Language And Writing Quiz - Learn The Science Behind Writing

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Language And Writing Quiz - Learn The Science Behind Writing - Quiz

Literature and writing broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more specifically for writings narrowly considered to be an art form.
We humans have been using literature for thousands of years now to transfer stories and knowledge through time. The art of writing has become more and more technical with time. Take this Quiz about the Science behind writing!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Text is

    • A.

      A system of language means which serves a definite aim of communication

    • B.

      Any verbalized communicative event performed via human language in oral mode

    • C.

      Any verbalized communicative event performed via human language in written or in oral mode

    • D.

      A complex communicative phenomenon, which includes different factors of interaction

    Correct Answer
    C. Any verbalized communicative event performed via human language in written or in oral mode
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "any verbalized communicative event performed via human language in written or in oral mode." This answer encompasses both oral and written forms of communication, indicating that language can be used in various ways to convey messages. It highlights the versatility of language as a means of communication, whether it is spoken or written.

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  • 2. 

    Discourse is:

    • A.

      A complex communicative phenomenon, which includes the text and other factors of interaction.

    • B.

      Embedded into text

    • C.

      Any verbalized communicative event performed via human language in written or in oral mode

    • D.

      A complex communicative phenomenon, which includes comunicative goals and cognitive systems of participants

    Correct Answer
    A. A complex communicative phenomenon, which includes the text and other factors of interaction.
    Explanation
    Discourse refers to a complex communicative phenomenon that involves more than just the text being communicated. It includes various factors of interaction such as the context, the participants' intentions and goals, and the cognitive systems involved in the communication process. This definition highlights the comprehensive nature of discourse and emphasizes that it goes beyond just the words being spoken or written.

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  • 3. 

    Cohesion is:

    • A.

      A measure of the extent to which the reader or listener finds that the text makes sense as a unity

    • B.

      The way certain words can connect a sentence to its predecessors and successors in a text.

    • C.

      A subjective category assigned to text by a reader or listener.

    • D.

      Is based on semantic relationships.

    Correct Answer
    B. The way certain words can connect a sentence to its predecessors and successors in a text.
    Explanation
    Cohesion refers to the way certain words in a text connect a sentence to its preceding and succeeding sentences. It is not a measure of how the reader perceives the text's unity or a subjective category assigned by the reader. Instead, cohesion is based on the semantic relationships established through the use of specific words and phrases that link different parts of the text together.

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  • 4. 

    Coherence is:

    • A.

      The way certain words can connect a sentence to its predecessors and successors.

    • B.

      A feature which helps to understand a text as a whole and to comprehend its topic.

    • C.

      A measure of the extent to which the reader or listener finds that the text makes sense as a unity.

    • D.

      Determined by lexically and grammatically overt intersentential relationships.

    Correct Answer
    C. A measure of the extent to which the reader or listener finds that the text makes sense as a unity.
    Explanation
    Coherence refers to the degree to which a text is comprehensible and makes sense as a whole. It is a measure of how well the reader or listener can understand the connections between sentences and how they contribute to the overall meaning and unity of the text. Coherence is not determined by specific words or grammatical relationships, but rather by the overall sense of cohesion and logical flow that the text exhibits.

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  • 5. 

    Artefact texts:

    • A.

      Describe the fictional world, created in the imagination of the author.

    • B.

      Deal with the facts of the real world but have certain linguistic features of fictional texts.

    • C.

      Perform artistic function.

    • D.

      Are used either for "changing" the real world or for reporting statements about it.

    Correct Answer
    D. Are used either for "changing" the real world or for reporting statements about it.
    Explanation
    Artefact texts are used either for "changing" the real world or for reporting statements about it. This means that these texts can have a practical purpose, such as influencing or shaping the real world, or they can simply provide information and report on the real world. The use of artefact texts can have a significant impact on society and can be a tool for communication and expression.

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  • 6. 

    "Grey zone" texts:

    • A.

      Deal with the facts of the real world but have certain linguistic features of fictional texts.

    • B.

      Are used either for "changing" the real world or for reporting statements about it.

    • C.

      Describe the fictional world, created in the imagination of the author.

    • D.

      Perform communicative function.

    Correct Answer
    A. Deal with the facts of the real world but have certain linguistic features of fictional texts.
    Explanation
    Grey zone texts refer to texts that deal with the facts of the real world but also have certain linguistic features commonly found in fictional texts. This means that while these texts are based on real-world information, they may use storytelling techniques or narrative elements typically associated with fiction. These texts can be used to "change" the real world or report statements about it, and they perform a communicative function by conveying information in a unique and engaging way.

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  • 7. 

    Functional style is:

    • A.

      A system of language means which serves a definite aim of communication.

    • B.

      Any verbalized communicative event performed via human language in written or in oral mode.

    • C.

      A complex communicative phenomenon, which includes the text and other factors of interaction.

    • D.

      A main unit of interaction.

    Correct Answer
    A. A system of language means which serves a definite aim of communication.
    Explanation
    Functional style refers to a system of language means that are used to achieve a specific purpose in communication. It involves using language in a way that is appropriate for different contexts and aims to convey a particular message effectively. This can include using different vocabulary, grammar, and discourse patterns depending on the situation or goal of the communication. Functional style focuses on the practical use of language to fulfill communicative intentions and is an important aspect of effective communication.

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  • 8. 

    Cohesion can be:

    • A.

      Lexical and semantic.

    • B.

      Phonetic, grammatical, lexical and stylistic.

    • C.

      Grammatical, lexical and semantic.

    • D.

      Grammatical and stylistic.

    Correct Answer
    C. Grammatical, lexical and semantic.
    Explanation
    Cohesion refers to the way different parts of a text are connected and organized. It can be achieved through various means, including grammar, vocabulary, and meaning. In this case, the correct answer states that cohesion can be achieved through grammatical, lexical, and semantic means. Grammatical cohesion is achieved through the use of grammatical devices like pronouns, conjunctions, and referencing. Lexical cohesion is achieved through the use of vocabulary choices that create connections between different parts of a text. Semantic cohesion is achieved through the use of meaning and logical connections between different parts of a text. Therefore, the correct answer is grammatical, lexical, and semantic.

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  • 9. 

    Sub-styles of the language of official documents are:

    • A.

      The language of humanitarian and "exact" sciences, of popular scientific prose.

    • B.

      The language of legal, business and military documents.

    • C.

      The language of poetry, drama and emotive prose.

    • D.

      The language of mass-media, of political and other public speeches and of informational technologies.

    Correct Answer
    B. The language of legal, business and military documents.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the language of legal, business and military documents. This is because official documents in these fields require a specific style of language that is formal, precise, and often technical. Legal documents need to be clear and unambiguous, while business documents require professional and concise language. Military documents often use specialized terminology and abbreviations for efficient communication. Therefore, these sub-styles of language are commonly used in official documents in the respective fields.

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  • 10. 

    Texts of official documents are characterised by:

    • A.

      Conventionality of expression, set expressions, complicated syntax, the encoded character of language.

    • B.

      Use of "tag questions" and "hedges", speaking "in italics", super-polite forms of expression.

    • C.

      Set expressions, complicated syntax, conventionality of expression, restricted use of SDs and Ems.

    • D.

      Asyndetic attributive word-groups, passive constructions, terms, impersonality of expression.

    Correct Answer
    A. Conventionality of expression, set expressions, complicated syntax, the encoded character of language.
    Explanation
    The texts of official documents are characterized by conventionality of expression, set expressions, complicated syntax, and the encoded character of language. This means that official documents often use formal and standardized language, with specific phrases and structures that are commonly used. The syntax of these texts can be complex, with long and intricate sentences. Additionally, the language used in official documents is often highly technical and precise, with specific meanings and interpretations.

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  • 11. 

    Scientific and technical texts are characterised by:

    • A.

      Conventionality of expression, set expressions, complicated syntax, the encoded character of language.

    • B.

      Absence of any SDs and EMs, asyndetic attributive word-groups, terms, passive constructions.

    • C.

      Asyndetic attributive word-groups, passive constructions, terms, impersonality of expression.

    • D.

      Use of "tag questions" and "hedges", speaking "in italics", super-polite forms of expression. 

    Correct Answer
    C. Asyndetic attributive word-groups, passive constructions, terms, impersonality of expression.
    Explanation
    Scientific and technical texts are characterized by asyndetic attributive word-groups, passive constructions, terms, and impersonality of expression. This means that these texts often use word-groups without conjunctions, passive sentence structures, specialized terminology, and a lack of personal and subjective language. These features contribute to the formal and objective nature of scientific and technical writing, allowing for clear and precise communication of information.

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  • 12. 

    Sub-styles of the publicistic style are:

    • A.

      The language of mass-media, of political and other public speeches and of informational technologies.

    • B.

      The language of poetry, drama and emotive prose.

    • C.

      The language of humanitarian and "exact" sciences, of popular scientific prose.

    • D.

      The language of legal, business and military documents.

    Correct Answer
    A. The language of mass-media, of political and other public speeches and of informational technologies.
    Explanation
    The sub-styles of the publicistic style include the language of mass-media, political and other public speeches, and informational technologies. These sub-styles are characterized by their use of persuasive and informative language to convey ideas and opinions to a wide audience. Mass-media language refers to the language used in newspapers, magazines, television, and other forms of media. Political and public speeches use language to persuade and influence listeners in a political or public setting. The language of informational technologies refers to the language used in digital platforms, websites, and other technological mediums to convey information.

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  • 13. 

    Special literary vocabulary includes:

    • A.

      Slang, jargon, professional words, dialectal, obscene and vulgar words.

    • B.

      Metaphor, metonymy, zeugma, oxymoron, pun, irony, simile, epithet.

    • C.

      Terms, poetic and highly literary words, obsolete words, barbarisms, neologisms, acronyms.

    • D.

      Obsolete words, neologisms, poetic and highly literary words, jargon, vulgar words.

    Correct Answer
    C. Terms, poetic and highly literary words, obsolete words, barbarisms, neologisms, acronyms.
    Explanation
    The special literary vocabulary includes terms, poetic and highly literary words, obsolete words, barbarisms, neologisms, and acronyms. This means that in literature, there are specific terms and words that are used, such as poetic and highly literary words, which add depth and richness to the writing. Additionally, obsolete words, barbarisms (words that are considered incorrect or nonstandard), neologisms (newly coined words or expressions), and acronyms (abbreviations formed from the initial letters of other words) may be used to convey specific meanings or create a certain atmosphere in literary works.

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  • 14. 

    Special colloquial vocabulary includes:

    • A.

      Metaphor, metonymy, zeugma, oxymoron, pun, irony, simile, epithet.

    • B.

      Slang, jargon, professional words, dialectal, obscene and vulgar words.

    • C.

      Obscene and vulgar words, slang, terms, barbarisms, acronyms.

    • D.

      Terms, poetic and highly literary words, obsolete words, barbarisms, neologisms, acronyms.

    Correct Answer
    B. Slang, jargon, professional words, dialectal, obscene and vulgar words.
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes various types of specialized vocabulary that are not commonly used in everyday language. Slang refers to informal words or phrases that are specific to a particular group or subculture. Jargon consists of technical terms or expressions that are used within a specific profession or field. Professional words are specialized vocabulary used in a specific profession or industry. Dialectal words are regional or local variations of language. Lastly, obscene and vulgar words are offensive or explicit terms that are generally considered inappropriate in polite conversation.

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  • 15. 

    Expressive means are:

    • A.

      Intentional intensifications of some typical structural or semantic properties of language units.

    • B.

      A mechanism of using a word or phrase in a figurative or idiomatic meaning.

    • C.

      A certain kind of language used in a certain social situation.

    • D.

      Phonetic, morphological, lexical, idiomatic and syntactical forms used for emotional intensification.

    Correct Answer
    D. Phonetic, morphological, lexical, idiomatic and syntactical forms used for emotional intensification.
    Explanation
    Expressive means refer to the various linguistic forms, such as phonetic, morphological, lexical, idiomatic, and syntactical, that are used to enhance or intensify the emotional impact of language. These means are employed intentionally to emphasize certain emotional aspects of language units, such as words, phrases, or sentences. By utilizing these expressive means, speakers or writers can convey their emotions more effectively and create a stronger emotional impact on the audience.

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  • 16. 

    Stylistic devices are:

    • A.

      Intentional intensifications of some typical structural or semantic properties of language units.

    • B.

      A mechanism of using a word or phrase in a figurative or idiomatic meaning.

    • C.

      Phonetic, morphological, lexical, idiomatic and syntactical forms used for emotional intensification.

    • D.

      A certain kind of language used in a certain social situation.

    Correct Answer
    A. Intentional intensifications of some typical structural or semantic properties of language units.
    Explanation
    Stylistic devices are intentional intensifications of some typical structural or semantic properties of language units. This means that they are deliberate techniques used to enhance or emphasize certain aspects of language, such as the structure or meaning of words or phrases. These devices can include techniques such as repetition, metaphor, irony, or hyperbole, among others. By using these devices, writers or speakers can add depth, creativity, and impact to their language, making it more engaging and memorable for the audience.

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  • 17. 

    Zeugma is:

    • A.

      Controversial comparisons.

    • B.

      Irony.

    • C.

      Similar syntactic but different semantic relationships between words.

    • D.

      Colourful attribute.

    Correct Answer
    C. Similar syntactic but different semantic relationships between words.
    Explanation
    Zeugma is a figure of speech that involves using a word or phrase in a sentence to connect two or more other words or phrases, even though the word or phrase may not have the same meaning or relationship with each of them. This creates a parallel structure in the sentence, with similar syntax but different semantic relationships between the words. It is a literary device used to add depth and complexity to a sentence, often resulting in a humorous or clever effect. It is not related to controversial comparisons, irony, or colorful attributes.

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  • 18. 

    Metaphor is:

    • A.

      Specific relationship between the dictionary and contextual meanings of a lexical unit.

    • B.

      Simultaneous implementation of two meanings of a lexical unit.

    • C.

      Similar syntactic but different semantic relationships between words.

    • D.

      Comparison.

    Correct Answer
    B. Simultaneous implementation of two meanings of a lexical unit.
    Explanation
    Metaphor refers to the simultaneous implementation of two meanings of a lexical unit. It involves using a word or phrase in a way that suggests a resemblance or analogy between two different things. This comparison helps to convey a deeper meaning or create a vivid image in the reader's mind. Unlike the other options, which focus on specific relationships or syntactic and semantic relationships between words, the concept of metaphor is centered around the dual interpretation of a single lexical unit.

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  • 19. 

    Oxymoron is:

    • A.

      Controversial comparisons.

    • B.

      The play of words.

    • C.

      Colourful attribute.

    • D.

      Comparison.

    Correct Answer
    A. Controversial comparisons.
    Explanation
    Oxymoron refers to the use of contradictory terms or ideas to create a dramatic effect or emphasize a point. It involves combining two opposite or contradictory words to form a phrase or expression. This creates a sense of tension or paradox. Therefore, the answer "controversial comparisons" is the most appropriate as it accurately describes the concept of oxymoron. The other options, such as "the play of words," "colorful attribute," and "comparison," do not capture the essence of oxymoron.

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  • 20. 

    Communicative aim of texts of belles-lettres style is:

    • A.

      To make the reader believe the author and thus indirectly influence their behaviour.

    • B.

      To inform the addressee about events in the real world.

    • C.

      To persuade the addressee that the author’s point of view is the only correct one.

    • D.

      To bind the addressee to a certain kind of behaviour.

    Correct Answer
    A. To make the reader believe the author and thus indirectly influence their behaviour.
    Explanation
    The communicative aim of texts of belles-lettres style is to make the reader believe the author and thus indirectly influence their behavior. This means that the texts in this style are designed to persuade the reader and shape their thoughts and actions based on the author's perspective. It is not about informing the reader about real-world events or binding the reader to a certain kind of behavior. The main goal is to convince the reader of the author's viewpoint and influence their behavior accordingly.

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  • 21. 

    Pragmatics is:

    • A.

      Relationships between language signs.

    • B.

      Relationships between the sign, its meaning and its referent.

    • C.

      Relationships between signs and their users.

    • D.

      Relationships between the users.

    Correct Answer
    C. Relationships between signs and their users.
    Explanation
    Pragmatics refers to the study of how context influences the interpretation and use of language. It focuses on the relationships between signs (words, symbols, or gestures) and their users (speakers or listeners). Pragmatics examines how meaning is constructed through social and cultural factors, as well as the intentions and beliefs of the communicators. It explores how context, such as the speaker's tone, body language, or the shared knowledge between participants, affects the meaning of linguistic signs. Therefore, the correct answer is "relationships between signs and their users."

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  • 22. 

    The pragmatic component of the text includes:

    • A.

      The pragmatic component of the text and its compressed proposition.

    • B.

      Singular author, collective addressee, illocutionary verb.

    • C.

      Collective author, singular addressee, illocutionary verb.

    • D.

      Singular or collective author, singular or collective addressee, illocutionary verb.

    Correct Answer
    D. Singular or collective author, singular or collective addressee, illocutionary verb.
    Explanation
    The pragmatic component of a text refers to the aspects of language use that involve the speaker's intentions, the context in which the communication takes place, and the effect the speaker wants to achieve. It includes factors such as the author's intention (which can be singular or collective), the addressee (who can be singular or collective), and the illocutionary verb (which expresses the speaker's intention). Therefore, the correct answer is "singular or collective author, singular or collective addressee, illocutionary verb."

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  • 23. 

    CMP is composed of:

    • A.

      Singular or collective author, singular or collective addressee, illocutionary verb.

    • B.

      Deictic markers, noun phrase, verb phrase, illocutionary verb.

    • C.

      The pragmatic component of the text and deictic axes.

    • D.

      The pragmatic component of the text and its compressed proposition.

    Correct Answer
    D. The pragmatic component of the text and its compressed proposition.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the pragmatic component of the text and its compressed proposition." This answer accurately describes the composition of CMP. The pragmatic component refers to the aspects of language use that go beyond the literal meaning of words, such as the speaker's intentions and the context in which the communication takes place. The compressed proposition refers to the main message or idea that is conveyed in a concise and condensed form. Together, these two elements make up the CMP.

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  • 24. 

    If a language favors a certain gender over another, it is:

    • A.

      Bias-free

    • B.

      Gender-biased

    • C.

      Bias-gendered

    • D.

      Neutral

    Correct Answer
    B. Gender-biased
    Explanation
    If a language favors a certain gender over another, it is considered gender-biased. This means that the language shows a preference or discrimination towards a specific gender, which can perpetuate inequality and reinforce stereotypes. A gender-biased language may use certain words, phrases, or grammatical structures that reflect societal biases and contribute to the marginalization of a particular gender.

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  • 25. 

    Linguistic features of the "female" languages are:

    • A.

      Use of "tag questions" and "hedges", speaking "in italics", super-polite forms of expression.

    • B.

      Special vocabulary, use of "tag questions" and "hedges", absence of direct quotations.

    • C.

      Use of "empty" adjectives or adverbs, super-polite forms of expression, sense of humour.

    • D.

      Use of "tag questions" and "hedges", speaking "in italics", correct grammar and pronunciation.

    Correct Answer
    A. Use of "tag questions" and "hedges", speaking "in italics", super-polite forms of expression.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the option that includes the linguistic features of "tag questions" and "hedges," speaking "in italics," and using super-polite forms of expression. This is because these features are specifically mentioned as characteristics of "female" languages in the question. The other options either include incorrect features or do not include all the features mentioned in the question.

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  • 26. 

    Bias-free of "policeman" is ____________

    Correct Answer
    police officer
    Explanation
    The term "bias-free" suggests that the word "policeman" may carry a gender bias, as it implies that the person in question is male. To eliminate this bias, the more inclusive and gender-neutral term "police officer" can be used. This term encompasses individuals of any gender who serve in law enforcement, promoting equality and fairness in language usage.

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  • 27. 

    Bias-free of "steward" is ________________

    Correct Answer
    flight attendant
    Explanation
    The term "steward" traditionally refers to a male occupation, often associated with the role of managing and serving passengers on a ship or airplane. However, in order to promote gender equality and eliminate bias, the term "steward" has been replaced with the gender-neutral term "flight attendant." This change acknowledges that individuals of any gender can perform the duties and responsibilities associated with this occupation.

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  • 28. 

    Bias-free of "housewife" is __________________

    Correct Answer
    homemaker
    Explanation
    The term "housewife" has historically been associated with traditional gender roles, implying that women should primarily focus on domestic duties. However, the term "homemaker" is considered to be more inclusive and neutral, as it encompasses both men and women who take care of the household and its members. Therefore, "homemaker" is a bias-free alternative to the term "housewife".

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  • 29. 

    Bias-free of "mankind" is_____________

    Correct Answer
    humankind
    Explanation
    The term "mankind" is considered biased because it implies that the entire human race is represented by the male gender. To eliminate this bias, the term "mankind" can be replaced with "humankind," which is a gender-neutral term that includes all individuals regardless of their gender.

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  • 30. 

    Bias-free of "brotherhood" is ____________________

    Correct Answer
    community
    Explanation
    The term "brotherhood" typically connotes a sense of inclusivity and unity within a group of individuals. By describing it as "bias-free," it suggests that this concept of brotherhood is not limited to a specific gender or familial relationship, but rather extends to a broader community. This means that the idea of brotherhood encompasses a diverse range of people, fostering a sense of belonging and camaraderie among individuals from different backgrounds and identities.

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  • 31. 

    Bias-free of "Frenchmen" is______________

    Correct Answer
    the French
    Explanation
    The term "Frenchmen" refers to the people of France, specifically the male population. The correct answer, "the French," is a more inclusive and unbiased term that encompasses both men and women from France. By using this term, it avoids any gender bias and treats all individuals from France equally.

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  • 32. 

    Bias-free of "mother tongue" is _______________

    Correct Answer
    native language
    Explanation
    The term "mother tongue" refers to the language that a person has learned from birth or that is most commonly spoken in their family or community. The concept of being "bias-free" in this context means to be free from any prejudice or discrimination. Therefore, the correct answer, "native language," aligns with the idea that using the term "mother tongue" is neutral and unbiased, as it simply refers to the language that a person has grown up speaking.

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  • 33. 

    Bias-free of "alumni" is______________

    Correct Answer
    graduates
    Explanation
    The term "alumni" refers to individuals who have graduated from a particular institution. Therefore, the bias-free term for "alumni" would be "graduates." This term does not imply any gender or other biases and is inclusive of all individuals who have completed their studies and obtained a degree from the institution in question.

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  • 34. 

    Identify type of repetition: Mr Tony Blair – British Prime Minister

    Correct Answer
    co-reference repetition
    Explanation
    The given sentence demonstrates co-reference repetition. Co-reference repetition occurs when a word or phrase is repeated in a sentence to refer to the same entity. In this case, "Mr Tony Blair" and "British Prime Minister" both refer to the same person, indicating co-reference repetition.

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  • 35. 

    Identify type of repetition: true – false

    Correct Answer
    complex paraphrase
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "complex paraphrase" because it accurately identifies the type of repetition in the question. Complex paraphrase refers to the repetition of an idea or concept in a more intricate or elaborate manner, using different words or sentence structures. This type of repetition aims to provide a deeper understanding or emphasize a particular point.

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  • 36. 

    Identify type of repetition: eat – ate

    Correct Answer
    simple lexical repetition
    Explanation
    The correct answer is simple lexical repetition. This type of repetition involves using the same word or phrase again in a text. In this case, the word "eat" is repeated as "ate" to indicate a past tense form of the verb. This repetition helps to clarify the time frame in which the action occurred.

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  • 37. 

    Identify type of repetition: produce – cause

    Correct Answer
    simple paraphrase
    Explanation
    The given correct answer, "simple paraphrase," suggests that the type of repetition being identified is when the words "produce" and "cause" are used interchangeably or in a similar context. This means that the two words are being repeated in a simplified or rephrased manner to convey the same meaning.

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  • 38. 

    Identify type of repetition: bears – they

    Correct Answer
    substitution
    Explanation
    In this question, the type of repetition being identified is substitution. The word "bears" is being substituted with the pronoun "they". This substitution allows for a more concise and varied sentence structure, as the pronoun replaces the need to repeat the noun "bears" multiple times.

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  • 39. 

    Identify type of repetition: politics – political

    Correct Answer
    complex lexical repetition
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is complex lexical repetition. This refers to the repetition of a complex or multi-word lexical item, in this case, "politics" and "political." It indicates the repetition of a specific word or phrase with slight variations in form or meaning. In this case, the word "politics" is repeated as "political" to convey a related concept. This type of repetition helps to reinforce and emphasize the connection between the two terms, highlighting their interrelatedness.

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  • 40. 

    Identify type of repetition: he – him

    Correct Answer
    simple lexical repetition
    Explanation
    The given correct answer for the question is "simple lexical repetition". This means that the repetition is observed in the use of the same word or words from the same lexical category (in this case, pronouns) within a sentence or a text. In this specific instance, the repetition of "he" and "him" demonstrates a simple lexical repetition as they are both pronouns referring to the same person.

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  • 41. 

    Identify type of repetition: happy – sad

    Correct Answer
    complex paraphrase
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "complex paraphrase" because the type of repetition identified in the question is the use of contrasting words or opposite emotions, namely "happy" and "sad." This is a form of complex paraphrase where two contrasting ideas are expressed using different words.

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  • 42. 

    Identify type of repetition: a table – to table

    Correct Answer
    complex lexical repetition
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is complex lexical repetition. This type of repetition occurs when the same word or phrase is repeated within a sentence or passage. In this case, the word "table" is repeated, but with a slight variation in form ("a table" and "to table"). This repetition adds emphasis and reinforces the idea of a table being the subject or object of the sentence.

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  • 43. 

    Identify type of repetition: works – writings

    Correct Answer
    simple paraphrase
    Explanation
    The given answer "simple paraphrase" is correct because it accurately identifies the type of repetition being used in the phrase "works – writings". In this case, the word "works" is being repeated using a different word, "writings", which serves as a simple paraphrase or synonym for "works". This type of repetition helps to reinforce the meaning and emphasize the concept being conveyed.

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