Microbiology- Cell Membranes And Cholera Quiz

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Microbiology- Cell Membranes And Cholera Quiz - Quiz

This is a microbiology quiz about cell membrane and cholera. The cell membrane separates the cytoplasm (the contents of the cell) from the outer environment. And cholera is an infectious disease that can cause severe diarrhea. Do you know how cholera can affect cell membranes? Well, let's see what else you know.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In order for a virus or bacteria to cause symptoms (make you sick) what needs to happen 

    • A.

      Only one cell needs to enter the body 

    • B.

      A large amount of cells need to touch you and you become sick 

    • C.

      A large amount of cells need to enter the small intestine and make it past the goblet cells and release their toxins in the brush border cell

    • D.

      Bacteria dont make you sick

    Correct Answer
    C. A large amount of cells need to enter the small intestine and make it past the goblet cells and release their toxins in the brush border cell
    Explanation
    In order for a virus or bacteria to cause symptoms and make a person sick, a large amount of cells need to enter the small intestine and make it past the goblet cells. Goblet cells are responsible for producing mucus that lines the small intestine and acts as a protective barrier against pathogens. If the cells can make it past the goblet cells, they can release their toxins in the brush border cell, leading to illness. This explanation highlights the specific process by which viruses or bacteria can cause symptoms in the body.

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  • 2. 

    The type of cell which absorbs nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine is called 

    • A.

      Nutrient absorbing cell

    • B.

      Brush border cell 

    • C.

      Goblet cell

    • D.

      Small intestine cell

    Correct Answer
    B. Brush border cell 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is brush border cell. Brush border cells are specialized cells found in the lining of the small intestine. They have microvilli on their surface, which increases their surface area for absorption. These cells play a crucial role in absorbing nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine into the bloodstream. They contain various enzymes and transporters that facilitate the absorption of nutrients such as sugars, amino acids, and vitamins.

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  • 3. 

    True or false, a basic environment (higher PH) is ideal for most types of contagious bacterium

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A basic environment with a higher pH is ideal for most types of contagious bacteria because it inhibits the growth of acidic-intolerant bacteria and provides favorable conditions for the growth and survival of contagious bacteria. This is because the basic environment helps to neutralize acids produced by bacteria and provides a more suitable habitat for their proliferation. Therefore, it is true that a basic environment is ideal for most types of contagious bacteria.

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  • 4. 

    Happens if a large number of contagious bacteria or viral cells enter the epithelial layer   

    • A.

      You are infected and most likley you will get sick 

    • B.

      You are infected but you wont get sick 

    • C.

      Nothing will happen until the cells exit the epithelium and release their toxins

    • D.

      The epithelium becomes infected 

    Correct Answer
    C. Nothing will happen until the cells exit the epithelium and release their toxins
    Explanation
    When a large number of contagious bacteria or viral cells enter the epithelial layer, nothing will happen until the cells exit the epithelium and release their toxins. This is because the epithelial layer acts as a protective barrier, preventing the bacteria or viral cells from causing harm. It is only when the cells exit the epithelium and release their toxins that they can start causing infection and sickness. Until then, the body's immune system can effectively neutralize and eliminate the pathogens.

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  • 5. 

    When the pili of the Vibrio cholerae is attached to the protein receptors what is released?

    • A.

      We have yet to figure that out 

    • B.

      Enzymes 

    • C.

      ZOT1 and Cholera toxin

    • D.

      Various other toxins

    Correct Answer
    C. ZOT1 and Cholera toxin
    Explanation
    When the pili of the Vibrio cholerae are attached to the protein receptors, ZOT1 and Cholera toxin are released. These substances play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cholera. ZOT1 is a toxin that increases the permeability of the intestinal epithelium, leading to the release of water and electrolytes into the gut lumen. Cholera toxin, on the other hand, is responsible for the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera. It stimulates the secretion of water and electrolytes by the intestinal cells, causing the watery diarrhea that is a hallmark symptom of the disease.

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  • 6. 

    True or false, the cholera toxins binds to the ganglioside receptor but because the receptor does not recognize that it is not a human cell toxins are released. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cholera toxins indeed bind to the ganglioside receptor. However, the receptor does not recognize that the toxins are not from a human cell, leading to the release of the toxins. This can result in the development of cholera symptoms in individuals affected by the bacteria.

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  • 7. 

    What is the function of the ganglioside receptor?

    • A.

      To carry out transport and keep the structeral integrity of the cell

    • B.

      To identify bacterial pathogens

    • C.

      To help bacteria release their toxins

    Correct Answer
    B. To identify bacterial pathogens
    Explanation
    The function of the ganglioside receptor is to identify bacterial pathogens. This receptor plays a crucial role in recognizing and binding to specific molecules on the surface of bacteria, allowing the immune system to identify and respond to the presence of pathogens. By identifying bacterial pathogens, the ganglioside receptor helps initiate an immune response to eliminate the harmful bacteria from the body.

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  • 8. 

    How do you die from cholera

    • A.

      Because of the toxin binding to the ganglioside receptor, Na+ and Cl- leave the cell and enter the body, therefore dehydrating your body fast. 

    • B.

      Internal bleeding 

    • C.

      Diarrhea casues your body to become dehydrated fast and because of that you die 

    • D.

      Your cells explode due to the hypotonic solution your cells are exposed to

    Correct Answer
    A. Because of the toxin binding to the ganglioside receptor, Na+ and Cl- leave the cell and enter the body, therefore dehydrating your body fast. 
    Explanation
    Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which produces a toxin that binds to the ganglioside receptor. This binding causes the movement of sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) from the cells into the body, leading to an imbalance of electrolytes and dehydration. The rapid loss of fluids and electrolytes through diarrhea can result in severe dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and ultimately, death.

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  • 9. 

    A mitochondrial membrane is made up of around 

    • A.

      75% protien, 25% phospholipids

    • B.

      50% protien 50% phospholipid

    • C.

      10% protien 90% phospholipid 

    • D.

      100% phospholipid 

    Correct Answer
    A. 75% protien, 25% phospholipids
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 75% protein, 25% phospholipids. Mitochondrial membranes are composed of a combination of proteins and phospholipids. Proteins play a crucial role in various functions of the mitochondria, including transport of molecules across the membrane, electron transport chain, and ATP synthesis. Phospholipids, on the other hand, form the basic structure of the membrane and provide a barrier that separates the interior of the mitochondria from the surrounding environment. The 75% protein and 25% phospholipids composition highlights the importance of proteins in the mitochondrial membrane.

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  • 10. 

    All cell membranes have an equal composition of protein, phospholipids and carbohydrates

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because all cell membranes do not have an equal composition of protein, phospholipids, and carbohydrates. The composition of cell membranes can vary depending on the type of cell and its function. While all cell membranes contain phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, the proportions and types of these components can differ. For example, some cell membranes may have a higher concentration of proteins, while others may have more carbohydrates. Therefore, the composition of cell membranes is not equal across all cells.

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  • 11. 

    Phospholipids are defined as (blank) HINT: both hydrophilic and hydrophobic

    Correct Answer
    Amphipathic
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are molecules that have both hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) regions. This property allows them to form the basic structure of cell membranes, where the hydrophilic heads face outward towards the water-based environment and the hydrophobic tails face inward, creating a barrier. The term "amphipathic" accurately describes this dual nature of phospholipids, as they possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics.

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  • 12. 

    True or false integral proteins are amphipathic but peripheral proteins are hydrophobic 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
  • 13. 

    The chemical known as the backbone of a phospholipid molecule is what?

    • A.

      Phosphate 

    • B.

      Glycerol

    • C.

      Saturated fatty acid 

    • D.

      Unsaturated fatty acid 

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycerol
    Explanation
    Glycerol is the correct answer because it is the molecule that forms the backbone of a phospholipid. Phospholipids are composed of a glycerol molecule bonded to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The glycerol molecule provides the structural foundation for the phospholipid, while the fatty acids and phosphate group attach to it, creating a polar head and nonpolar tails. This unique structure allows phospholipids to form the basis of cell membranes, with the hydrophilic head facing outward and the hydrophobic tails facing inward.

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  • 14. 

    Fatty acid which has the most possible hydrogens is known as what? HINT solid fats 

    Correct Answer
    Saturated fatty acid
    Explanation
    A saturated fatty acid is a type of fatty acid that contains the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. This means that all of the carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. Saturated fatty acids are typically found in solid fats, such as butter and lard, and are known for their stability and long shelf life.

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  • 15. 

    Fatty acid where there is a double covalent bond between two carbons, therefore, limiting the number of hydrogens possible. HINT oils 

    Correct Answer
    unsaturated fatty acid
    Explanation
    The given explanation suggests that the fatty acid mentioned in the question has a double covalent bond between two carbons, which leads to a limited number of hydrogens. This characteristic is typically found in unsaturated fatty acids.

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  • 16. 

    True or false, phospholipids have tails that are only comprised of unsaturated fatty acid  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Phospholipids have tails that can be comprised of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. This is because phospholipids consist of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails, and the tails can vary in their composition. While unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds in their carbon chains, saturated fatty acids have single bonds. Therefore, it is incorrect to state that the tails of phospholipids are only comprised of unsaturated fatty acids.

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  • 17. 

    True or false, When saturated fatty acids are packed together they cause less movement in the membrane. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When saturated fatty acids are packed together, they cause less movement in the membrane because they have straight, rigid structures with no double bonds. This allows them to pack tightly together, reducing the fluidity of the membrane. In contrast, unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds that introduce kinks in their structure, preventing them from packing closely and maintaining a more fluid membrane. Therefore, the statement that saturated fatty acids cause less movement in the membrane is true.

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  • 18. 

    True or false the reason cell membranes are known by the "fluid mosaic model" is because they are comprised of both saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, therefore, causing more fluidity. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The reason cell membranes are known by the "fluid mosaic model" is because they are comprised of both saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, therefore causing more fluidity. This model describes the structure of cell membranes as a fluid-like mosaic of various components, including phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins. The presence of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipid bilayer allows for more fluidity and flexibility in the membrane, enabling it to function properly in regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell.

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