Poli 007 Spring 2015: U.S. Foreign Policy, Quiz #6

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Poli 007 Spring 2015: U.S. Foreign Policy, Quiz #6 - Quiz

This one is about espionage, everyone's favorite topic.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Its 2007. You are POTUS and planning the surge strategy in Iraq and want to better understand insurgent movements and communications in order to craft an overall COIN strategy. Eavesdropping on insurgent cell phone conversations will be key to collecting intelligence. What agency do you turn to?

    • A.

      NSA

    • B.

      National Geospatial Intelligence Agency

    • C.

      Bureau of Intelligence and Research

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. NSA
    Explanation
    The National Security Agency (NSA) would be the agency to turn to for eavesdropping on insurgent cell phone conversations and collecting intelligence. The NSA is responsible for signals intelligence and information assurance, making it the most appropriate agency for this task. The National Geospatial Intelligence Agency focuses on geospatial intelligence, while the Bureau of Intelligence and Research primarily provides intelligence analysis to the Department of State. None of these agencies have the specific mandate or capabilities for eavesdropping on communications like the NSA does.

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  • 2. 

    What method of intelligence collection does this photo best represent?

    • A.

      HUMINT

    • B.

      SIGINT

    • C.

      IMINT

    • D.

      OSINT

    Correct Answer
    A. HUMINT
    Explanation
    This photo best represents HUMINT, which stands for Human Intelligence. HUMINT involves gathering information through direct contact with individuals, such as interviews, debriefings, or clandestine operations. In this photo, it is likely that a person or a group of people are gathering intelligence by interacting with individuals in person, suggesting the use of HUMINT methods.

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  • 3. 

    Covert operations, including assassinations, have been part of the intel community's (especially the CIA's) toolbox for a long time. So why is the Predator drone program so controversial and unprecedented? For all of the following reasons except:

    • A.

      Civilian victims

    • B.

      Extreme secrecy surrounding them

    • C.

      Using them to kill American citizens overseas

    • D.

      All of these are reasons the drone program is controversial

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these are reasons the drone program is controversial
    Explanation
    The Predator drone program is controversial and unprecedented for all of the following reasons except because all of these are reasons the drone program is controversial. This means that civilian victims, extreme secrecy surrounding them, and using them to kill American citizens overseas are all reasons that contribute to the controversy surrounding the drone program.

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  • 4. 

    The Raymond Davis episode demonstrates all of the following issues with post-9/11 intel operations except:

    • A.

      Outsourcing/contracting out of intel operations

    • B.

      Militarization/paramilitarization of CIA

    • C.

      Obsession with counterterrorism

    • D.

      Dangers of CT goals overwhelming broader FP goals

    • E.

      NSA over-reach

    Correct Answer
    E. NSA over-reach
    Explanation
    The Raymond Davis episode refers to a diplomatic crisis in Pakistan involving a CIA contractor who shot and killed two Pakistani men in 2011. The incident highlighted several issues with post-9/11 intelligence operations, including outsourcing and contracting out of intelligence operations, the militarization and paramilitarization of the CIA, an obsession with counterterrorism, and the dangers of counterterrorism goals overwhelming broader foreign policy goals. However, the episode did not specifically demonstrate NSA over-reach, which refers to the excessive surveillance and intelligence gathering activities of the National Security Agency.

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  • 5. 

    Why was the DNI created in 2004?

    • A.

      To help coordinate the sprawling intel community bureaucracy

    • B.

      So that a top intel official would be in the White House close to POTUS

    • C.

      To serve as the intel community's liaison to Congress

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. To help coordinate the sprawling intel community bureaucracy
    Explanation
    The DNI was created in 2004 to help coordinate the sprawling intel community bureaucracy. This means that the purpose of establishing the DNI was to improve the coordination and communication among the various intelligence agencies and departments, which were often fragmented and lacked effective collaboration. By centralizing the coordination efforts, the DNI aimed to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the intelligence community as a whole.

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  • 6. 

    Covert operations, especially in the realm of counterterrorism, are attractive to presidents for all of the following reasons except:

    • A.

      They do not involve messy and potentially politically unpopular military entanglements

    • B.

      They are not subject to public scrutiny, and therefore the whims of public opinion

    • C.

      They are conducted under the purview of the Department of Homeland Security, which presidents more directly control

    • D.

      In a difficult budgetary environment, they are less expensive than sending in troops

    Correct Answer
    C. They are conducted under the purview of the Department of Homeland Security, which presidents more directly control
    Explanation
    Covert operations are attractive to presidents for several reasons. Firstly, they do not involve messy and potentially politically unpopular military entanglements, which can help the president avoid public backlash. Secondly, covert operations are not subject to public scrutiny, allowing presidents to make decisions without being influenced by public opinion. Thirdly, in a difficult budgetary environment, covert operations are less expensive than sending in troops. However, the given answer states that covert operations are conducted under the purview of the Department of Homeland Security, which presidents more directly control. This statement is incorrect as covert operations are typically conducted by intelligence agencies like the CIA, which operate independently from presidential control.

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  • 7. 

    What is the worst that can happen to an intelligence officer with diplomatic cover if s/he is caught spying (if the host country respects international law)? 

    • A.

      They can be arrested and held for up to 30 days

    • B.

      They can be declared persona non grata and thrown out of the country

    • C.

      They can be forced to reveal the identities of other officers in the national clandestine service

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. They can be declared persona non grata and thrown out of the country
    Explanation
    If an intelligence officer with diplomatic cover is caught spying and the host country respects international law, the worst that can happen to them is being declared persona non grata and thrown out of the country. This means that they would be expelled from the host country and lose their diplomatic status, which can have significant consequences for their career and future assignments. However, they would not be arrested or held for an extended period of time, nor would they be forced to reveal the identities of other officers in the national clandestine service.

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  • 8. 

    According to the Top Secret America investigative report, the Office of the DNI, upon its creation, faced all of the following hurdles except:

    • A.

      Unclear mandate

    • B.

      The DNI had no clear legal or budgetary authority over intelligence matters

    • C.

      Turf battles between DNI and other intel agencies

    • D.

      The powerful CIA was not among the agencies the DNI was charged with overseeing

    Correct Answer
    D. The powerful CIA was not among the agencies the DNI was charged with overseeing
    Explanation
    Upon its creation, the Office of the DNI faced several hurdles, including an unclear mandate, no clear legal or budgetary authority over intelligence matters, and turf battles with other intelligence agencies. However, the powerful CIA was not one of the agencies that the DNI was tasked with overseeing. This means that the DNI did not have direct authority or control over the CIA, which could have posed a challenge in coordinating and integrating intelligence efforts across the intelligence community.

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  • 9. 

    What are the potential pitfalls of the excessive influence of the intel community over foreign policy? 

    • A.

      The intel community has lower levels of democratic accountability by virtue of its secrecy and therefore can pursue harmful policies without adequate checks on its activities.

    • B.

      The Constitution says nothing explicit about oversight over intel agencies, and therefore there is a danger that their role and influence is not properly constrained.

    • C.

      The intel community has become excessively focused on counter-terrorism and can be blind to broader strategic and diplomatic goals, as we have seen in countries such as Pakistan.

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    The excessive influence of the intel community over foreign policy can lead to potential pitfalls. One pitfall is that the intel community operates with lower levels of democratic accountability due to its secrecy, allowing it to pursue harmful policies without adequate checks. Another pitfall is that the Constitution does not explicitly mention oversight over intel agencies, which can result in their role and influence being unconstrained. Additionally, the intel community's excessive focus on counter-terrorism can cause them to overlook broader strategic and diplomatic goals, as evidenced in countries like Pakistan. Therefore, all of these factors contribute to the potential pitfalls of the intel community's excessive influence over foreign policy.

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  • 10. 

    Senator Feinstein's authority and efforts (and that of her committee) to hold the CIA accountable are rooted in reforms of which era:

    • A.

      Height of the Cold War

    • B.

      1970s and 1980s

    • C.

      Post-Cold War

    • D.

      Post-9/11

    Correct Answer
    B. 1970s and 1980s
    Explanation
    During the 1970s and 1980s, significant reforms were made to hold the CIA accountable. These reforms were a response to the revelations of illegal activities carried out by the agency during the Cold War, such as the Watergate scandal and the Iran-Contra affair. Senator Feinstein's authority and efforts, along with her committee, to hold the CIA accountable are based on these reforms implemented during the 1970s and 1980s.

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