Pharmacology - Cardiac Function

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Pharmacology - Cardiac Function - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Clonidine

    • A.

      Antihypertensive

    • B.

      Alpha 2 agonist

    • C.

      Causes increased NE and therefore decreased HR and decreased BP

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Antihypertensive
    B. Alpha 2 agonist
    Explanation
    Clonidine is a medication that is classified as an antihypertensive and an alpha 2 agonist. As an antihypertensive, it is used to treat high blood pressure. As an alpha 2 agonist, it works by stimulating alpha 2 receptors in the brain, leading to a decrease in the release of norepinephrine (NE). This decrease in NE results in a decrease in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Therefore, the correct answer is "Antihypertensive, alpha 2 agonist."

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  • 2. 

    Metroprolol

    • A.

      Non-selective beta blocker

    • B.

      Decreases HR which lowers BP

    • C.

      Decreases renin release from kidney (helps to decrease blood volume and lower BP)

    • D.

      Decreased HR means decreased myocardial O2 requirement = reason it's useful in angina pectoris

    • E.

      Antiarrhythmic

    • F.

      Antihypertensive

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Decreases HR which lowers BP
    C. Decreases renin release from kidney (helps to decrease blood volume and lower BP)
    D. Decreased HR means decreased myocardial O2 requirement = reason it's useful in angina pectoris
    E. Antiarrhythmic
    F. Antihypertensive
    Explanation
    Metroprolol is a non-selective beta blocker that works by decreasing heart rate (HR), which in turn lowers blood pressure (BP). It also decreases renin release from the kidney, helping to decrease blood volume and further lower BP. The decrease in HR also leads to a decrease in myocardial oxygen requirement, making it useful in the treatment of angina pectoris. Additionally, metroprolol has antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive properties.

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  • 3. 

    Prazosin

    • A.

      Alpha 1 blocker

    • B.

      Causes vasoconstriction and the barroreceptors then decrease HR

    • C.

      Increases renin release to increase blood volume

    • D.

      Administer in combination with a beta-blocker or a diuretic

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Alpha 1 blocker
    C. Increases renin release to increase blood volume
    D. Administer in combination with a beta-blocker or a diuretic
    Explanation
    Prazosin is an alpha 1 blocker, which means it blocks the alpha 1 receptors in the smooth muscles of blood vessels, causing vasoconstriction. This leads to an increase in blood pressure. The baroreceptors detect the increase in blood pressure and signal the heart to decrease its rate, resulting in a decrease in heart rate. Prazosin also increases renin release, which in turn increases blood volume. To manage the potential side effects of prazosin, it is often administered in combination with a beta-blocker or a diuretic to help control blood pressure and fluid balance.

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  • 4. 

    Minoxidil

    • A.

      Opens K+ channels to cause hyperpolarization which results in vasodilation

    • B.

      Barroreceptor tries to increase HR

    • C.

      Is an antihypertensive

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Opens K+ channels to cause hyperpolarization which results in vasodilation
    B. Barroreceptor tries to increase HR
    C. Is an antihypertensive
    Explanation
    Minoxidil is an antihypertensive medication that works by opening K+ channels, leading to hyperpolarization. This hyperpolarization causes vasodilation, which helps to lower blood pressure. Additionally, when blood pressure drops, the baroreceptors in the body detect this change and try to increase heart rate in order to compensate. Therefore, minoxidil not only causes vasodilation but also triggers a reflex response to increase heart rate.

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  • 5. 

    Sodium Nitroprusside

    • A.

      Decreases cGMP in smooth muscle which causes relaxation

    • B.

      Used in patients with edema

    • C.

      Is an antihypertensive

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Used in patients with edema
    C. Is an antihypertensive
    Explanation
    INCREASE cGMP causes relaxation

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  • 6. 

    Verapamil

    • A.

      Calcium channel blocker

    • B.

      Causes vasodilation

    • C.

      Increased HR

    • D.

      Used to treat angina pectoris

    • E.

      Antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Calcium channel blocker
    B. Causes vasodilation
    D. Used to treat angina pectoris
    E. Antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic
    Explanation
    decreased Ca2+ moving into muscle causes vasodialtion
    Decreased Ca2+ into heart muscle decreases HR

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  • 7. 

    Enalapril

    • A.

      ACE inhibitor

    • B.

      Vasodilation

    • C.

      Bradykinin is the cause of vasodilation

    • D.

      Used in patients with L.ventricular failure and edema

    • E.

      Antihypertensive

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. ACE inhibitor
    B. Vasodilation
    C. Bradykinin is the cause of vasodilation
    E. Antihypertensive
    Explanation
    Good in heart failure b/c it causes decreased blood fluid because ACE isnt converting AI to AII -> which decreases the pressure the heart is working against
    Do not use in patients with edema

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  • 8. 

    Losartan

    • A.

      ACE inhibitor

    • B.

      Decreases contraction of smooth muscle

    • C.

      Used in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and no edema

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Decreases contraction of smooth muscle
    C. Used in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and no edema
    Explanation
    Not an ACE inhibitor, but an AT1 receptor blocker (ARB)

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  • 9. 

    Loop Diuretics

    • A.

      Cause decreased water absorption by inhibiting an ion cotransporter in the loop of Henle

    • B.

      Used for pulmonary edema and severe hypertension

    • C.

      Can be taken in combination with a sympatholitic and a vasodilator

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cause decreased water absorption by inhibiting an ion cotransporter in the loop of Henle
    B. Used for pulmonary edema and severe hypertension
    C. Can be taken in combination with a sympatholitic and a vasodilator
    Explanation
    Loop diuretics are a class of medications that work by inhibiting an ion cotransporter in the loop of Henle, a part of the kidney tubules. This inhibition leads to decreased reabsorption of water, resulting in increased urine production and decreased fluid volume in the body. Loop diuretics are commonly used to treat conditions such as pulmonary edema and severe hypertension, where there is a need to reduce fluid overload. In some cases, loop diuretics may be prescribed in combination with a sympatholytic (a medication that blocks the effects of the sympathetic nervous system) and a vasodilator (a medication that widens blood vessels) to further manage hypertension.

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  • 10. 

    Thiazides

    • A.

      Increase NaCl transport in the distal convoluted tubule

    • B.

      Used in patients with mild heart failure and edema

    • C.

      Useful in angina pectoris

    Correct Answer
    B. Used in patients with mild heart failure and edema
    Explanation
    Thiazides are a type of diuretic medication that increase the transport of sodium chloride in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys. This leads to increased urine production and helps to reduce fluid retention in the body. Thiazides are commonly used in patients with mild heart failure and edema, as they help to alleviate symptoms by promoting fluid excretion. They are not typically used for angina pectoris, which is a condition characterized by chest pain due to reduced blood flow to the heart.

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  • 11. 

    Digoxin

    • A.

      Inhibit Na+/K+ ATPase which increases Na+in the cell

    • B.

      Decreases intracellular Ca2+

    • C.

      Causes decreased SNS activity - decreases SNS barroreceptor response (won't get the vasodilation of blood vessels to compensate for increases HR)

    • D.

      Quinidine helps clear digoxin faster to avoid toxicity

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Inhibit Na+/K+ ATPase which increases Na+in the cell
    C. Causes decreased SNS activity - decreases SNS barroreceptor response (won't get the vasodilation of blood vessels to compensate for increases HR)
    Explanation
    Digoxin inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase, which is responsible for pumping sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell. By inhibiting this pump, digoxin increases the concentration of sodium inside the cell. This increase in intracellular sodium leads to a decrease in intracellular calcium levels. Digoxin also causes a decrease in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, which reduces the SNS baroreceptor response. This means that the blood vessels won't dilate to compensate for the increased heart rate caused by digoxin. Quinidine helps clear digoxin faster from the body to prevent toxicity.

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  • 12. 

    Nitroglycerin

    • A.

      Causes increased cGMP

    • B.

      Causes vasodilation

    • C.

      Used as an antiarrhythmic

    • D.

      Should be administered with sildenafil

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Causes increased cGMP
    B. Causes vasodilation
    Explanation
    Nitroglycerin causes increased cGMP, which in turn causes vasodilation. This means that it relaxes and widens the blood vessels, allowing for increased blood flow. This effect makes nitroglycerin useful in treating conditions such as angina, where there is a decrease in blood flow to the heart. However, it should not be administered with sildenafil, as both medications can cause a significant drop in blood pressure when taken together.

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  • 13. 

    Furosemide is a more potent diuretic then thiazides

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Furosemide is a loop diuretic that acts on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidneys. It inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions, leading to increased urine production. Thiazides, on the other hand, are a class of diuretics that act on the distal convoluted tubule in the kidneys. They inhibit the reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and water, resulting in increased urine production. Furosemide is considered more potent because it has a stronger and more rapid diuretic effect compared to thiazides.

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  • 14. 

    Sildenafil

    • A.

      Common name is Viagra

    • B.

      Inhibits phosphodiesterase

    • C.

      Causes increased cGMP

    • D.

      Contraction of smooth muscle

    • E.

      Causes tacchycardia when mixed with nitrites

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Common name is Viagra
    B. Inhibits phosphodiesterase
    C. Causes increased cGMP
    E. Causes tacchycardia when mixed with nitrites
    Explanation
    Sildenafil, commonly known as Viagra, is a medication that inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase. By inhibiting this enzyme, sildenafil causes an increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which leads to the relaxation and dilation of blood vessels, including those in the smooth muscle. However, when sildenafil is mixed with nitrites, it can cause tachycardia, an abnormally fast heart rate.

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  • 15. 

    Lidocaine

    • A.

      Na+ channel blocker

    • B.

      Causes increased excitation

    • C.

      Good antiarrhythmic

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Na+ channel blocker
    C. Good antiarrhythmic
    Explanation
    Lidocaine is a medication that acts as a sodium (Na+) channel blocker, meaning it inhibits the flow of sodium ions through the channels in the cell membranes. This blockade leads to a decrease in the excitability of cells, including cardiac cells, which can help to prevent abnormal electrical activity and arrhythmias. Therefore, lidocaine is considered a good antiarrhythmic medication.

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  • 16. 

    Amiodarone

    • A.

      K+ channel blocker

    • B.

      Decreases AP duration

    • C.

      Antihypertensive

    Correct Answer
    A. K+ channel blocker
    Explanation
    Amiodarone is a medication that acts as a potassium (K+) channel blocker. This means that it inhibits the flow of potassium ions through channels in the cell membrane, leading to a decrease in the action potential (AP) duration. By blocking these channels, amiodarone helps to regulate the electrical activity of the heart, making it useful in the treatment of certain cardiac arrhythmias. Although it has some antihypertensive effects, its primary mechanism of action is related to its ability to block potassium channels.

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  • 17. 

    Angiotensin II

    • A.

      Binds AT1 and AT2

    • B.

      Vasodilator

    • C.

      Binding AT1 presynaptically causes increased NE release

    • D.

      AT1 receptors on smooth muscle cause decreased Ca2+

    • E.

      Causes increased aldosterone and ADH which increased blood volume

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Binds AT1 and AT2
    C. Binding AT1 presynaptically causes increased NE release
    E. Causes increased aldosterone and ADH which increased blood volume
    Explanation
    Angiotensin II is a molecule that binds to both AT1 and AT2 receptors. When it binds to AT1 receptors, it causes an increase in the release of norepinephrine (NE) presynaptically. This leads to an increase in sympathetic activity. Additionally, the binding of Angiotensin II to AT1 receptors on smooth muscle causes a decrease in calcium levels, resulting in vasodilation. Angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which increase blood volume. Overall, Angiotensin II's binding to AT1 and AT2 receptors and its effects on NE release and blood volume contribute to its role as a vasoconstrictor.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • May 08, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 27, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Lvdb
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