Pharmacology Week 2: Interactions And Adverse Reactions

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| By Mike Pogge
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Mike Pogge
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 453
Questions: 20 | Attempts: 456

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Pharmacology Week 2: Interactions And Adverse Reactions - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following happens during a Hypersensitivity Type I reaction? (Select all that apply)

    • A.

      Production of antibodies in response to an allergen (typically IgE as a mediator)

    • B.

      Mast Cell activation as a result of response to an allergen leads to histamine release

    • C.

      Systemic reaction or localized reaction to specific tissue or organ

    • D.

      Vasodilation, smooth muscle spasm/contraction, increased membrane permeability (aka - anaphylaxis)

    • E.

      Excessive mucous production and forceful coughing due to dermatitis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Production of antibodies in response to an allergen (typically IgE as a mediator)
    B. Mast Cell activation as a result of response to an allergen leads to histamine release
    C. Systemic reaction or localized reaction to specific tissue or organ
    D. Vasodilation, smooth muscle spasm/contraction, increased membrane permeability (aka - anaphylaxis)
    Explanation
    During a Hypersensitivity Type I reaction, the body produces antibodies, typically IgE, in response to an allergen. This leads to the activation of mast cells, which release histamine. This histamine release causes vasodilation, smooth muscle spasm/contraction, and increased membrane permeability, resulting in a systemic or localized reaction in specific tissues or organs. Excessive mucous production and forceful coughing due to dermatitis are not associated with a Hypersensitivity Type I reaction.

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  • 2. 

    What is the first-line treatment for anaphylaxis (severe allergic reaction)?

    • A.

      Epinephrine

    • B.

      Diphenhydramine

    • C.

      Corticosteroids

    • D.

      Ranitidine 

    Correct Answer
    A. Epinephrine
    Explanation
    Epinephrine

    (Causes vasoconstriction to reduce third spacing and bronchodilation to open airways)

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  • 3. 

    What is the second-line treatment for anaphylaxis (severe allergic reaction)?

    • A.

      Diphenhydramine

    • B.

      Ranitidine 

    • C.

      Corticosteroids

    • D.

      Epinephrine

    Correct Answer
    A. Diphenhydramine
    Explanation
    Antihistamines (diphenhydramine (aka Benadryl) is usually the drug of choice)

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  • 4. 

    What is the third-line treatment for anaphylaxis (severe allergic reaction)?

    • A.

      Diphenhydramine

    • B.

      Epinephrine

    • C.

      Ranitidine 

    • D.

      Corticosteroids

    Correct Answer
    D. Corticosteroids
    Explanation
    Corticosteroids (to prevent delayed reaction)

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not a Right of Medication Administration?

    • A.

      Patient

    • B.

      Medication

    • C.

      Route

    • D.

      Time

    • E.

      Environment

    • F.

      Dose

    • G.

      Indication

    Correct Answer
    E. Environment
    Explanation
    Environment is not a part of the Right of medication administration

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  • 6. 

    The Joint Commission requires 3 patient identifiers when giving a medication.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The Joint Commission requires Two patient identifiers when giving a medication (Typically name and date of birth are used)

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  • 7. 

    Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) are the nontherapeutic, unintended effects of a drug that occur at a therapeutic dose.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) ARE the nontherapeutic, unintended effects of a drug that occur at a therapeutic dose. They may be predictable, well known, or unpredictable and not well known. They can also range from annoying yet tolerable to life threatening.

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  • 8. 

    An anaphylactic reaction is considered which type of Hypersensitivity?

    • A.

      Hypersensitivity I

    • B.

      Hypersensitivity II

    • C.

      Hypersensitivity III

    • D.

      Hypersensitivity IV

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypersensitivity I
    Explanation
    An anaphylactic reaction is considered Hypersensitivity Type I

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following are considered symptoms of Steven-Johnson Syndrome?

    • A.

      Blisters on skin and mucous membranes of mouth

    • B.

      Hepatomegaly

    • C.

      Red or purple rash

    • D.

      Facial and tongue swelling

    • E.

      Hives

    • F.

      Skin Pain and shedding

    • G.

      Altered mental status

    • H.

      Fever, sore throat, fatigue, cough

    • I.

      Hypertension

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Blisters on skin and mucous membranes of mouth
    C. Red or purple rash
    D. Facial and tongue swelling
    E. Hives
    F. Skin Pain and shedding
    H. Fever, sore throat, fatigue, cough
    Explanation
    Steven-Johnson Syndrome is a rare and serious reaction to medications or infections (especially antibiotics) which requires immediate and advanced intervention. Often times the symptoms can be confused with Hand, Foot, and Mouth disease.

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  • 10. 

    A medication error is ANY unpreventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or HARM to a patient including death.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Medication errors are PREVENTABLE

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following can typically be found on Medication Orders?

    • A.

      Client's name

    • B.

      Date/time of order

    • C.

      Medication name

    • D.

      Price of medication

    • E.

      Medication Dosage

    • F.

      Administration Route

    • G.

      Timing and frequency

    • H.

      Parameters/Indications

    • I.

      Insurance provider

    • J.

      Signature of provider ordering medication

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Client's name
    B. Date/time of order
    C. Medication name
    E. Medication Dosage
    F. Administration Route
    G. Timing and frequency
    H. Parameters/Indications
    J. Signature of provider ordering medication
    Explanation
    Medication orders typically include the client's name, date/time of the order, medication name, medication dosage, administration route, timing and frequency, parameters/indications, and the signature of the provider ordering the medication. These elements are necessary for ensuring accurate and safe medication administration. The client's name is needed to ensure that the medication is intended for the correct individual. The date/time of the order is important for tracking when the medication was prescribed. The medication name, dosage, administration route, timing and frequency, and parameters/indications provide specific instructions for the medication administration. The signature of the provider ordering the medication is necessary for accountability and legal purposes.

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  • 12. 

    An additive drug effect:

    • A.

      Happens when 1 + 1 = 1

    • B.

      Happens when 1 + 1 = 3

    • C.

      Happens when 1 + 1 = 2

    • D.

      Happens when 1 + 1 = -1

    Correct Answer
    C. Happens when 1 + 1 = 2
    Explanation
    An additive drug effect happens when 1 Drug + 1 Drug = 2 Drug effects in 1
    Synergism and poteniation is when 1 Drug + 1 Drug = 3 Drug effects in 1 (Oxycodone and Tylenol are often given together because they both make the other work better 1 + 1 = 3)

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  • 13. 

    Poly-pharmacy describes

    • A.

      Strain placed on a patient due to having to secure medications from multiple places

    • B.

      The concurrent use of multiple medications that are often medically unnecessary

    • C.

      A drug with multiple pharmaceutical uses

    • D.

      The requirement for multiple doses to be used to reach an otherwise therapeutic level of care for a patient

    Correct Answer
    B. The concurrent use of multiple medications that are often medically unnecessary
    Explanation
    Poly-pharmacy describes the concurrent use of multiple medications that are often medically unnecessary. Current data indicates that upwards of 40% of elderly patients living in their own homes and 21% of adults with intellectual disability are experiencing poly-pharmacy.

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  • 14. 

    Drug to drug interactions increase by:

    • A.

      20% for 2 drugs and ~90% for 5 drugs

    • B.

      80% for 3 drugs and ~100% for 6 drugs

    • C.

      12% for 2 drugs and ~26% for 5 drugs

    • D.

      38% for 3 drugs and ~62% for 6 drugs

    Correct Answer
    A. 20% for 2 drugs and ~90% for 5 drugs
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the drug to drug interactions increase by 20% for 2 drugs and approximately 90% for 5 drugs. This means that when two drugs are taken together, there is a 20% increase in the likelihood of interactions occurring. Similarly, when five drugs are taken together, the likelihood of interactions increases by approximately 90%. This suggests that the more drugs are taken simultaneously, the higher the risk of potential interactions between them.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following are provider concerns related to OTC Medications?

    • A.

      Unclear Ingredients

    • B.

      Manufacturer Reputation

    • C.

      Cost

    • D.

      Self-diagnosis & treatment

    • E.

      Overdose risk

    • F.

      Risk of drug-drug interactions

    • G.

      Where the medication was purchased

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Unclear Ingredients
    D. Self-diagnosis & treatment
    E. Overdose risk
    F. Risk of drug-drug interactions
    Explanation
    Provider concerns related to OTC medications include unclear ingredients, self-diagnosis and treatment, overdose risk, and risk of drug-drug interactions. Providers may be concerned about the lack of transparency regarding the ingredients in OTC medications, as this can affect their ability to effectively treat their patients. They may also be concerned about patients self-diagnosing and treating their conditions without proper medical guidance, which can lead to incorrect treatment and potential harm. Providers are also mindful of the risk of overdose with OTC medications, as patients may not always follow dosage instructions correctly. Additionally, providers are concerned about the potential for drug-drug interactions when patients take multiple OTC medications simultaneously, which can have adverse effects.

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  • 16. 

    Abnormal plasma or serum electrolyte concentration affecting certain drug therapies would be an example of:

    • A.

      Drug-induced photosensitivity

    • B.

      Drug toxicity

    • C.

      Therapeutic achievement

    • D.

      Drug-lab interactions

    Correct Answer
    D. Drug-lab interactions
    Explanation
    Abnormal plasma or serum electrolyte concentration affecting certain drug therapies would be an example of a drug-lab interaction.

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  • 17. 

    A ________ reaction happens when ultraviolet exposure changes the structure of the drug so that it is seen by the body's immune system as an invader. The allergic response causes inflammation of the skin in the sun-exposed areas.

    Correct Answer
    photoallergic, photoallergy
    Explanation
    A photoallergic reaction occurs when ultraviolet exposure alters the chemical structure of a drug, causing the body's immune system to recognize it as a foreign substance. This recognition triggers an allergic response, leading to inflammation of the skin in areas exposed to the sun. The terms "photoallergic" and "photoallergy" are used to describe this specific type of allergic reaction caused by sunlight.

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  • 18. 

    ________ are unintended pharmacologic effects that occur when a medication is administered correctly, while a ________ is a secondary unwanted effect that occurs due to drug therapy

    Correct Answer
    Adverse reaction, adverse event, adverse reactions, adverse events, adverse drug reaction, adverse drug reactions
    side effect
    Explanation
    An adverse reaction is never intended whereas a side effect can sometimes be desired.
    E.g. If diphenhydramine were used to treat an allergic reaction, and a person experienced dyspnea (difficulty breathing) and lethargy (drowsiness), the adverse event would be respiratory distress whereas a side effect would be drowsiness.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 31, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Mike Pogge
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