Open Source Systems Fundamentals Quiz 1 Ch 8-10

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Open Source Systems Fundamentals Quiz 1 Ch 8-10 - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A(n) ____ in the password field in the file /etc/passwd means that the password is stored in the file /etc/shadow.

    • A.

      *

    • B.

      #

    • C.

      X

    • D.

      -

    Correct Answer
    C. X
    Explanation
    In the file /etc/passwd, the presence of "x" in the password field indicates that the actual password is stored in the file /etc/shadow. This is a security measure as the /etc/shadow file is only accessible to the root user, preventing unauthorized access to the password information. The "x" in the password field acts as a placeholder to indicate that the password is stored elsewhere.

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  • 2. 

    To remove /etc/shadow and convert your user accounts to /etc/passwd only, you should use the command ____.

    • A.

      Pwconv

    • B.

      Pwunconv

    • C.

      Pwck

    • D.

      Pwd

    Correct Answer
    B. Pwunconv
    Explanation
    To remove /etc/shadow and convert user accounts to /etc/passwd only, the command "pwunconv" should be used. This command is specifically designed to undo the changes made by the "pwconv" command, which is used to convert user accounts from /etc/passwd to /etc/shadow. By running "pwunconv", the system will remove the /etc/shadow file and revert back to using the /etc/passwd file for user authentication. The "pwck" command is used to check the integrity of password files, and "pwd" is used to print the current working directory.

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  • 3. 

    ____ prevents individual users from using system resources excessively at the expense of other users.

    • A.

      Fsck

    • B.

      Ulimit

    • C.

      Usermod

    • D.

      Chmod

    Correct Answer
    B. Ulimit
    Explanation
    The ulimit command is used to set limits on system resources for individual users. It prevents users from using system resources excessively, ensuring that resources are fairly distributed among all users. By setting limits on parameters such as CPU usage, memory allocation, and file size, ulimit helps maintain system stability and prevents any single user from monopolizing system resources at the expense of others.

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  • 4. 

    A ____ is a process that is started by another process.

    • A.

      User process

    • B.

      Program

    • C.

      Daemon

    • D.

      Child process

    Correct Answer
    D. Child process
    Explanation
    A child process is a process that is started by another process. When a parent process creates a new process, the newly created process is called a child process. The child process inherits certain characteristics from its parent, such as file descriptors and memory space. The parent process can also communicate with the child process and manage its execution. Therefore, a child process is a suitable explanation for a process that is started by another process.

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  • 5. 

    The ____ is the process ID of the parent process that created the current process.

    • A.

      ID

    • B.

      PID

    • C.

      PPID

    • D.

      PARENT

    Correct Answer
    C. PPID
    Explanation
    The PPID (Parent Process ID) is the process ID of the parent process that created the current process. It is a unique identifier assigned to each process and helps in tracking the relationship between parent and child processes. By knowing the PPID, it is possible to determine which process spawned the current process and understand the hierarchy of processes in the system.

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  • 6. 

    The ____ option of the ps command is used to list terminal-independent processes.

    • A.

      X

    • B.

      A

    • C.

      W

    • D.

      I

    Correct Answer
    A. X
    Explanation
    The "x" option of the ps command is used to list terminal-independent processes. This means that it will display processes that are not associated with any specific terminal or session. These processes are usually system processes or daemons that run in the background and do not require user interaction. By using the "x" option, the ps command can provide a comprehensive list of all running processes on the system, regardless of their terminal association.

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  • 7. 

    The ____ option of the ps command is used to list terminal-independent processes, including those of other users.

    • A.

      X

    • B.

      A

    • C.

      F

    • D.

      L

    Correct Answer
    B. A
    Explanation
    The "a" option of the ps command is used to list terminal-independent processes, including those of other users. This option displays information about all processes on the system, regardless of their association with a terminal. It allows users to view the processes of other users as well, providing a comprehensive overview of all running processes on the system.

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  • 8. 

    The ____ option of the ps command is used to list processes hierarchically.

    • A.

      X

    • B.

      F

    • C.

      W

    • D.

      L

    Correct Answer
    B. F
    Explanation
    The "f" option of the ps command is used to list processes hierarchically. This option displays the processes in a tree-like structure, showing the parent-child relationships between processes. This can be useful for understanding the process hierarchy and how processes are related to each other.

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  • 9. 

    The signal ____ is used to end a process immediately.

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      9

    • D.

      15

    Correct Answer
    D. 15
    Explanation
    The signal "15" is used to end a process immediately.

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  • 10. 

    Runlevel ____ is the single-user mode.

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    A. 1
    Explanation
    Runlevel 1 is the single-user mode. In Linux, runlevels are different operating modes that determine which services and processes are running. Runlevel 1 is also known as the "rescue mode" or "emergency mode" and it is used for troubleshooting and system maintenance. In this mode, only essential services are started, and the system boots into a minimal environment with a root shell prompt. It allows the user to perform tasks such as repairing the file system, resetting passwords, or fixing system configuration issues.

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  • 11. 

    In a class B address, the first byte is in the ____ range.

    • A.

      0 to 127

    • B.

      128 to 191

    • C.

      192 to 223

    • D.

      224 to 239

    Correct Answer
    B. 128 to 191
    Explanation
    In a class B address, the first byte is in the range of 128 to 191. This is because class B addresses are used for medium-sized networks and have a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. The first byte, also known as the network identifier, is used to identify the network portion of the address. In class B addresses, the first two bits of the first byte are always set to 1 0, which fall in the range of 128 to 191.

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  • 12. 

    In a class D address, the first byte is in the ____ range.

    • A.

      0 to 127

    • B.

      128 to 191

    • C.

      192 to 223

    • D.

      224 to 239

    Correct Answer
    D. 224 to 239
    Explanation
    In a class D address, the first byte is in the range of 224 to 239. Class D addresses are used for multicast purposes, where data is sent to a group of devices simultaneously. These addresses are reserved for multicast groups and cannot be assigned to individual devices.

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  • 13. 

    Class ____ addresses are typically used for broadcasts.

    • A.

      B

    • B.

      C

    • C.

      D

    • D.

      E

    Correct Answer
    D. E
    Explanation
    Class E addresses are typically used for broadcasts. This is because Class E addresses, which range from 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254, are reserved for experimental purposes and not meant to be used for normal network communication. Therefore, they are commonly used for broadcasting messages to multiple devices on a network.

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  • 14. 

    A ____ route defines the path a data packet can take for an entire destination network.

    • A.

      Host

    • B.

      Network

    • C.

      Gateway

    • D.

      Default

    Correct Answer
    B. Network
    Explanation
    A network route defines the path a data packet can take for an entire destination network. It specifies the network address and the next hop or gateway to reach that network. This route is used by routers to determine the best path for forwarding the packet to its destination network.

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  • 15. 

    The ____ TLD is used for noncommercial institutions.

    • A.

      .com

    • B.

      .gov

    • C.

      .net

    • D.

      .org

    Correct Answer
    D. .org
    Explanation
    The .org TLD (Top-Level Domain) is commonly used for noncommercial institutions such as nonprofit organizations, charities, and educational institutions. This domain is often chosen to indicate that the website or organization is dedicated to a cause or purpose rather than being driven by commercial interests. Examples of websites that typically use the .org TLD include Wikipedia, Greenpeace, and the Red Cross.

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  • 16. 

    Use ____ to start the DNS sever.

    • A.

      Rcnamed start

    • B.

      Bind start

    • C.

      Dns start

    • D.

      Ns start

    Correct Answer
    A. Rcnamed start
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "rcnamed start". This is because "rcnamed" is the command used to start the DNS server in this particular context. The other options, "bind start", "dns start", and "ns start", are not valid commands for starting the DNS server.

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  • 17. 

    NFS is frequently used together with ____ to provide centralized user management on a network.

    • A.

      SMB

    • B.

      BIND

    • C.

      NIS

    • D.

      DNS

    Correct Answer
    C. NIS
    Explanation
    NFS (Network File System) is often used in conjunction with NIS (Network Information Service) to offer centralized user management on a network. NIS allows for the central administration of user accounts, passwords, and other authentication information, making it easier to manage user access across multiple systems. By integrating NFS with NIS, administrators can ensure that users have consistent access to shared files and resources while maintaining a centralized user management system.

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  • 18. 

    To start the services required for Samba, enter: ____.

    • A.

      Rcnmb

    • B.

      Rcnmb start

    • C.

      Rcnmb start && rcsmb start

    • D.

      Rcsmb start

    Correct Answer
    C. Rcnmb start && rcsmb start
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "rcnmb start && rcsmb start". This command starts the services required for Samba by using the "start" option for both "rcnmb" and "rcsmb" commands. The "&&" operator is used to execute the second command only if the first command is successful.

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  • 19. 

    You can enter the ____ command to display the registered local or remote names of a host,regardless of the operating system with which NetBIOS is run.

    • A.

      Smbstatus

    • B.

      Testparm

    • C.

      Nmblookup

    • D.

      Nmbstat

    Correct Answer
    C. Nmblookup
    Explanation
    The nmblookup command can be used to display the registered local or remote names of a host, regardless of the operating system with which NetBIOS is run. This command helps in querying NetBIOS names and obtaining information about the name registrations on a network. It is commonly used in Windows environments to troubleshoot NetBIOS name resolution issues and to verify the availability of NetBIOS services.

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  • 20. 

    You can use the ____ command to list all currently existing connections to the Samba server.

    • A.

      Testparm

    • B.

      Smbstatus

    • C.

      Nmblookup

    • D.

      Nmbstat

    Correct Answer
    B. Smbstatus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is smbstatus. The smbstatus command is used to list all currently existing connections to the Samba server. It provides information about the connected clients, their IP addresses, the files they have open, and other relevant details. By running smbstatus, administrators can monitor the active connections and troubleshoot any issues related to Samba server connectivity.

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