This Is A Pharmaceutical Tests About Anticoagulants

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This Is A Pharmaceutical Tests About Anticoagulants

Anticoagulants are medicines that help prevent blood clots. They're given to people at a high risk of getting clots, to reduce their chances of developing serious conditions such as strokes and heart attacks. A blood clot is a seal created by the blood to stop bleeding from wounds. This is a pharmaceutical tests about Anticoagulants


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What causes clot formation?
    • A. 

      Slowing of blood (atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, heart attack, bed rest, paralysis).

    • B. 

      Abnormal surfaces in contact with blood (vascular injury, heart valve replacement or disease, atherosclerosis).

    • C. 

      Abnormalities in endogenous anti-clotting factors (protein C and S deficiency, antithrombin).

    • D. 

      Estrogen therapy.

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 2. 
    After tissue injury, place the following events in the correct order. A. von Willebrand factors attracts plateletsB. Platelets secrete ADP - attracts more plateletsC. Collage is exposed, activating plateletsD. Platelets secrete serotonin and thromboxane A2 - vasoconstriction
    • A. 

      A, B, C, D

    • B. 

      C, A, D, B

    • C. 

      C, B, D, A

    • D. 

      D, C, A, B

    • E. 

      B, D, A, B

  • 3. 
    What are the steps in fibrin formation?
    • A. 

      "Tissue factor" or thromboplastin is released from endothelial wall.

    • B. 

      Contact of blood with collagen.

    • C. 

      Clots bind thromboxane A2.

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 4. 
    Proteins C and S are dependent on which vitamin for synthesis?
    • A. 

      Vitamin C

    • B. 

      Vitamin B

    • C. 

      Vitamin E

    • D. 

      Vitamin K

    • E. 

      Vitamin A

  • 5. 
    What might cause a deficiency in Prothrombin (factor II) or in Stuart-Prower factor (factor X)?
    • A. 

      Liver disease

    • B. 

      Renal disease

    • C. 

      Vitamin K deficiency

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      A and C

    • F. 

      A, B, and C

  • 6. 
    Why can't Heparin be administered orally?
    • A. 

      It is large.

    • B. 

      It is negatively charged.

    • C. 

      It contains too much magnesium.

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 7. 
    What does heparin inhibit?
    • A. 

      The coversion of prothrombin to thrombin.

    • B. 

      The conversion of thrombin to prothrombin.

    • C. 

      The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.

    • D. 

      The conversion of fibrin to fibrinogen.

    • E. 

      A and C

    • F. 

      C and A

  • 8. 
    Heparin also has a:
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate binding activity.

    • B. 

      Vitamin clearing activity.

    • C. 

      Lipid clearing activity.

    • D. 

      Hepatotoxic effect.

    • E. 

      Renal toxic effect.

  • 9. 
    How can heparin be administered?
    • A. 

      IV

    • B. 

      SQ

    • C. 

      Orally

    • D. 

      IM

    • E. 

      A and C

    • F. 

      A and B

  • 10. 
    Heparin is metabolized in the:
    • A. 

      Liver

    • B. 

      Kindeys

    • C. 

      Lungs

    • D. 

      GI tract

  • 11. 
    Heparin metabolites are excreted in the:
    • A. 

      Liver

    • B. 

      Kidneys

    • C. 

      Lungs

    • D. 

      GI tract

  • 12. 
    Is heparin ok in pregnancy?
    • A. 

      Yes.

    • B. 

      No.

  • 13. 
    Heparin's adverse effects include:
    • A. 

      Hypersensitivity

    • B. 

      Osteoporosis

    • C. 

      Alopecia

    • D. 

      Hemorrhage

    • E. 

      Thrombocytopenia

    • F. 

      Thromboembolism

    • G. 

      All of the above.

  • 14. 
    Which drugs is used in the treatment of heparin toxicity?
    • A. 

      Warfarin

    • B. 

      Niacin

    • C. 

      Ezetimbie

    • D. 

      Protamine

    • E. 

      Tetracycline

  • 15. 
    Low molecular weight heparins include which of the following:
    • A. 

      Enoxaparin (Lovenox)

    • B. 

      Warfarin

    • C. 

      Coumadin

    • D. 

      Dalteparin (Fragmin)

    • E. 

      Tinzaparin (Innohep)

    • F. 

      A, D, and E.

    • G. 

      A, C, and B.

  • 16. 
    What is the mechanism of action of LMWH and why is it different than heparin?
    • A. 

      It inactivates IIa via antithrombin but has little effect at Xa because it is too short for thrombin binding.

    • B. 

      It inactivates Xa but has little inactivation at IIa (thrombin) via antithrombin because chains are too short for thrombin binding.

    • C. 

      It has the same mechanism of action of heparin.

  • 17. 
    What are the benefits of LMWHs?
    • A. 

      Longer half-lives.

    • B. 

      High bioavailability.

    • C. 

      Less liver clearance and binding to macrophages.

    • D. 

      Less non-specific binding with tissues.

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 18. 
    Which of the following is a synthetic pentasaccharide identical to the antithrombin binding region of heparin?
    • A. 

      Enoxaparin

    • B. 

      Dalteparin

    • C. 

      Tinzaparin

    • D. 

      Fondaparinux

  • 19. 
    What factor is inhibited by Fondaparinux (Arixtra) in conjunction with antithrombin?
    • A. 

      IIa

    • B. 

      VI

    • C. 

      III

    • D. 

      Xa

    • E. 

      Xb

  • 20. 
    Which drug is an irreversible direct thrombin inhibitor that is used in place of heparin when HIT is an issue?
    • A. 

      Argatroban (Acova)

    • B. 

      Bivalirudin (Angiomax)

    • C. 

      Lepirudin (Refludan)

    • D. 

      Desirudin (Iparavask)

  • 21. 
    Which drug is a direct reversible thrombin inhibitor used to treat thrombosis in HIT?
    • A. 

      Argatroban (Acova)

    • B. 

      Lepirudin (Refludan)

    • C. 

      Bivalirudin (Angiomax)

    • D. 

      Desirudin (Iparavask)

  • 22. 
    Which drug is a direct thrombin reversible inhibitor given in combination with aspirin to prevent clot formation with unstable angina undergoing coronary angioplasty?
    • A. 

      Argatroban (Acova)

    • B. 

      Lepirudin (Refludan)

    • C. 

      Desirudin (Iparavask)

    • D. 

      Bivalirudin (Angiomax)

  • 23. 
    Which drug is a direct thrombin almost irreversible inhibitor used for DVT prevention in hip replacements?
    • A. 

      Desirudin (Iparavask)

    • B. 

      Bivalirudin (Angiomax)

    • C. 

      Argatroban (Acova)

    • D. 

      Lepirudin (Refludan)

  • 24. 
    Which drug acts by competitive inhibition of vitamin K reductase?
    • A. 

      Desirudin (Iparavask)

    • B. 

      Warfarin

    • C. 

      Heparin

    • D. 

      Ezetimibe

    • E. 

      Niacin

  • 25. 
    How much time is required for peak anticoagulant effect of Warfarin?
    • A. 

      3 hours

    • B. 

      1 day

    • C. 

      1 week

    • D. 

      3 days

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