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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Insulin inhibits the release of _______. 

    • A.

      Glucagon

    • B.

      ADH

    • C.

      Beta cells

    • D.

      Somatostatin

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucagon
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. It works by promoting the uptake and storage of glucose in cells, thereby lowering blood sugar levels. Glucagon, on the other hand, is a hormone that has the opposite effect of insulin. It stimulates the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream, raising blood sugar levels. Therefore, insulin inhibits the release of glucagon, preventing the increase of blood sugar levels.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is caused by insulin release? 

    • A.

      Increased breakdown of fats

    • B.

      Increase breakdown of proteins

    • C.

      Decreased blood sugar

    • D.

      Causes glucose to be phosphorylated in kidney

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased blood sugar
    Explanation
    Insulin release causes decreased blood sugar because insulin is a hormone that helps regulate glucose levels in the blood. When insulin is released, it stimulates the uptake of glucose by cells, particularly muscle and fat cells, which leads to a decrease in the amount of glucose circulating in the blood. This helps to maintain blood sugar levels within a normal range.

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  • 3. 

    Glucagon causes increased blood sugar and causes slow breakdown of glycogen in the liver. 

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    Glucagon actually causes the release of stored glucose from the liver, which increases blood sugar levels. It does not cause a slow breakdown of glycogen in the liver. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 4. 

    As blood glucose decreases glucagon is inhibited. 

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    Glucagon is actually released when blood glucose levels are low, not inhibited. Glucagon works in opposition to insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. When blood glucose decreases, the body releases glucagon to stimulate the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is then released into the bloodstream to raise blood sugar levels. Therefore, the correct answer is FALSE.

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  • 5. 

    Glucagon increases blood levels of glucose by causing liver to breakdown glycogen. 

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Glucagon is a hormone that is released by the pancreas when blood sugar levels are low. Its main function is to increase blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to break down glycogen into glucose. This glucose is then released into the bloodstream, raising blood sugar levels. Therefore, the statement that glucagon increases blood levels of glucose by causing the liver to breakdown glycogen is true.

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  • 6. 

     Which of the following is not true about Type I DM? 

    • A.

      May be linked to autoimmunity

    • B.

      Onset usually prior to age 20

    • C.

      Beta islet cells destroyed

    • D.

      Does not require insulin injections

    Correct Answer
    D. Does not require insulin injections
    Explanation
    Type I DM, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is a chronic condition characterized by the destruction of beta islet cells in the pancreas, leading to a lack of insulin production. It is typically diagnosed in individuals before the age of 20 and may be linked to autoimmunity. Therefore, it is not true that Type I DM does not require insulin injections, as exogenous insulin is necessary to manage blood sugar levels in individuals with this condition.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not true about Type II DM? 

    • A.

      Considered adult onset diabetes

    • B.

      Cause unknown may be due to genetics

    • C.

      Require insulin 80% of cases

    • D.

      May take a drug that sensitize cells or increase insulin release

    Correct Answer
    C. Require insulin 80% of cases
    Explanation
    Type II DM, also known as adult onset diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. While it is true that the cause of Type II DM is unknown and may be due to genetics, it is not true that 80% of cases require insulin. In fact, the majority of individuals with Type II DM can manage their condition through lifestyle modifications, oral medications, and/or injectable non-insulin medications. Insulin therapy is typically reserved for cases where other treatment options have failed to adequately control blood glucose levels.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is not an effect of diabetes? 

    • A.

      Small vessel occlusion

    • B.

      Necrosis of extremities

    • C.

      Ketone Body production

    • D.

      Decreased fat metabolism

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased fat metabolism
    Explanation
    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels. Small vessel occlusion occurs in diabetes due to the damage to blood vessels caused by high blood sugar levels. Necrosis of extremities can occur in diabetes due to poor blood circulation and nerve damage. Ketone body production is a common effect of diabetes, as the body breaks down fat for energy when there is insufficient insulin. However, decreased fat metabolism is not an effect of diabetes, as diabetes is associated with increased fat metabolism due to insulin resistance.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is not an indicator of a hypoglycemic condition? 

    • A.

      Fatigue

    • B.

      Poor appetite

    • C.

      Tachycardia

    • D.

      Confusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Poor appetite
    Explanation
    Poor appetite is not an indicator of a hypoglycemic condition because it is more commonly associated with hyperglycemia or high blood sugar levels. Hypoglycemia typically presents with symptoms such as fatigue, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), and confusion due to low blood sugar levels. However, poor appetite is not a typical symptom of hypoglycemia.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is not an adverse effect of oral hypoglycemics? 

    • A.

      Hypoglycemia

    • B.

      Headache

    • C.

      Rashes

    • D.

      Projectile vomiting

    Correct Answer
    D. Projectile vomiting
    Explanation
    Projectile vomiting is not an adverse effect of oral hypoglycemics. Adverse effects of these medications typically include hypoglycemia, headache, and rashes. Projectile vomiting is not commonly associated with the use of oral hypoglycemics.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is not an adverse effect of glucagon? 

    • A.

      Allergic reaction

    • B.

      Vomiting

    • C.

      Nausea

    • D.

      Fever

    Correct Answer
    D. Fever
    Explanation
    Glucagon is a hormone that increases blood sugar levels. It is commonly used to treat severe hypoglycemia. While allergic reactions, vomiting, and nausea are known adverse effects of glucagon, fever is not typically associated with its use. Fever is more commonly seen as a symptom of an underlying condition or infection rather than a direct adverse effect of glucagon administration.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following drugs may be given as an immunosuppressant soon after onset of Type I Diabetes? 

    • A.

      Torsemide

    • B.

      Cyclosporine

    • C.

      Clofibrate

    • D.

      Ceftriaxone

    Correct Answer
    B. Cyclosporine
    Explanation
    Cyclosporine is a drug that may be given as an immunosuppressant soon after the onset of Type I Diabetes. This drug works by suppressing the immune system, which can help to prevent further damage to the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. By suppressing the immune response, cyclosporine may help to slow down the progression of the disease and preserve pancreatic function. Torsemide, Clofibrate, and Ceftriaxone are not typically used as immunosuppressants for Type I Diabetes.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not considered an endocrine hormone? 

    • A.

      Renin

    • B.

      Insulin

    • C.

      Glucagon

    • D.

      Somatostatin

    Correct Answer
    A. Renin
    Explanation
    Renin is not considered an endocrine hormone because it is not produced by an endocrine gland. Renin is an enzyme that is produced and released by special cells in the kidneys called juxtaglomerular cells. Its main function is to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance by initiating a series of reactions that ultimately lead to the production of angiotensin II, a hormone that constricts blood vessels and stimulates the release of aldosterone. While renin does have hormonal effects, it is not produced and released by an endocrine gland like the other options listed.

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  • 14. 

    What type of cells secrete glucagon? 

    • A.

      Beta cells B. C. D.

    • B.

      Alpha cells

    • C.

      Plasma cells

    • D.

      Acinar cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Alpha cells
    Explanation
    Alpha cells are the type of cells that secrete glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that is released by the alpha cells in the pancreas. It plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. This helps to increase blood sugar levels when they are too low. Beta cells, on the other hand, secrete insulin, which helps to lower blood sugar levels. Plasma cells and acinar cells are not involved in the secretion of glucagon.

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  • 15. 

    What type of cells secrete insulin? 

    • A.

      Beta cells

    • B.

      Alpha cells

    • C.

      Plasma cells

    • D.

      Acinar cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Beta cells
    Explanation
    Beta cells are the type of cells that secrete insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells to take in glucose from the bloodstream. Beta cells are found in the pancreas and make up the majority of the islets of Langerhans, which are clusters of cells that produce and release hormones. When blood sugar levels rise, beta cells release insulin to help lower them. If beta cells are damaged or destroyed, it can lead to a condition called diabetes, where the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following would not be considered an acute effect of diabetes mellitus? 

    • A.

      Polyuria

    • B.

      Weight gain

    • C.

      Polydipsia

    • D.

      Polyphagia

    Correct Answer
    B. Weight gain
    Explanation
    Weight gain would not be considered an acute effect of diabetes mellitus because diabetes typically leads to weight loss rather than weight gain. Diabetes affects the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels, leading to increased urination (polyuria), increased thirst (polydipsia), and increased hunger (polyphagia). However, weight gain is not a common symptom of diabetes and is more commonly associated with conditions such as hypothyroidism or overeating.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not an accurate test for diabetes? 

    • A.

      Glucose tolerance test

    • B.

      HbA

    • C.

      HbA

    • D.

      Fasting glucagon test

    Correct Answer
    D. Fasting glucagon test
    Explanation
    The fasting glucagon test is not an accurate test for diabetes because glucagon is a hormone that increases blood sugar levels, whereas diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Therefore, testing for glucagon levels would not provide accurate information about a person's diabetes status.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not an indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis? 

    • A.

      Hyperthermia

    • B.

      Nausea/Vomiting

    • C.

      Slow and shallow breathing

    • D.

      Psychosis leading to dementia

    Correct Answer
    C. Slow and shallow breathing
    Explanation
    Slow and shallow breathing is not an indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. Common symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include hyperthermia (high fever), nausea/vomiting, and psychosis leading to dementia. However, slow and shallow breathing is not typically associated with this condition.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is not related to a chronic diabetes mellitus condition? 

    • A.

      Atherosclerosis

    • B.

      Neuropathy

    • C.

      Glaucoma

    • D.

      Hypotension

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypotension
    Explanation
    Hypotension is not related to a chronic diabetes mellitus condition. Chronic diabetes mellitus is a long-term condition that affects the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels. Atherosclerosis, neuropathy, and glaucoma are all complications that can arise from chronic diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis refers to the hardening and narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to cardiovascular problems. Neuropathy is nerve damage that commonly affects the feet and legs in people with diabetes. Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that can cause vision loss. However, hypotension, which is low blood pressure, is not directly associated with chronic diabetes mellitus.

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  • 20. 

      Which of the following conditions is not linked to diabetic ketoacidosis? 

    • A.

      Cerebral edema

    • B.

      Arrhythmias

    • C.

      Peptic ulcers

    • D.

      Mucormycosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Peptic ulcers
    Explanation
    Peptic ulcers are not directly linked to diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones due to a lack of insulin. It is commonly associated with conditions such as cerebral edema, arrhythmias, and mucormycosis. However, peptic ulcers are typically caused by factors such as infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or the long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. While individuals with diabetes may be at a higher risk for developing peptic ulcers, they are not directly related to diabetic ketoacidosis.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 18, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    RNpedia.com
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