A. increased aldosterone and deficit of albumin
B. severe anemia and increased serum bilirubin
C. hypokalemia and increased serum ammonia
D. hyperproteinemia and persistent hypotension
A. metastatic tumors
B. acute hepatitis
C. long-term exposure to certain chemicals
D. chronic cholelithiasis
A. formation of multiple thrombi and ischemia
B. infection by intestinal microbes
C. immune complex reaction
D. activation and spread of proteolytic enzymes
A. Inflammation and increased vascular permeability of the peritoneum affect fluid balance.
B. Erosions in the intestinal wall causes release of bacteria.
C. Fat necrosis and hypocalcemia develop.
D. Secretions from the pancreas and intestine become more acidic.
A. damage to the intestinal villi
B. obstruction in the pancreatic ducts
C. acidosis preventing activation of digestive enzymes
D. insufficient bile for absorption
A. a light gray-colored stool
B. a tarry black stool
C. bulky, fatty, foul-smelling stools
D. watery stools with mucus and blood
A. low sodium, high fat
B. high carbohydrate, low protein
C. high calorie with vitamin supplements
A. degeneration and flattening of the villi in the small intestine
B. multiple herniations of the mucosa through weak areas of the muscularis
C. a continuous area of mucosal inflammation and ulceration in the rectum and colon
D. inflamed areas of the wall of the ileum alternating with thick fibrotic or normal areas
B. ulcerative colitis
C. Crohn’s disease
D. celiac disease
A. lack of peristalsis leading to dilated areas of intestine
B. fibrosis and thickening of the wall causing obstruction
C. erosion of the mucosa causing bleeding
D. recurrent inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis forming a connection between intestinal loops
A. loss of surface area for absorption in the ileum
B. bone marrow depression by toxic wastes
C. chronic blood loss in stools
D. insufficient hydrochloric acid for iron absorption
A. physical and emotional stress
B. an autoimmune reaction
C. a combination of recessive genes
A. lower left quadrant
B. lower right quadrant
C. sharp, colicky, periumbilical
D. lower abdominal pain, radiating into the groin
A. infection in the appendix
B. an episode of severe diarrhea
C. obstruction of the lumen of the appendix
D. eating a low-fiber diet
A. increased peristalsis in the adjacent colon
B. inflammation and stretching of the appendiceal wall
C. increased gas and fluid inside the appendix
D. local inflammation of the parietal peritoneum
The omentum walls off the inflamed area.
Intestinal bacteria escape through the necrotic appendiceal wall.
The obstructing object inside the appendix perforates the wall
Bacteria escape into the circulating blood
A. change in shape of the stool
B. bleeding with defecation
C. mild but persistent pain in the lower left quadrant
D. occult blood in the stool
A. Hypotension and shock causes ischemia.
B. The mesenteric arteries are compressed in the twisted section of intestine.
C. A section of intestine herniates between the muscles of the abdominal wall.
D. The distention of the intestinal wall causes increased permeability of the tissue.
A. excessive audible bowel sounds
B. intermittent colicky pain
C. severe steady abdominal pain
D. visible peristalsis
A. cause severe colicky pain
B. cause frequent diarrhea
C. develop very rapidly
D. result in a small, hard stool
A. continued vomiting and fluid shift into the intestine
B. hemorrhage into the intestine
C. rupture of the intestinal wall
D. repeated bouts of severe diarrhea
A. increased fluid and gas causing abdominal distention
B. inflammation of the peritoneum and organs causing a firm mass in the abdomen
C. inflamed peritoneum resulting in reflex abdominal muscle spasm
D. the patient voluntarily contracts the abdominal muscles as a protective mechanism
A. leakage of intestinal bacteria into blood and the peritoneal cavity
B. massive hemorrhage and shock
C. breakdown of the gallstones
D. increasing peristalsis with intermittent painful spasms
A. Chemical irritation by excessive ovarian and uterine secretions causes inflammation.
B. Ulceration and perforation of the uterus allows the bacteria to spread.
C. Infection spreads through the fallopian tubes directly into the peritoneal cavity.
D. Gangrene in the uterine wall spreads through into the pelvic cavity.