Pancreatic Organ (Exam Mode) By Rnpedia.Com

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Pancreatic Organ (Exam Mode) By Rnpedia.Com - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Insulin inhibits the release of _______. 

    • A.

      Glucagon

    • B.

      ADH

    • C.

      Beta cells

    • D.

      Somatostatin

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucagon
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. It works by promoting the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, thereby lowering blood sugar levels. Glucagon, on the other hand, is another hormone produced by the pancreas that has the opposite effect of insulin. It stimulates the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream, thereby raising blood sugar levels. Since insulin and glucagon have opposing actions, it makes sense that insulin would inhibit the release of glucagon.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is caused by insulin release? 

    • A.

      Increased breakdown of fats

    • B.

      Increase breakdown of proteins

    • C.

      Decreased blood sugar

    • D.

      Causes glucose to be phosphorylated in kidney

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased blood sugar
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas in response to high blood sugar levels. It helps regulate blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it can be used for energy. Insulin also promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Therefore, insulin release causes decreased blood sugar levels by increasing the uptake and storage of glucose, reducing its concentration in the bloodstream.

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  • 3. 

    Glucagon causes increased blood sugar and causes slow breakdown of glycogen in the liver. 

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    Glucagon actually causes the release of stored glucose from the liver, which leads to an increase in blood sugar levels. It also promotes the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. Therefore, the statement that glucagon causes increased blood sugar and causes slow breakdown of glycogen in the liver is false.

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  • 4. 

    As blood glucose decreases glucagon is inhibited. 

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    Glucagon is actually released when blood glucose levels decrease. It acts to increase blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and by promoting the breakdown of fats into glucose. Therefore, the statement that glucagon is inhibited as blood glucose decreases is false.

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  • 5. 

    Glucagon increases blood levels of glucose by causing liver to breakdown glycogen. 

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Glucagon is a hormone that is released by the pancreas in response to low blood sugar levels. It acts on the liver to stimulate the breakdown of glycogen, which is a stored form of glucose. This breakdown of glycogen releases glucose into the bloodstream, thereby increasing blood levels of glucose. Therefore, the statement that glucagon increases blood levels of glucose by causing the liver to breakdown glycogen is true.

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  • 6. 

     Which of the following is not true about Type I DM? 

    • A.

      May be linked to autoimmunity

    • B.

      Onset usually prior to age 20

    • C.

      Beta islet cells destroyed

    • D.

      Does not require insulin injections

    Correct Answer
    D. Does not require insulin injections
    Explanation
    Type I DM, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is a condition in which the beta islet cells in the pancreas are destroyed, leading to a lack of insulin production. This condition is usually diagnosed in individuals before the age of 20 and may be linked to autoimmunity. Since the beta islet cells are destroyed, individuals with Type I DM require insulin injections to regulate their blood sugar levels. Therefore, the statement "Does not require insulin injections" is not true about Type I DM.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not true about Type II DM? 

    • A.

      Considered adult onset diabetes

    • B.

      Cause unknown may be due to genetics

    • C.

      Require insulin 80% of cases

    • D.

      May take a drug that sensitize cells or increase insulin release

    Correct Answer
    C. Require insulin 80% of cases
    Explanation
    Type II DM, also known as adult onset diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. While it is true that the cause of Type II DM is unknown and may be due to genetics, and that individuals with Type II DM may take drugs that sensitize cells or increase insulin release, it is not true that 80% of cases require insulin. In fact, the majority of individuals with Type II DM can initially manage their condition through lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise, and may only require insulin therapy in more advanced stages or if other treatment options are ineffective.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is not an effect of diabetes? 

    • A.

      Small vessel occlusion

    • B.

      Necrosis of extremities

    • C.

      Ketone Body production

    • D.

      Decreased fat metabolism

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased fat metabolism
    Explanation
    Decreased fat metabolism is not an effect of diabetes. Diabetes is a condition characterized by high blood sugar levels, which can lead to various complications. Small vessel occlusion refers to the narrowing or blocking of small blood vessels, which can lead to organ damage. Necrosis of extremities refers to tissue death in the limbs, often caused by poor circulation. Ketone body production is a result of the body breaking down fat for energy when there is not enough insulin available. However, decreased fat metabolism is not directly associated with diabetes.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is not an indicator of a hypoglycemic condition? 

    • A.

      Fatigue

    • B.

      Poor appetite

    • C.

      Tachycardia

    • D.

      Confusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Poor appetite
    Explanation
    Poor appetite is not an indicator of a hypoglycemic condition because hypoglycemia is characterized by low blood sugar levels, which can cause symptoms such as fatigue, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), and confusion. However, poor appetite is not typically associated with hypoglycemia and may be caused by other factors unrelated to blood sugar levels.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is not an adverse effect of oral hypoglycemics? 

    • A.

      Hypoglycemia

    • B.

      Headache

    • C.

      Rashes

    • D.

      Projectile vomiting

    Correct Answer
    D. Projectile vomiting
    Explanation
    Projectile vomiting is not an adverse effect of oral hypoglycemics. Adverse effects of oral hypoglycemics typically include hypoglycemia, headache, and rashes. Projectile vomiting is not commonly associated with the use of oral hypoglycemics and may be indicative of another underlying condition or medication side effect.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is not an adverse effect of glucagon? 

    • A.

      Allergic reaction

    • B.

      Vomiting

    • C.

      Nausea

    • D.

      Fever

    Correct Answer
    D. Fever
    Explanation
    Glucagon is a hormone that increases blood sugar levels and is used to treat severe low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). It can have several adverse effects, including allergic reactions, vomiting, and nausea. However, fever is not typically associated with the use of glucagon.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following drugs may be given as an immunosuppressant soon after onset of Type I Diabetes? 

    • A.

      Torsemide

    • B.

      Cyclosporine

    • C.

      Clofibrate

    • D.

      Ceftriaxone

    Correct Answer
    B. Cyclosporine
    Explanation
    Cyclosporine is a drug that is commonly used as an immunosuppressant in organ transplant patients to prevent rejection. In the context of Type I Diabetes, it may be given soon after onset to suppress the immune system and reduce the destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. By suppressing the immune response, cyclosporine may help to preserve the remaining insulin-producing cells and potentially slow down the progression of the disease. Torsemide, Clofibrate, and Ceftriaxone are not typically used as immunosuppressants and would not be appropriate for this purpose.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not considered an endocrine hormone? 

    • A.

      Renin

    • B.

      Insulin

    • C.

      Glucagon

    • D.

      Somatostatin

    Correct Answer
    A. Renin
    Explanation
    Renin is not considered an endocrine hormone because it is not secreted by an endocrine gland. Instead, it is produced and released by specialized cells in the kidneys called juxtaglomerular cells. Renin plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance by initiating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. It acts as an enzyme to convert angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. While the other options (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) are all hormones secreted by endocrine glands (pancreas and hypothalamus), renin is not produced by an endocrine gland and therefore does not fit the definition of an endocrine hormone.

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  • 14. 

    What type of cells secrete glucagon? 

    • A.

      Beta cells B. C. D.

    • B.

      Alpha cells

    • C.

      Plasma cells

    • D.

      Acinar cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Alpha cells
    Explanation
    Alpha cells are the type of cells that secrete glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that increases blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. Beta cells, on the other hand, secrete insulin, which has the opposite effect of lowering blood sugar levels. Plasma cells are involved in the immune response, while acinar cells are responsible for producing digestive enzymes in the pancreas.

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  • 15. 

    What type of cells secrete insulin? 

    • A.

      Beta cells

    • B.

      Alpha cells

    • C.

      Plasma cells

    • D.

      Acinar cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Beta cells
    Explanation
    Beta cells are the type of cells that secrete insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels by allowing cells to take in glucose from the bloodstream. Beta cells are found in the pancreas, specifically in the islets of Langerhans. When blood sugar levels rise, beta cells release insulin into the bloodstream, signaling cells to absorb glucose. This helps to lower blood sugar levels and maintain overall balance in the body.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following would not be considered an acute effect of diabetes mellitus? 

    • A.

      Polyuria

    • B.

      Weight gain

    • C.

      Polydipsia

    • D.

      Polyphagia

    Correct Answer
    B. Weight gain
    Explanation
    Weight gain would not be considered an acute effect of diabetes mellitus because it is more commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, which is a chronic condition. Acute effects of diabetes mellitus typically include symptoms such as polyuria (excessive urination), polydipsia (excessive thirst), and polyphagia (excessive hunger). These symptoms are usually experienced in the early stages of diabetes and can be attributed to the body's inability to properly regulate blood sugar levels. Weight gain, on the other hand, is usually a result of long-term insulin resistance and poor blood sugar control, which are more characteristic of chronic diabetes.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not an accurate test for diabetes?  

    • A.

      Glucose tolerance test

    • B.

      HbA

    • C.

      Fasting serum glucose

    • D.

      Fasting glucagon test

    Correct Answer
    D. Fasting glucagon test
    Explanation
    The fasting glucagon test is not an accurate test for diabetes because it measures the levels of glucagon, a hormone that raises blood sugar levels, rather than directly measuring blood glucose levels. Glucagon levels can be influenced by various factors and may not accurately reflect a person's glucose regulation. On the other hand, the glucose tolerance test, HbA1c, and fasting serum glucose are all commonly used tests to diagnose and monitor diabetes by directly measuring blood glucose levels.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not an indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis? 

    • A.

      Hyperthermia

    • B.

      Nausea/Vomiting

    • C.

      Slow and shallow breathing

    • D.

      Psychosis leading to dementia

    Correct Answer
    C. Slow and shallow breathing
    Explanation
    Slow and shallow breathing is not an indicator of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones, leading to acidosis. Common symptoms include hyperthermia (high body temperature), nausea/vomiting, and psychosis leading to dementia. However, slow and shallow breathing is not typically associated with diabetic ketoacidosis.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is not related to a chronic diabetes mellitus condition? 

    • A.

      Atherosclerosis

    • B.

      Neuropathy

    • C.

      Glaucoma

    • D.

      Hypotension

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypotension
    Explanation
    Hypotension is not related to a chronic diabetes mellitus condition. Chronic diabetes mellitus is a long-term condition that affects the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels. Atherosclerosis, neuropathy, and glaucoma are all complications that can arise from chronic diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis refers to the hardening and narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to heart disease and stroke. Neuropathy is nerve damage that can cause pain, tingling, and numbness, often in the hands and feet. Glaucoma is an eye condition that can cause vision loss. Hypotension, on the other hand, refers to low blood pressure, which is not directly related to diabetes mellitus.

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  • 20. 

      Which of the following conditions is not linked to diabetic ketoacidosis? 

    • A.

      Cerebral edema

    • B.

      Arrhythmias

    • C.

      Peptic ulcers

    • D.

      Mucormycosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Peptic ulcers
    Explanation
    Peptic ulcers are not directly linked to diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones, leading to a buildup of acid in the blood. It is commonly associated with conditions such as cerebral edema, arrhythmias, and mucormycosis. However, peptic ulcers are typically caused by factors such as infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and are not directly related to the metabolic imbalances seen in diabetic ketoacidosis.

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