Political Psychology Final Exam

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Political Psychology Final Exam - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The Phrase Tabula Rasa is latin for what?

    • A.

      Conditioning

    • B.

      Behavior

    • C.

      The Clear Mind

    • D.

      The Blank Slate

    Correct Answer
    D. The Blank Slate
    Explanation
    The phrase "Tabula Rasa" is a Latin term that translates to "The Blank Slate." This term refers to the philosophical concept that suggests that individuals are born with a mind that is free from any preconceived ideas or knowledge. It implies that one's mind is like an empty slate at birth, and all knowledge and experiences are acquired through learning and environmental influences. This concept has been influential in various fields, including psychology, philosophy, and education.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following schools of thought would be most likely to subscribe to the notion of the tabula rasa?

    • A.

      Dispositionism

    • B.

      Milgram's School of situationism

    • C.

      Behaviorism

    • D.

      Supporters of the idea that people are born genetically 'wired' with certain attributes

    Correct Answer
    C. Behaviorism
    Explanation
    Behaviorism is the most likely school of thought to subscribe to the notion of the tabula rasa. Behaviorism believes that all behavior is learned through conditioning and that individuals are born as a blank slate, with no innate characteristics or predispositions. This aligns with the concept of tabula rasa, which suggests that individuals are shaped solely by their environment and experiences.

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  • 3. 

    What was the first main 'wave' in the study of political psychology?

    • A.

      Foreign-Policy decision making

    • B.

      International Politics

    • C.

      Personality Studies

    • D.

      Voting Behavior

    Correct Answer
    C. Personality Studies
    Explanation
    The first main 'wave' in the study of political psychology was focused on personality studies. This wave emerged in the early 20th century and sought to understand how individual personalities influence political beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Researchers explored concepts such as authoritarianism, political ideology, and the role of personality traits in shaping political preferences. This wave laid the foundation for further research in political psychology and highlighted the importance of individual differences in understanding political phenomena.

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  • 4. 

    The existence of 'whistleblowers' like Clive Ponting and Joseph Derby is used in the main class text as testimony to the power of:

    • A.

      Situationism

    • B.

      Bounded Rationality

    • C.

      Dispositionism

    • D.

      Moral Cowardice

    Correct Answer
    C. Dispositionism
    Explanation
    The existence of 'whistleblowers' like Clive Ponting and Joseph Derby is used in the main class text as testimony to the power of dispositionism. Dispositionism refers to the belief that individuals' behavior is primarily determined by their internal dispositions or personality traits. In this context, the presence of whistleblowers who risk their careers and personal safety to expose wrongdoing suggests that they possess a strong disposition towards truth-telling and ethical behavior, highlighting the power of individual dispositions in shaping actions and choices.

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  • 5. 

    The notion that our behavior is 'fixed at birth' is most compatible with which of the following?

    • A.

      Behaviorism

    • B.

      Eugenics

    • C.

      Situationism

    • D.

      Bounded Rationality

    Correct Answer
    B. Eugenics
    Explanation
    Eugenics is the belief that human behavior and traits are determined by genetics and that these traits can be improved through selective breeding. This aligns with the notion that our behavior is 'fixed at birth' because it suggests that our behavior is predetermined by our genetic makeup and cannot be changed or influenced by external factors.

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  • 6. 

    The character of 'Frazier' in the novel Walden Two was:

    • A.

      A thinly-disguised version of Anthony Burgess himself

    • B.

      An obvious vehicle for Kelsey Grammar

    • C.

      A strong critic of behaviorism

    • D.

      A thinly-disguised version of B.F. Skinner himself

    Correct Answer
    D. A thinly-disguised version of B.F. Skinner himself
    Explanation
    In the novel Walden Two, the character of 'Frazier' is portrayed as a thinly-disguised version of B.F. Skinner himself. This means that the character is based on and closely resembles the real-life behaviorist psychologist B.F. Skinner. The author likely used this character as a way to explore and express Skinner's ideas and theories within the context of the story.

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  • 7. 

    The tendency of bomber pilots to concentrate on the technical aspects of their tasks, portrayed in the film hearts and minds, was compared in class to what?

    • A.

      The behavior of 'Little Albert'

    • B.

      The behavior of Stanley Milgram's obedient subjects

    • C.

      The behavior of B.F. Skinner's pigeons

    • D.

      The behavior of Stanley Milgram's disobedient subjects

    Correct Answer
    B. The behavior of Stanley Milgram's obedient subjects
    Explanation
    In the film "Hearts and Minds," bomber pilots are portrayed as being focused primarily on the technical aspects of their tasks. This behavior is compared to the behavior of Stanley Milgram's obedient subjects. This suggests that like Milgram's subjects who followed instructions without questioning or resisting, the bomber pilots also exhibit a similar tendency to prioritize their tasks and follow orders without considering the moral or ethical implications of their actions.

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  • 8. 

    With Which of the following statements would a behavorist argue?

    • A.

      It is impossible to decide what should be 'conditioned out' of human beings

    • B.

      The social benefits of conditioning are outweighed by the costs

    • C.

      The notion of 'free will' is an illusion

    • D.

      Conditioning may be the road to fascism

    Correct Answer
    C. The notion of 'free will' is an illusion
    Explanation
    A behaviorist would argue that the notion of 'free will' is an illusion. Behaviorists believe that human behavior is determined by external factors and environmental influences, rather than by personal choice or individual agency. They emphasize the role of conditioning and reinforcement in shaping behavior, suggesting that free will is not a valid explanation for human actions.

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  • 9. 

    Solomon Asch's line experiments are generally supportive of which position?

    • A.

      Situationism

    • B.

      Behaviorism

    • C.

      Dispositionism

    • D.

      Anarchism

    Correct Answer
    A. Situationism
    Explanation
    Solomon Asch's line experiments are generally supportive of the position of Situationism. These experiments demonstrated the power of social influence and the tendency of individuals to conform to the opinions and behaviors of a group, even when they know it is incorrect. This aligns with the principles of Situationism, which emphasizes the importance of situational factors in shaping human behavior, rather than internal traits or dispositions. Asch's experiments highlight how the social situation can override individual judgment and lead to conformity.

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  • 10. 

    The idea that decision-makers 'maximize their utility' is associated with which approach discussed in class?

    • A.

      Cognitive consistency theory

    • B.

      Homo Economicus

    • C.

      Schema Theory

    • D.

      Satisficing

    Correct Answer
    B. Homo Economicus
    Explanation
    The idea that decision-makers 'maximize their utility' is associated with the Homo Economicus approach discussed in class. Homo Economicus is an economic theory that assumes individuals make rational decisions by maximizing their own self-interest and utility. This theory suggests that decision-makers weigh the costs and benefits of different options and choose the one that maximizes their personal satisfaction or utility.

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  • 11. 

    The segment of the film in search of ourselves which we watched in class portrays which of the following?

    • A.

      The early tug of war between eugenics and behaviorism

    • B.

      Behaviorism alone

    • C.

      Stanley Milgram's obedience experiments

    • D.

      Eugenics alone

    Correct Answer
    A. The early tug of war between eugenics and behaviorism
    Explanation
    The segment of the film in search of ourselves which we watched in class portrays the early tug of war between eugenics and behaviorism.

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  • 12. 

    In the Milgram obedience experiments, the supposed 'subject' who received the 'electrical shocks' was in fact:

    • A.

      The real subject of the experiment

    • B.

      Milgram himself

    • C.

      An accomplice of the experimenter

    • D.

      Someone who had no idea what the real purpose of the experiment was

    Correct Answer
    C. An accomplice of the experimenter
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "An accomplice of the experimenter." In the Milgram obedience experiments, the supposed 'subject' who received the 'electrical shocks' was actually a confederate, someone who was working with the experimenter. This confederate pretended to be a participant but was aware of the true purpose of the experiment. Their role was to act as if they were receiving painful shocks in order to elicit certain responses from the actual participants, who were the ones being studied.

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  • 13. 

    What theory did Milgram's findings in the 1960s do most to discredit?

    • A.

      Schema theory

    • B.

      Satisficing

    • C.

      Situationism

    • D.

      Authoritarian personality theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Authoritarian personality theory
    Explanation
    Milgram's findings in the 1960s discredited the Authoritarian personality theory. Milgram's famous experiment demonstrated that ordinary individuals were willing to administer potentially lethal electric shocks to others when instructed by an authority figure. This challenged the notion that only individuals with a specific authoritarian personality were prone to obeying immoral orders. Instead, Milgram's research suggested that situational factors, such as the presence of an authority figure, played a significant role in influencing people's behavior. Therefore, his findings undermined the credibility of the Authoritarian personality theory.

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  • 14. 

    'Dispositionism' is best defined as the argument that:

    • A.

      Our behavior is shaped by forces beyond our control

    • B.

      Our own psychological values and beliefs shape our behavior

    • C.

      'The situation' affects our behavior somewhat

    • D.

      We often quickly dispose of arguments we disagree with

    Correct Answer
    B. Our own psychological values and beliefs shape our behavior
    Explanation
    Dispositionism refers to the belief that our behavior is primarily shaped by our own psychological values and beliefs. This means that our actions and choices are influenced by our internal thoughts, attitudes, and perspectives rather than external factors or forces beyond our control.

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  • 15. 

    In class we argued that Oskar Schindler was a rather unusual 'rescuer' because:

    • A.

      His behavior in other areas of life wasn't particularly ethical

    • B.

      He was himself Jewish

    • C.

      He did not believe in dispositionism himself

    • D.

      He was an especially close friend of Adolf Eichmann

    Correct Answer
    A. His behavior in other areas of life wasn't particularly ethical
    Explanation
    Oskar Schindler was considered an unusual rescuer because his behavior in other areas of life wasn't particularly ethical. This suggests that his actions to save Jewish lives during the Holocaust were not driven by a strong moral compass or a consistent ethical stance. It highlights the complexity of his character and raises questions about his motivations for saving lives.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following events led to the discovery of the 'bystander effect'?

    • A.

      The Cuban missile crisis

    • B.

      9/11

    • C.

      The murder of Kitty Genovese

    • D.

      Solomon Asch's experiments

    Correct Answer
    C. The murder of Kitty Genovese
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the murder of Kitty Genovese. The murder of Kitty Genovese in 1964, where she was attacked and killed in front of her apartment building while multiple witnesses did nothing to intervene or call for help, brought attention to the phenomenon now known as the bystander effect. This event led researchers to study and understand why people are less likely to offer assistance in a group setting, leading to the discovery of the bystander effect.

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  • 17. 

    Operant conditioning deals with the learning of:

    • A.

      Voluntary responses

    • B.

      Reflexes

    • C.

      Salivation

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Voluntary responses
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning is a type of learning that focuses on voluntary responses. It involves the association between a behavior and its consequences, which can either reinforce or discourage the behavior. This type of conditioning is different from classical conditioning, which deals with reflexes and involuntary responses. Salivation, on the other hand, is a reflexive response that is not directly related to operant conditioning. Therefore, the correct answer is voluntary responses.

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  • 18. 

    The phrase 'banality of evil' was created by:

    • A.

      Stanley Milgram in Obedience to Authority

    • B.

      Hannah Arendt in Eichmann in Jerusalem

    • C.

      Anthony Burgess in A Clockwork Orange

    • D.

      B.F. Skinner in Walden Two

    Correct Answer
    B. Hannah Arendt in Eichmann in Jerusalem
    Explanation
    The phrase 'banality of evil' was coined by Hannah Arendt in her book "Eichmann in Jerusalem." Arendt used this phrase to describe her observations of Adolf Eichmann, a Nazi officer responsible for orchestrating the Holocaust. She argued that Eichmann's actions were not driven by extreme hatred or malicious intent, but rather by a thoughtless adherence to bureaucratic procedures and a lack of moral responsibility. Arendt's concept of the banality of evil suggests that evil acts can be committed by ordinary individuals who are simply following orders or conforming to societal norms without critically questioning their actions.

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  • 19. 

    Herbert Simon disputed the notion that individuals are fully rational in the sense assumed in many economic models. What concept did he develop instead to describe how individuals reason in the real world?

    • A.

      Non-rationality

    • B.

      Comprehensive rationality

    • C.

      Bounded rationality

    • D.

      Irrational rationality

    Correct Answer
    C. Bounded rationality
    Explanation
    Herbert Simon developed the concept of bounded rationality to describe how individuals reason in the real world. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals have limitations in their cognitive abilities and information processing capabilities, leading to decision-making that is not fully rational. This concept acknowledges that individuals make decisions based on limited information, time constraints, and cognitive biases, rather than following the assumptions of comprehensive rationality that many economic models rely on. Bounded rationality recognizes that individuals aim to make rational decisions within the constraints they face in the real world.

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  • 20. 

    How much difference did gender make to the behavior of Milgram's subjects in his famous obedience experiments?

    • A.

      Men were substantially more likely than women to obey authority

    • B.

      Men were slightly more likely than women to obey authority

    • C.

      Women were more likely than men to obey authority

    • D.

      Gender made no difference

    Correct Answer
    D. Gender made no difference
    Explanation
    In Milgram's famous obedience experiments, the correct answer is that gender made no difference. This means that there was no significant variation in the behavior of men and women when it came to obeying authority. The study suggests that both genders were equally likely to comply with the instructions given by the authority figure in the experiments.

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  • 21. 

     Which of the following were used early in the class to illustrate the power of situational pressures?

    • A.

      The murder of Kitty Genovese

    • B.

      The Challenger disaster

    • C.

      Obedience among ordinary Germans during the Holocaust

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed were used early in the class to illustrate the power of situational pressures. The murder of Kitty Genovese demonstrated the bystander effect, where individuals are less likely to intervene in an emergency situation when there are others present. The Challenger disaster highlighted the influence of groupthink and the pressure to conform to group decisions, even when it goes against individual judgment. Obedience among ordinary Germans during the Holocaust showcased the impact of authority figures and the willingness of individuals to follow orders, even if it involves immoral actions.

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  • 22. 

    The example of the soccer player George Best is used in the textbook primarily to show:

    • A.

      The effectiveness of classical conditioning

    • B.

      The fact that conditioning often fails

    • C.

      The moral problems associated with conditioning

    • D.

      The effectiveness of operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    B. The fact that conditioning often fails
    Explanation
    The example of the soccer player George Best is used in the textbook primarily to show the fact that conditioning often fails. This suggests that even though conditioning techniques may be employed, they do not always yield the desired results. George Best was a talented soccer player but struggled with alcoholism, which indicates that conditioning was not successful in preventing or overcoming his addiction. This example serves as a reminder that conditioning is not always effective and can have limitations.

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  • 23. 

    The working conditions of Adolf Eichmann were compared to what in class?

    • A.

      Those of Oskar Schindler

    • B.

      The way in which obedience fell when tasks were parceled out in Milgram's experiments

    • C.

      The way in which obedience rose when tasks were parceled out in Milgram's experiments

    • D.

      Those of Hannah Arendt

    Correct Answer
    C. The way in which obedience rose when tasks were parceled out in Milgram's experiments
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that Adolf Eichmann's working conditions were compared to the way in which obedience rose when tasks were parceled out in Milgram's experiments. This comparison suggests that Eichmann's working conditions involved a hierarchical structure where individuals were given specific tasks and were expected to obey orders without question, similar to the obedience observed in Milgram's experiments. This implies that Eichmann's working conditions were characterized by a strict adherence to authority and a lack of personal autonomy.

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  • 24. 

    What happens when the 'ego' is threatened, according to Sigmund Freud?

    • A.

      We allow the id free rein

    • B.

      We resort to the superego

    • C.

      We resort to defense mechanism

    • D.

      We become conscious of all our unconscious processes

    Correct Answer
    C. We resort to defense mechanism
    Explanation
    When the 'ego' is threatened, according to Sigmund Freud, we resort to defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological strategies that the ego uses to protect itself from anxiety and maintain a sense of psychological balance. These mechanisms can include denial, repression, projection, and rationalization, among others. By employing defense mechanisms, the ego attempts to reduce or redirect the anxiety caused by the threat, allowing the individual to cope with the situation and protect their self-esteem.

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  • 25. 

    According to the class textbook, Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange was intended in large part to be:

    • A.

      A defense of behaviorism

    • B.

      A defense of violence

    • C.

      An essay on the benefits of classical conditioning in particular

    • D.

      An attack upon behaviorism

    Correct Answer
    D. An attack upon behaviorism
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange can be understood as an attack upon behaviorism. The book criticizes behaviorism, which is a psychological theory that suggests human behavior can be controlled and modified through conditioning. Burgess's intention in the novel seems to be to challenge the idea that conditioning can completely eliminate free will and individuality, as depicted through the protagonist's struggle against the oppressive conditioning techniques imposed on him. The book can be seen as a critique of behaviorism's potential dangers and its potential to dehumanize individuals.

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  • 26. 

    Harold Lasswell's main argument in much of his work was that:

    • A.

      The 'cognitive revolution' is transforming how we view political events

    • B.

      Schemas are used to store information in memory

    • C.

      Sigmund Freud's theories cannot be used to understand politics

    • D.

      The 'political personality' results from the displacement of private problems onto public life

    Correct Answer
    D. The 'political personality' results from the displacement of private problems onto public life
    Explanation
    Harold Lasswell's main argument in much of his work was that the 'political personality' results from the displacement of private problems onto public life. This means that individuals often project their personal issues and conflicts onto the political sphere, which can influence their political beliefs and actions. Lasswell believed that understanding the psychological motivations behind political behavior is crucial for comprehending political events and dynamics. By examining how personal problems manifest in public life, Lasswell aimed to provide insights into the complexities of politics and human behavior.

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  • 27. 

    The essence of Anthony Burgess's commentary on behaviorism is basically which of the following?

    • A.

      The ability to choose is what makes us human

    • B.

      Conditioning can never actually work

    • C.

      Rape and violence are actually socially desirable

    • D.

      Human choice is an illusion

    Correct Answer
    A. The ability to choose is what makes us human
    Explanation
    In Anthony Burgess's commentary on behaviorism, he argues that the ability to choose is what distinguishes humans from other beings. This implies that human beings have free will and are not solely determined by external stimuli or conditioning. Burgess suggests that our capacity to make choices is a fundamental aspect of our humanity.

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  • 28. 

    B.F. Skinner argued all of the following in defense of behaviorism, EXCEPT:

    • A.

      We are all conditioned already, but haphazardly

    • B.

      The social benefits of deliberate conditioning greatly outweigh the costs

    • C.

      The idea that we have real 'choices' is illusory

    • D.

      It is difficult to decide what should be conditioned in or out of human beings

    Correct Answer
    D. It is difficult to decide what should be conditioned in or out of human beings
    Explanation
    Skinner argued that all individuals are already conditioned, but not haphazardly. He believed that deliberate conditioning can bring about social benefits that outweigh the costs. He also argued that the perception of having real choices is illusory. However, he did not argue that it is difficult to decide what should be conditioned in or out of human beings.

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  • 29. 

    When Milgram placed the subject doing the 'shocking' and the 'victim' in the same room, what happened to the observed level of obedience?

    • A.

      It rose markedly to 80%

    • B.

      It fell to about 20%

    • C.

      It rose only slightly

    • D.

      It stayed the same

    Correct Answer
    B. It fell to about 20%
    Explanation
    When Milgram placed the subject doing the 'shocking' and the 'victim' in the same room, the observed level of obedience fell to about 20%. This suggests that when the subject was in close proximity to the victim, they were less likely to comply with the experimenter's orders to administer electric shocks. This could be due to the increased empathy and personal connection that comes from being physically near the victim, making it more difficult for the subject to harm them.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is a leading problem associated with using Milgram's findings as an explanantion of real world obedience outside the laboratory?

    • A.

      Milgram relies too heavily on Freudian, psychoanalytical concepts

    • B.

      Milgram says relatively little about dehumanization, a major factor in many genocidal events

    • C.

      Milgram provides no real explanation for why human beings obey authority

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Milgram says relatively little about dehumanization, a major factor in many genocidal events
    Explanation
    Milgram's findings on obedience may not fully explain real-world obedience outside the laboratory because he does not extensively discuss the role of dehumanization, which is a significant factor in many genocidal events. While Milgram's experiments shed light on the power of authority in influencing obedience, they do not address the dehumanizing processes that often occur in real-world situations. This limitation suggests that Milgram's findings may not fully capture the complexity of obedience in real-life contexts where dehumanization plays a crucial role.

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  • 31. 

    The Pavlov's dog experiment illustrated which form of behavioral conditioning?

    • A.

      Negative

    • B.

      Operant

    • C.

      Classical

    • D.

      Positive

    Correct Answer
    C. Classical
    Explanation
    The Pavlov's dog experiment illustrated classical conditioning. In this experiment, Pavlov conditioned dogs to associate the sound of a bell with the presentation of food. Eventually, the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the bell alone, even without the presence of food. This demonstrates classical conditioning, where a neutral stimulus (the bell) becomes associated with a natural response (salivation) through repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (food).

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  • 32. 

    JFK's handling of the Cuban missile crisis was presented in the textbook as a good example of:

    • A.

      Dispositionism

    • B.

      Situationism

    • C.

      Homo Economicus

    • D.

      Freudian psychoanalytic theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Dispositionism
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Dispositionism. Dispositionism refers to the belief that an individual's behavior is primarily influenced by their internal traits, characteristics, and dispositions. JFK's handling of the Cuban missile crisis can be seen as a good example of dispositionism because he demonstrated strong leadership, decision-making skills, and a calm demeanor during a highly stressful and dangerous situation. This suggests that JFK's actions were influenced by his personal qualities and traits rather than external situational factors.

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  • 33. 

    According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following acts as a mediator between the 'childlike' and 'moral' elements of our mental processes?

    • A.

      The ego

    • B.

      The id

    • C.

      The superego

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. The ego
    Explanation
    The ego, according to Sigmund Freud, acts as a mediator between the 'childlike' and 'moral' elements of our mental processes. It operates based on the reality principle, balancing the desires of the id and the moral constraints of the superego. The ego helps to find realistic and socially acceptable ways to fulfill our desires while considering the consequences and moral values.

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  • 34. 

    When Milgram divided up responsibility for 'shocking' the victim among several individuals, what happened to the level of observed obedience?

    • A.

      It fell slightly

    • B.

      It stayed the same

    • C.

      It fell markedly

    • D.

      It rose

    Correct Answer
    D. It rose
    Explanation
    When Milgram divided up responsibility for 'shocking' the victim among several individuals, the level of observed obedience rose. This means that when the responsibility was shared among multiple people, the participants were more likely to comply with the instructions and continue administering shocks. This could be due to diffusion of responsibility, as individuals may feel less accountable when others are also involved in the decision-making process.

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  • 35. 

    Classical conditioning deals with the learning of:

    • A.

      Involuntary responses

    • B.

      Voluntary responses

    • C.

      Salivation alone

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Involuntary responses
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning is a type of learning that focuses on involuntary responses. It involves associating a neutral stimulus with a naturally occurring stimulus to create a learned response. This learned response is not under conscious control and is therefore considered involuntary. This is why classical conditioning is primarily concerned with the learning of involuntary responses rather than voluntary responses.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is not true of the early years in the study of political psychology?

    • A.

      It was dominated by cognitive psychological approaches

    • B.

      It was dominated by personality studies

    • C.

      It was dominated by Freudian/psychoanalytics theory

    • D.

      One of its earliest advocates was the political scientist Harold Laswell

    Correct Answer
    A. It was dominated by cognitive psychological approaches
    Explanation
    The statement that the early years in the study of political psychology were dominated by cognitive psychological approaches is not true. This means that cognitive psychological approaches did not dominate the field during its early years.

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  • 37. 

    The film A clockwork Orange depicts:

    • A.

      Milgram's Obedience experiments

    • B.

      B.F. Skinner's behaviorist experiments

    • C.

      An actual case of operant conditioning

    • D.

      A fictional case of operant conditioning

    Correct Answer
    D. A fictional case of operant conditioning
    Explanation
    The film A Clockwork Orange depicts a fictional case of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened or weakened by the consequences that follow it. In the film, the main character, Alex, undergoes a form of conditioning called the Ludovico Technique, which involves pairing violent images with nausea-inducing drugs to suppress his violent tendencies. This fictional case illustrates the concept of operant conditioning by showing how behavior can be manipulated and controlled through the use of conditioning techniques.

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  • 38. 

    When did political psychology become widely available as a university course in its own right?

    • A.

      The 1990s

    • B.

      The 1940s

    • C.

      The 1970s

    • D.

      The 1920s

    Correct Answer
    C. The 1970s
    Explanation
    Political psychology became widely available as a university course in its own right in the 1970s. This suggests that prior to this decade, political psychology was not recognized as a distinct field of study within universities. The emergence of political psychology as a separate discipline in the 1970s highlights the growing recognition of the importance of understanding the psychological factors that influence political behavior and decision-making.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is true of authoritarian personality theory?

    • A.

      Its strongest supporter was Stanley Milgram

    • B.

      It blames the characteristics of Germans themselves for the Holocaust

    • C.

      It argues that situational forces caused the Holocaust

    • D.

      It argues that most ordinary

    Correct Answer
    B. It blames the characteristics of Germans themselves for the Holocaust
    Explanation
    The authoritarian personality theory suggests that the characteristics of Germans themselves were to blame for the Holocaust. This theory proposes that individuals with authoritarian personalities are more likely to follow orders from authority figures, even if those orders involve committing immoral or unethical acts. Therefore, the theory argues that it was the characteristics of the German people, specifically their susceptibility to authoritarianism, that contributed to the occurrence of the Holocaust.

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  • 40. 

    The 'Lord of the Flies' effect was used in the class textbook in the discussion of what?

    • A.

      The tendency of Milgram's subjects to blindly obey

    • B.

      Difficulties with the rational actor model

    • C.

      The tendency of Zimbardo's subjects to 'go bad'

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The tendency of Zimbardo's subjects to 'go bad'
    Explanation
    The 'Lord of the Flies' effect refers to the idea that in certain situations, individuals may exhibit aggressive and violent behavior when there is a lack of authority or societal norms. This effect was used in the class textbook to discuss the tendency of Zimbardo's subjects to 'go bad'. Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrated that when placed in a simulated prison environment, ordinary college students quickly adopted aggressive and abusive behavior towards their fellow participants, highlighting the influence of situational factors on individual behavior. This explanation aligns with the given correct answer.

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  • 41. 

    Behaviorists would subscribe to all of the following beliefs, except:

    • A.

      We should study only that which can be measured

    • B.

      Objective science studies only observable behavior

    • C.

      It is possible to alter people's behavior through conditioning

    • D.

      The human mind can be studied scientifically

    Correct Answer
    D. The human mind can be studied scientifically
    Explanation
    Behaviorists believe that the human mind cannot be studied scientifically. This is because behaviorists focus solely on observable behavior and believe that only measurable aspects of behavior should be studied. They argue that the mind and its processes are not directly observable and therefore cannot be studied scientifically. Instead, behaviorists focus on studying behavior and how it can be influenced and altered through conditioning techniques.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following can be regarded as 'defense mechanisms' in Freud's theory?

    • A.

      Denial

    • B.

      Projection

    • C.

      Repression

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    In Freud's theory, defense mechanisms are psychological strategies that individuals use to protect themselves from anxiety or distress. Denial is a defense mechanism where a person refuses to acknowledge a threatening or uncomfortable reality. Projection is when someone attributes their own unacceptable thoughts or feelings onto someone else. Repression involves pushing unwanted thoughts or memories into the unconscious mind. All three options - denial, projection, and repression - can be considered defense mechanisms according to Freud's theory.

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  • 43. 

    The possibility that a president other than George W. Bush might not have chosen to invade Iraq was given in the textbook in support of what kind of argument?

    • A.

      Behaviorist

    • B.

      Situaitonist

    • C.

      Dispositionist

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Dispositionist
    Explanation
    The possibility that a president other than George W. Bush might not have chosen to invade Iraq supports a dispositionist argument. Dispositionism is a perspective that emphasizes the role of individual characteristics, such as personality traits or beliefs, in shaping behavior. In this case, the argument suggests that the decision to invade Iraq was influenced by Bush's personal disposition or beliefs, implying that another president with different dispositions may have made a different choice.

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  • 44. 

    According to Sigmund Freud, the 'pleasure principle' refers to which of the following?

    • A.

      The sexual impulse

    • B.

      The aggressive impulse

    • C.

      Both A and B

    • D.

      His own lifelong love of cigars

    Correct Answer
    C. Both A and B
    Explanation
    According to Sigmund Freud, the 'pleasure principle' refers to both the sexual impulse and the aggressive impulse. Freud believed that human behavior is driven by these two primal instincts, seeking pleasure and avoiding pain. The sexual impulse represents the desire for pleasure and reproduction, while the aggressive impulse represents the drive to assert dominance and eliminate threats. These two impulses are considered fundamental aspects of human nature and play a significant role in shaping our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Freud's psychoanalytic theory revolves around understanding and balancing these impulses for psychological well-being.

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  • 45. 

    Milgram argued that some of his subjects laughed during the experiments because:

    • A.

      Most of them thought his tricky experimental design amusing

    • B.

      It was a nervous reaction to stress

    • C.

      Most actually enjoyed shocking the learner

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. It was a nervous reaction to stress
    Explanation
    Milgram argued that some of his subjects laughed during the experiments because it was a nervous reaction to stress. The participants were placed in a highly stressful situation where they were instructed to administer electric shocks to another person. Laughing can be a common response to alleviate tension and anxiety. It is likely that the subjects found the situation so overwhelming and uncomfortable that laughing became a coping mechanism for them. Therefore, the laughter can be seen as a manifestation of their nervousness in response to the stress of the experiment.

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  • 46. 

    The notion that human beings generally 'satisfice' when they make decisions is associated with:

    • A.

      Homo Economicus

    • B.

      Homo Psychologicus

    • C.

      Cognitive consistency theory

    • D.

      The rational actor approach

    Correct Answer
    B. Homo Psychologicus
    Explanation
    The notion that human beings generally 'satisfice' when they make decisions is associated with Homo Psychologicus. This concept suggests that individuals often settle for satisfactory or "good enough" options rather than trying to maximize their outcomes. It recognizes that human decision-making is influenced by psychological factors such as emotions, biases, and cognitive limitations, which may lead to suboptimal choices. This contrasts with the rational actor approach, which assumes that individuals always make decisions based on a rational analysis of costs and benefits.

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  • 47. 

    If you were sitting in a movie theater which caught fire and literally everone ecavcuated the building immediately, this would be an especially good example of:

    • A.

      Bounded rationality

    • B.

      Satisficing

    • C.

      Dispositionism

    • D.

      Situationism

    Correct Answer
    D. Situationism
    Explanation
    The given scenario of a movie theater catching fire and everyone evacuating immediately exemplifies situationism. Situationism refers to the idea that people's behavior is largely influenced by the situation or context they are in, rather than their personal dispositions or traits. In this case, the situation of a fire in the theater prompts everyone to prioritize their safety and evacuate, regardless of their individual characteristics or decision-making processes.

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  • 48. 

    What was the result of an ABC News 're-run' of the Milgram experiment conducted recently?

    • A.

      Both men and women today were found to be just as obedience as in Milgram's original study

    • B.

      Women were found to be just as obedient today as in Milgram's original study but men were found to be more obedient

    • C.

      Men were found to be just as obedient today as in Milgram's original study but women were found to be more obedient

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Men were found to be just as obedient today as in Milgram's original study but women were found to be more obedient
    Explanation
    In the recent re-run of the Milgram experiment conducted by ABC News, it was found that men were just as obedient as they were in Milgram's original study. However, women were found to be more obedient compared to the original study. This suggests that gender may play a role in obedience levels, with women showing higher levels of obedience in this re-run.

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  • 49. 

    According to the textbook and classes, why did Phillip Zimbardo make use of M.C. Escher's 'Circle Limit IV' in his book The Lucifer Effect?

    • A.

      It suggests that there is a thin line between good and evil

    • B.

      It suggests that we are all capable of evil

    • C.

      It suggests that we should not categorize human beings as falling into fixed, unchangeable categories

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Phillip Zimbardo made use of M.C. Escher's 'Circle Limit IV' in his book The Lucifer Effect because it suggests that there is a thin line between good and evil, implying that individuals have the potential to engage in both positive and negative behaviors. Additionally, the artwork suggests that we should not categorize human beings as falling into fixed, unchangeable categories, highlighting the importance of recognizing the complexity and fluidity of human nature. Therefore, all of the above reasons contribute to Zimbardo's decision to include the artwork in his book.

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  • 50. 

    The so-called 'bad-barrel' theory is a good example of:

    • A.

      Analogical reasoning

    • B.

      Cognitivism

    • C.

      Situationism

    • D.

      Dispositionism

    Correct Answer
    C. Situationism
    Explanation
    Situationism is the correct answer because the "bad-barrel" theory suggests that people's behavior is primarily influenced by their environment or the situation they are in, rather than their individual disposition or character. This theory challenges the idea of dispositionism, which posits that behavior is primarily determined by an individual's internal traits or personality. Situationism emphasizes the importance of external factors in shaping behavior and highlights the role of situational factors in determining actions and decisions.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 23, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Marc2288
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