 

    • A.

      Renewed focus on spirituality over secular doctrine

    • B.

      Less emphasis on classical scholarship in favor of new methods of inquiry

    • C.

      Focus on the divine as inspiration for creativity and intellectual pursuits

    • D.

      Shift to humanism instead of religious studies

    Correct Answer
    D. Shift to humanism instead of religious studies
    Explanation
    During the Renaissance, there was a shift towards humanism instead of religious studies. This means that there was a move away from solely focusing on religious teachings and doctrines, and instead, there was a greater emphasis on the study of human potential, achievements, and capabilities. Humanism celebrated human achievements in various fields such as art, literature, and science. This marked a departure from the medieval thought, which placed a heavy emphasis on religious teachings and the divine. The Renaissance valued human intellect, creativity, and individualism, which led to significant advancements in various fields and a new way of thinking.

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  • 11. 

    Which features belong under the category Renaissance Art? 

    • A.

      Mythological and spiritual themes

    • B.

      Realistic depictions of human forms

    • C.

      Stylized depictions of human forms

    • D.

      Flat dimensions and lack of perspective

    Correct Answer
    B. Realistic depictions of human forms
    Explanation
    Renaissance Art is known for its focus on realism and the accurate portrayal of human forms. During this period, artists aimed to depict the human body and its proportions as accurately as possible, often studying anatomy and using techniques such as chiaroscuro to create depth and three-dimensionality. This emphasis on realism marked a departure from the stylized and flat depictions of the preceding medieval period. While mythological and spiritual themes were indeed present in Renaissance Art, they were not exclusive to this period and can be found in art from various other time periods as well.

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  • 12. 

    Leonardo da Vinci is often referred to as a true "Renaissance Man." Why has he come to symbolize the spirit of the era?

    • A.

      His paintings, the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper are superlative examples of expressionism and perspective, and are the most famous of the era.

    • B.

      His scientific works showed a level of genius that was confirmed by his prediction of technologies that would not exist for centuries.

    • C.

      He excelled at everything he did, bringing him in line with the heroic intellectual stature of the ancient Greek gods who helped inspire the Renaissance.

    • D.

      His interests and body of work spanned many subjects, media, and disciplines, reflecting the quest for knowledge and the spirit of creative adventure that embodied the Renaissance era.

    Correct Answer
    D. His interests and body of work spanned many subjects, media, and disciplines, reflecting the quest for knowledge and the spirit of creative adventure that embodied the Renaissance era.
    Explanation
    Leonardo da Vinci is often referred to as a true "Renaissance Man" because his interests and body of work spanned many subjects, media, and disciplines. This reflects the quest for knowledge and the spirit of creative adventure that embodied the Renaissance era. His paintings, such as the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, showcased his mastery of expressionism and perspective, making them the most famous examples of the era. Additionally, his scientific works demonstrated a level of genius that was ahead of his time, with his predictions of future technologies that would not exist for centuries. His exceptional abilities and diverse range of talents align him with the heroic intellectual stature of the ancient Greek gods who inspired the Renaissance.

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  • 13. 

    What aspect of this painting by Northern European artist Pieter Bruegel differs from the work of Italian Renaissance painters? 

    • A.

      It stresses the Protestant work ethic.

    • B.

      It focuses on the realities of peasant life.

    • C.

      It features anatomical expressionism.

    • D.

      It lacks depth and perspective.

    Correct Answer
    B. It focuses on the realities of peasant life.
    Explanation
    The aspect of this painting by Pieter Bruegel that differs from the work of Italian Renaissance painters is that it focuses on the realities of peasant life. Italian Renaissance painters typically focused on religious and mythological subjects, while Bruegel portrayed scenes of everyday life, particularly of peasants. This emphasis on depicting the lives of ordinary people was a departure from the idealized and often aristocratic subjects favored by Italian Renaissance painters.

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  • 14. 

    What core Renaissance themes best summarize and express the characteristics of Shakespeare's work explained in the passage? Shakespeare's genius was in expressing universal themes in everyday, realistic settings. His work explores Renaissance ideals such as the complexity of the individual and the importance of the classics. At the same time, his characters speak in language that common people can understand and appreciate. Shakespeare's love of words also vastly enriched the English language. More than 1,700 words appeared for the first time in his works.

    • A.

      Theocracy and classicism

    • B.

      Inquiry and investigation

    • C.

      Spirituality and faith

    • D.

      Humanism and secularism

    Correct Answer
    D. Humanism and secularism
    Explanation
    Shakespeare's work is best summarized and expressed by the core Renaissance themes of humanism and secularism. He expressed universal themes in everyday settings and explored the complexity of the individual, which aligns with the humanist belief in the potential and importance of human beings. Additionally, his work emphasized the importance of the classics, reflecting the Renaissance focus on the revival of ancient Greek and Roman literature. Furthermore, Shakespeare's ability to write in language that common people could understand and appreciate reflects a secular approach, as he appealed to a wide audience rather than focusing solely on religious or spiritual themes.

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  • 15. 

    Which answer provides accurate historical context for the following quotations? "27. There is no divine authority for preaching that the soul flies out of the purgatory immediately the money clinks in the bottom of the chest. 28. It is certainly possible that when the money clinks in the bottom of the chest avarice [extreme greed] and greed increase; but when the church offers intercession [intervention], all depends in the will of God." —Martin Luther, 95 Theses

    • A.

      Protestantism maintained that governments should be run by qualified religious leaders, however, Rome should play no role.

    • B.

      Protestantism preached the idea of predestination, arguing that those who gain salvation had been determined by God long ago.

    • C.

      Protestantism rejected papal authority, especially relating to what was regarded as the corrupt selling of indulgences.

    • D.

      Protestantism denied the Roman Catholic concept of purgatory, rejecting any role for church officials in a person's fate after death.

    Correct Answer
    C. Protestantism rejected papal authority, especially relating to what was regarded as the corrupt selling of indulgences.
    Explanation
    The given quotations from Martin Luther's 95 Theses criticize the practice of selling indulgences, which was a major point of contention between the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant reformers. The selling of indulgences was seen as a corrupt practice and an abuse of papal authority. Therefore, the answer that Protestantism rejected papal authority, especially relating to the corrupt selling of indulgences, provides accurate historical context for the quotations.

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  • 16. 

    Which statement BEST explains an artistic impact of the Italian Renaissance?

    • A.

      The use of religious themes in art diminished drastically.

    • B.

      Art moved away from realism and toward mystery.

    • C.

      Art became more stylized to appeal to wealthy patron families.

    • D.

      The use of perspective in art allowed more accurate representations.

    Correct Answer
    D. The use of perspective in art allowed more accurate representations.
    Explanation
    During the Italian Renaissance, artists began to use perspective in their artwork, which allowed them to create more realistic and accurate representations. This technique involved depicting objects and spaces in a way that mimicked how they appeared in real life, with a sense of depth and three-dimensionality. By using perspective, artists were able to create more convincing and lifelike artworks, which became a hallmark of the Renaissance period. This advancement in artistic technique had a significant impact on the art of the time, as it revolutionized the way artists portrayed the world around them.

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  • 17. 

    Humanists believed

    • A.

      In a classless society

    • B.

      That monetary value could not be placed on true art

    • C.

      That the sole purpose of work was to glorify God.

    • D.

      That the potential of the mind was almost limitless.

    Correct Answer
    D. That the potential of the mind was almost limitless.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the potential of the mind was almost limitless. This is because humanists believed in the power of human intellect and the ability of individuals to achieve great things through their minds. They emphasized the importance of education and the pursuit of knowledge, believing that the mind had the capacity to understand and discover the world around them. This belief in the limitless potential of the mind was a key aspect of humanist thinking during the Renaissance.

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  • 18. 

    _______ was the first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe

    • A.

      Ptolemy

    • B.

      Nicholas Copernicus 

    • C.

      Johannes Kepler

    • D.

      Martin Luther

    Correct Answer
    B. Nicholas Copernicus 
    Explanation
    Nicholas Copernicus was the first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe. He proposed the heliocentric model, which stated that the planets revolve around the sun. This challenged the prevailing geocentric model proposed by Ptolemy, which placed the earth at the center of the universe. Copernicus' theory laid the foundation for modern astronomy and had a significant impact on our understanding of the solar system.

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  • 19. 

    Leonardo da Vinci is famous for

    • A.

      Giving nobles new rules for refined behavior

    • B.

      Posting ninety-five theses on a church door.

    • C.

      Sculpting the David.

    • D.

      Pursuing knowledge and achieving success in many areas.

    Correct Answer
    D. Pursuing knowledge and achieving success in many areas.
    Explanation
    Leonardo da Vinci is famous for pursuing knowledge and achieving success in many areas. He was a renowned polymath who excelled in various fields including painting, sculpture, architecture, engineering, anatomy, and science. Da Vinci's insatiable curiosity and dedication to learning allowed him to make significant contributions in multiple disciplines, making him one of the most influential figures of the Renaissance period. His achievements, such as the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, continue to be celebrated and admired to this day.

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  • 20. 

    Martin Luther denied basic Catholic beliefs when he insisted

    • A.

      Faith alone will earn God’s grace

    • B.

      Only honest clergy can interpret the Scriptures

    • C.

      He was the head of the Church

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    A. Faith alone will earn God’s grace
    Explanation
    Martin Luther denied basic Catholic beliefs when he insisted that faith alone will earn God's grace. This goes against the Catholic doctrine that teaches that salvation is achieved through a combination of faith and good works. By emphasizing the importance of faith alone, Luther challenged the authority and teachings of the Catholic Church.

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  • 21. 

    The ideas of the Italian Renaissance spread north through

    • A.

      Trade

    • B.

      Travel

    • C.

      Printed material

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    During the Italian Renaissance, the ideas and cultural developments spread north through various means. Trade played a significant role in the dissemination of these ideas as merchants and traders from Italy traveled to other regions, carrying with them the knowledge and artistic influences of the Renaissance. Travel also contributed to the spread as scholars, artists, and intellectuals traveled to different cities, exchanging ideas and contributing to the diffusion of Renaissance ideals. Additionally, the invention of the printing press in the 15th century allowed for the mass production and distribution of printed materials, such as books and pamphlets, which further facilitated the spread of Renaissance ideas. Therefore, all of the options mentioned - trade, travel, and printed material - played a part in spreading the ideas of the Italian Renaissance northwards.

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  • 22. 

    1. What were the 95 Theses?

    • A.

      A list of ideas on how to expand the power of the king

    • B.

      Ideas to improve the scientific method

    • C.

      Complaints Martin Luther had against the Catholic Church

    • D.

      Reasons King Henry VIII had to kill his wives

    Correct Answer
    C. Complaints Martin Luther had against the Catholic Church
    Explanation
    The 95 Theses were a list of complaints that Martin Luther had against the Catholic Church. He wrote them in 1517 and posted them on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany. The Theses criticized various practices of the Church, such as the selling of indulgences and the authority of the Pope. This act is considered to be the starting point of the Protestant Reformation, as it sparked a widespread debate and led to the formation of new Christian denominations.

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  • 23. 

    Which best describes the impact of Ferdinand Magellan and his crew?

    • A.

      Discovered the Cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa

    • B.

      Sailed to the Spice Islands of Asia to purchase trade goods

    • C.

      Became the first sailors to colonize America

    • D.

      Became the first sailors to circumnavigate the World

    Correct Answer
    D. Became the first sailors to circumnavigate the World
    Explanation
    Ferdinand Magellan and his crew were the first sailors to circumnavigate the world. This means that they successfully completed a journey around the entire globe, starting and ending at the same point. This was a significant achievement in maritime exploration and had a major impact on our understanding of the Earth's geography and the possibilities of global trade and travel.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is NOT a major Meso-American Empire discovered by Spanish explorers?

    • A.

      Incas     

    • B.

      Mayans

    • C.

      Inuits

    • D.

      Aztecs

    Correct Answer
    C. Inuits
    Explanation
    The Inuits were not a major Meso-American Empire discovered by Spanish explorers. The Inuits are indigenous peoples who inhabit the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and Alaska, which are far from the Meso-American region. The major Meso-American Empires discovered by Spanish explorers include the Incas, Mayans, and Aztecs, who were located in present-day Peru, Central America, and Mexico respectively.

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  • 25. 

    What similarities do the Mayans and Aztecs share?

    • A.

      Their empires existed in present-day Mexico

    • B.

      They were conquered and wiped out by Spanish explorer Hernando Cortes

    • C.

      They predicted the world would end in December, 2012

    • D.

      Their calendars are used today exclusively by the U.S. government

    Correct Answer
    A. Their empires existed in present-day Mexico
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the Mayans and Aztecs share the similarity of their empires existing in present-day Mexico. Both civilizations were located in what is now modern-day Mexico and had significant influence and power in the region. They both built impressive cities and had complex social, political, and religious systems. This geographical proximity and shared location contribute to the similarities between the Mayans and Aztecs.

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  • 26. 

    What are the 3 G’s?

    • A.

      Gold, Grain, and Glory

    • B.

      Gold, Glory, and God

    • C.

      Gold, Glory, and Guns

    • D.

      Gold, Guns, and God

    Correct Answer
    B. Gold, Glory, and God
    Explanation
    The 3 G's refer to the motives behind European exploration and colonization during the Age of Exploration. Gold represents the desire for wealth and economic gain through the discovery of new trade routes and valuable resources. Glory represents the pursuit of fame, power, and prestige for the explorers and their respective nations. God represents the religious motivation to spread Christianity and convert indigenous peoples to the European faith. These three factors were significant drivers for European expansion and colonization during this period.

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  • 27. 

    Which statement is true about Portuguese exploration?

    • A.

      The exploration ended after the death of Prince Henry in 1460.

    • B.

      The Portuguese were attacked and defeated by Muslim traders on the East African coast.

    • C.

      The Portuguese explored the interiors of Africa and established footholds.

    • D.

      The Portuguese found a trade route through the Indian Ocean to Asia.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Portuguese found a trade route through the Indian Ocean to Asia.
    Explanation
    The Portuguese found a trade route through the Indian Ocean to Asia. This statement is true because Portuguese explorers, such as Vasco da Gama, successfully sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and reached India in 1498. This discovery opened up lucrative trade opportunities with Asia and established Portugal as a major player in global trade during the Age of Exploration.

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  • 28. 

    This photograph shows a place which was first sailed around by _______________, a Portuguese navigator.

    • A.

      Christopher Columbus

    • B.

      Bartolomeu Dias

    • C.

      Hernán Cortés

    • D.

      Vasco da Gama

    Correct Answer
    B. Bartolomeu Dias
    Explanation
    Bartolomeu Dias was a Portuguese navigator who first sailed around the place shown in the photograph. He is known for being the first European to sail around the southernmost tip of Africa, now known as the Cape of Good Hope, in 1488. This voyage opened up a new sea route from Europe to Asia, which later led to the exploration and colonization of India by Vasco da Gama. Christopher Columbus, Hernán Cortés, and Vasco da Gama were all significant explorers in their own right, but they did not sail around the place depicted in the photograph.

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  • 29. 

    How does this image best show a result of the Columbian Exchange?

    • A.

      It shows Native Americans stricken by diseases brought to the Americas by Europeans.

    • B.

      It shows Native Americans preparing for a voyage to Europe.

    • C.

      It shows horses brought to the Americas from Europe being adapted by Native Americans.

    • D.

      It shows weapons brought to the Americas from Europe being adapted by Native Americans.

    Correct Answer
    C. It shows horses brought to the Americas from Europe being adapted by Native Americans.
    Explanation
    The image best shows a result of the Columbian Exchange by depicting horses brought to the Americas from Europe being adapted by Native Americans. The Columbian Exchange refers to the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World following Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas in 1492. The introduction of horses to the Americas had a significant impact on Native American cultures as it revolutionized transportation, hunting, and warfare techniques. This image showcases the adaptation and utilization of horses by Native Americans, highlighting the impact of the Columbian Exchange.

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  • 30. 

    What can be inferred about the slave trade in Africa?

    • A.

      The Europeans had more footholds on coastal Africa than the inland areas.

    • B.

      Most of the slave trade took place in the interior of Africa rather than near the coast.

    • C.

      Rwanda and Burundi were two of the most important slave trade centers.

    • D.

      The Oyo empire did not allow for slave trade.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Europeans had more footholds on coastal Africa than the inland areas.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the Europeans had a stronger presence and control over coastal areas in Africa compared to the inland regions. This implies that the slave trade, which involved the capturing and transportation of enslaved Africans, was more prevalent and organized in the coastal areas where the European powers had established their footholds.

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  • 31. 

    _________ is a policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver.

    • A.

      Communism

    • B.

      Mercantilism

    • C.

      Socialism

    • D.

      Capitalism

    Correct Answer
    B. Mercantilism
    Explanation
    Mercantilism is a policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver. This policy was based on the belief that a country's wealth and power were determined by the amount of precious metals it possessed. By exporting more goods than importing, a nation could generate a trade surplus and accumulate gold and silver. This would increase the country's wealth and enable it to strengthen its military and political influence. Mercantilism was commonly practiced by European nations during the 16th to 18th centuries.

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  • 32. 

    Complete the sentence with the best answer. So that the largest possible cargo might be carried, the captives were wedged belowdecks, chained to low-lying platforms stacked in tiers, with an average individual space allotment that was 6 feet long, 16 inches wide, and perhaps 3 feet high (183 cm by 41 cm by 91 cm). Unable to stand erect or turn over, many slaves died in this position. The text is most likely describing

    • A.

      The Middle Passage.

    • B.

      The Macartney embassy.

    • C.

      The Magellan circumnavigation expedition.

    • D.

      Encomienda.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Middle Passage.
    Explanation
    The given passage describes the conditions in which captives were transported on ships, with limited space and being chained to low-lying platforms. This is a well-known historical practice during the transatlantic slave trade, known as the Middle Passage. It involved the transportation of enslaved Africans from Africa to the Americas, where they were forced into slavery. The description of cramped conditions and many slaves dying in this position aligns with the historical accounts of the Middle Passage.

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  • 33. 

    Which phrase best completes the chart showing causes of European exploration?

    • A.

      Government oppression at home

    • B.

      Desire to improve their standard of living

    • C.

      Desire for direct access to the valuable Asian spice trade

    • D.

      Search for a better climate

    Correct Answer
    C. Desire for direct access to the valuable Asian spice trade
    Explanation
    European exploration was primarily driven by the desire for direct access to the valuable Asian spice trade. Spices were highly sought after during this time period for their ability to preserve food and add flavor, making them incredibly valuable commodities. European countries wanted to bypass the middlemen and establish direct trade routes with Asia in order to increase their profits and gain a competitive advantage in the spice trade. This desire for economic gain and control over the spice trade was a major driving force behind European exploration and expansion.

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  • 34. 

    Which country can replace the "X" in this chart?

    • A.

      Italy

    • B.

      France

    • C.

      Portugal

    • D.

      Spain

    Correct Answer
    C. Portugal
    Explanation
    Portugal can replace the "X" in the chart because it is one of the countries listed and is a valid option to fill the missing spot.

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  • 35. 

    Which statement about the slave trade is true?

    • A.

      European traders often went into Africa's interior on slave raids.

    • B.

      Some African leaders, such as Afonso, tried to end the slave trade, while others encouraged it.

    • C.

      The slave trade had minimal effects on West Africa in the 1600s and 1700s.

    • D.

      The Middle Passage was a relatively easy voyage to the Americas.

    Correct Answer
    B. Some African leaders, such as Afonso, tried to end the slave trade, while others encouraged it.
    Explanation
    Some African leaders, such as Afonso, tried to end the slave trade, while others encouraged it. This statement is true because there were indeed African leaders who opposed the slave trade and made efforts to end it. King Afonso I of Kongo, for example, wrote letters to the Portuguese king in the 16th century, condemning the slave trade and requesting its abolition. However, it is also true that there were other African leaders who saw economic benefits in participating in the slave trade and thus encouraged it. This complex dynamic among African leaders regarding the slave trade is well-documented in historical records.

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  • 36. 

    Compare and contrast the environments in which the Inca and Aztec lived. Which of the following choices is correct?

    • A.

      The Inca lived in tropical forests while the Aztec lived in high mountains.

    • B.

      The Inca lived in the Arctic while the Aztec lived on the Great Plains.

    • C.

      The Inca lived in the desert while the Aztec lived in thick forests.

    • D.

      The Inca lived in the mountains while the Aztec lived in a valley on a high plateau.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Inca lived in the mountains while the Aztec lived in a valley on a high plateau.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the Inca lived in the mountains while the Aztec lived in a valley on a high plateau. This answer accurately compares and contrasts the environments in which the Inca and Aztec civilizations thrived. The Inca civilization was located in the Andes Mountains of South America, while the Aztec civilization was situated in the Valley of Mexico, which is a high plateau surrounded by mountains. This distinction in geographical features shaped the unique environments in which these civilizations developed and influenced their cultures, economies, and ways of life.

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  • 37. 

    In Aztec mythology, it was in the city of ________ that the gods created the world in which the Aztec lived.

    • A.

      Tenochtitlan

    • B.

      Cuzco

    • C.

      Cahokia

    • D.

      El Mirador

    Correct Answer
    A. Tenochtitlan
    Explanation
    Tenochtitlan is the correct answer because it was the capital city of the Aztec civilization and considered the center of the universe in their mythology. According to Aztec beliefs, the gods created the world in Tenochtitlan, making it a significant and sacred place in their cosmology. It was believed to be the place where the gods and humans interacted, and where the Aztec civilization flourished.

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  • 38. 

    Which statement is true of Inca farmers who farmed in the way this image shows?

    • A.

      They built stone walls to hold the strips of land on steep hillsides in place.

    • B.

      They were responsible for building the step terraces in the Andes.

    • C.

      They spent the whole year working land for the emperor and the temples.

    • D.

      They failed in preventing the rains from washing away the soil.

    Correct Answer
    A. They built stone walls to hold the strips of land on steep hillsides in place.
    Explanation
    Inca farmers who farmed in the way shown in the image built stone walls to hold the strips of land on steep hillsides in place. This is because the Inca civilization was known for their advanced agricultural techniques, including terracing. By constructing stone walls, the farmers were able to create flat areas on the slopes, preventing erosion and retaining the soil. This allowed them to cultivate crops in the challenging mountainous terrain of the Andes.

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  • 39. 

    Which statement tells another similarity between the civilizations discussed in the text? The three great civilizations of the Americas had many similarities. The Maya, the Aztecs, and the Inca were all adept at organizing the work forces necessary to accomplish large-scale building projects.

    • A.

      The farmers in each of these civilizations worked the land as an independent enterprise.

    • B.

      Each of these cultures required conquered people to pay a tribute.

    • C.

      The people of each of these cultures developed a system of writing.

    • D.

      Each society had a clearly defined hierarchy with rulers and nobles at the top.

    Correct Answer
    D. Each society had a clearly defined hierarchy with rulers and nobles at the top.
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that each society had a clearly defined hierarchy with rulers and nobles at the top. This means that all three civilizations, the Maya, the Aztecs, and the Inca, had a social structure where power and authority were concentrated at the highest levels of society. This similarity suggests that these civilizations had similar systems of governance and social organization, which contributed to their ability to undertake large-scale building projects.

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  • 40. 

    What is the main difference between the Aztec and Maya regarding the governing of their societies?

    • A.

      The Maya elected their leader, while the Aztec leader was a tyrant.

    • B.

      The Aztecs developed a more democratic system of government, while the Maya leader ruled by birthright.

    • C.

      The Maya lived in individual city-states, while the Aztec were unified under one leader.

    • D.

      Both civilizations lived in city-states, but the Aztec empire was larger.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Maya lived in individual city-states, while the Aztec were unified under one leader.
    Explanation
    The main difference between the Aztec and Maya regarding the governing of their societies is that the Maya lived in individual city-states, while the Aztec were unified under one leader. This means that the Maya had a decentralized system of government, with each city-state having its own ruler, while the Aztec had a centralized system, with one leader governing the entire empire.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Aug 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 16, 2021
    Quiz Created by
    Catherine Halcomb
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