# High Resolution Induction Theory

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Quizzes Created: 9 | Total Attempts: 3,796
Questions: 23 | Attempts: 105

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Quiz Description

• 1.

### The primary objective of logging the High Resolution Induction Tool (HRID) is to determine:

• A.

Flushed Zone Resistivity (Rxo)

• B.

Formation Water Resistivity (Rw)

• C.

True Resistivity of the Uninvaded Formation (Rt)

• D.

Mud Filtrate Resistivity (Rmf)

C. True Resistivity of the Uninvaded Formation (Rt)
Explanation
The primary objective of logging the High Resolution Induction Tool (HRID) is to determine the true resistivity of the uninvaded formation (Rt). The HRID tool measures the electrical conductivity of the formation, which is directly related to the resistivity. By determining the Rt, geologists and engineers can evaluate the quality of the formation and make decisions regarding the potential for hydrocarbon production. The other options mentioned, flushed zone resistivity (Rxo), formation water resistivity (Rw), and mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf), are also important parameters to evaluate, but they are not the primary objective of the HRID tool.

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• 2.

• A.

Resistivity of a formation is inversely proportional to voltage, and directly proportional to current.

• B.

A magnetic field intersecting a coil of wire will induce an alternating voltage in that coil.

• C.

Current in a coil of wire creates an electromotive force.

C. Current in a coil of wire creates an electromotive force.
Explanation
Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction states that a change in magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) in a conductor. This EMF can cause a current to flow in a closed circuit. Therefore, the statement "Current in a coil of wire creates an electromotive force" aligns with Faraday's Law and is correct.

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• 3.

### The magnitude of the primary ground loop current flow is _________ to formation resistivity.

• A.

Proportional

• B.

Inversely Proportional

B. Inversely Proportional
Explanation
The magnitude of the primary ground loop current flow is inversely proportional to formation resistivity. This means that as the resistivity of the formation increases, the magnitude of the ground loop current flow decreases, and vice versa. In other words, higher resistivity in the formation reduces the flow of current in the ground loop, while lower resistivity allows for a higher flow of current.

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• 4.

### Ampere's Law predicts:

• A.

Resistivity of a formation is inversely proportional to voltage, and directly proportional to current.

• B.

A magnetic field intersecting a coil of wire will induce an alternating voltage in that coil.

• C.

Current in a coil of wire creates an electromotive force.

B. A magnetic field intersecting a coil of wire will induce an alternating voltage in that coil.
Explanation
The correct answer is that a magnetic field intersecting a coil of wire will induce an alternating voltage in that coil. This is known as electromagnetic induction. When a magnetic field changes in strength or direction, it creates a change in the magnetic flux through the coil, which in turn induces a voltage in the coil. This phenomenon is the basis for the operation of generators and transformers, where mechanical energy or another form of energy is converted into electrical energy through the use of coils and magnetic fields.

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• 5.

### Which of the following three voltages induced in a receiver coil is undesirable and is not related to formation resistivity?

• A.

R-Signal

• B.

X-Signal

• C.

Mutual Signal

C. Mutual Signal
Explanation
The mutual signal is the voltage induced in a receiver coil that is undesirable and not related to formation resistivity. It is called a mutual signal because it is caused by the mutual inductance between the transmitter and receiver coils. This voltage can interfere with the accurate measurement of formation resistivity and needs to be minimized or eliminated for accurate readings.

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• 6.

### Which of the following is the primary method of minimizing the mutual signal from the measured receiver voltage?

• A.

Subtraction of sonde error from the measurement

• B.

The use of multiple transmitter and/or receiver coils.

• C.

Measurement of the X-signal in very low resistivity formations

• D.

Correction for skin effect in very low resistivity formations

B. The use of multiple transmitter and/or receiver coils.
Explanation
The primary method of minimizing the mutual signal from the measured receiver voltage is the use of multiple transmitter and/or receiver coils. By using multiple coils, the signals can be separated and the mutual interference between them can be minimized. This allows for a more accurate measurement of the receiver voltage. Subtraction of sonde error from the measurement, measurement of the X-signal in very low resistivity formations, and correction for skin effect in very low resistivity formations are not directly related to minimizing the mutual signal from the measured receiver voltage.

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• 7.

### The resistivity of very low resistivity formations is ____________ if skin effect is not corrected for.

• A.

Underestimated

• B.

Overestimated

B. Overestimated
Explanation
If the skin effect is not corrected for, the resistivity of very low resistivity formations will be overestimated. The skin effect refers to the tendency of alternating current to concentrate near the surface of a conductor, resulting in a higher effective resistance. In low resistivity formations, this effect becomes more prominent, causing the measured resistivity to be higher than the actual resistivity. Therefore, if the skin effect is not accounted for, the resistivity of very low resistivity formations will be overestimated.

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• 8.

### The X-signal becomes significant and skin effect becomes a problem in:

• A.

Low resistivity formations

• B.

High resistivity formations

A. Low resistivity formations
Explanation
In low resistivity formations, the X-signal becomes significant and skin effect becomes a problem. This is because low resistivity formations allow for better electrical conductivity, leading to a higher flow of current. As a result, the X-signal, which represents the reactive component of the impedance, becomes more significant in these formations. Additionally, the skin effect, which causes the current to concentrate near the surface of the conductor, becomes more pronounced in low resistivity formations due to the increased current flow. Therefore, both the X-signal and skin effect become problematic in low resistivity formations.

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• 9.

### Select all of the following potential applications of the HRID measurements.

• A.

Determination of water saturation

• B.

Estimation of diameter of invasion

• C.

Measure of formation porosity

• D.

Qualitative estimation of permeability

• E.

Measure resistivity of drilling fluid

A. Determination of water saturation
B. Estimation of diameter of invasion
D. Qualitative estimation of permeability
Explanation
The HRID measurements can be used to determine water saturation by analyzing the resistivity of the formation. It can also be used to estimate the diameter of invasion, which refers to the distance that the drilling fluid has penetrated into the formation. Additionally, the HRID measurements can provide a qualitative estimation of permeability, which is the ability of a formation to transmit fluids.

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• 10.

### Select all of the following measured depths of investigation of the HRID

• A.

24 inches

• B.

30 inches

• C.

39 inches

• D.

60 inches

• E.

91 inches

C. 39 inches
E. 91 inches
Explanation
The HRID (High Resolution Induction Device) measures the depth of investigation, which refers to how deep the device can penetrate into the subsurface to gather data. The measured depths of investigation for the HRID are 39 inches and 91 inches. This means that the HRID can effectively gather data from up to 39 inches and 91 inches below the surface, providing valuable information about the subsurface properties and structures at those depths.

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• 11.

### Select all of the following synthetic depths of investigation of the HRID

• A.

24 inches

• B.

30 inches

• C.

39 inches

• D.

60 inches

• E.

91 inches

A. 24 inches
B. 30 inches
D. 60 inches
Explanation
The HRID (High Resolution Induction Device) is a tool used in geophysical surveys to measure the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. It is capable of providing synthetic depths of investigation at different depths. The correct answer includes 24 inches, 30 inches, and 60 inches as synthetic depths of investigation. These values represent the depths at which the HRID can effectively measure the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. The other options, 39 inches and 91 inches, are not included in the correct answer as they do not correspond to the synthetic depths of investigation provided by the HRID.

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• 12.

### Select all of the following that must be corrected in order to ensure the 91-inch HRID measurement accurately reflects Rt.

• A.

• B.

Permeability

• C.

Formation water resistivity

• D.

Borehole resistivity

• E.

Shoulder bed resistivity

D. Borehole resistivity
E. Shoulder bed resistivity
Explanation
To ensure that the 91-inch HRID measurement accurately reflects Rt (resistivity), three factors need to be corrected. First, the invaded mud filtrate should be corrected as it can affect the resistivity measurement. Second, the borehole resistivity needs to be corrected as it can also impact the accuracy of the measurement. Lastly, the resistivity of the shoulder bed needs to be corrected as it can influence the overall resistivity measurement. By addressing these three factors, the accuracy of the 91-inch HRID measurement can be improved.

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• 13.

### Which of the following conditions can the HRID provide accurate results

• A.

Air drilled holes

• B.

Oil based mud

• C.

Fresh water based mud

• D.

Saltwater based mud

A. Air drilled holes
B. Oil based mud
C. Fresh water based mud
Explanation
The HRID can provide accurate results in air drilled holes, oil-based mud, and fresh water-based mud conditions because the HRID is designed to accurately measure and analyze the formation resistivity and formation fluid properties. In air drilled holes, there is no fluid present, so the HRID can directly measure the formation resistivity. In oil-based mud and fresh water-based mud conditions, the HRID can accurately measure the resistivity of the formation and differentiate between the formation fluid and the drilling fluid. However, the HRID may not provide accurate results in saltwater-based mud conditions as the high conductivity of saltwater can interfere with the resistivity measurements.

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• 14.

### In very low resistivity formations, the magnitude of the primary ground loop current can become quite ______.

• A.

Large

• B.

Small

A. Large
Explanation
In very low resistivity formations, the magnitude of the primary ground loop current can become quite large. This is because low resistivity allows for easier flow of electric current through the formation. As a result, more current can pass through the ground loop, leading to a larger magnitude of current.

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• 15.

### For a simple two-coil induction tool, the largest receiver voltage component is the mutual signal.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
In a simple two-coil induction tool, the largest receiver voltage component is the mutual signal. This means that the voltage induced in the receiver coil is primarily due to the mutual inductance between the two coils. Mutual inductance occurs when the changing magnetic field produced by one coil induces a voltage in the other coil. Therefore, the mutual signal is the dominant factor in determining the receiver voltage in this type of induction tool.

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• 16.

### Unfortunately, even with a mutually balanced multi-coil tool, there still remains some small amount of residual coupling between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. The small and constant voltage signal created by this residual coupling is known as ________.

• A.

Sonde error

• B.

Mutual signal

• C.

Skin effect

A. Sonde error
Explanation
The residual coupling between the transmitter coil and the receiver coil in a mutually balanced multi-coil tool creates a small and constant voltage signal. This signal is known as "Sonde error."

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• 17.

### The voltage induced by the primary ground loop’s magnetic field is the main signal of interest, and is known as the ______.

• A.

R-Signal

• B.

X-Signal

• C.

Mutual Signal

• D.

Taylor Signal

A. R-Signal
Explanation
The correct answer is R-Signal. The R-Signal refers to the voltage induced by the primary ground loop's magnetic field, which is the main signal of interest in this context. It is important to note that the other options (X-Signal, Mutual Signal, and Taylor Signal) are not relevant or commonly used terms in this context. Therefore, the R-Signal is the most appropriate and accurate answer.

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• 18.

### The R-Signal is ______ proportional to formation resistivity because it is directly related to the magnitude of the ground loop current induced in the formation. But when there is secondary ground loops present in very low resistivity formations, the R-Signal is no longer _____ proportional to formation resistivity which is known as skin effect.

• A.

Inversely

• B.

Directly

• C.

Linearly

• D.

Perpendicularly

A. Inversely
Explanation
The R-Signal is inversely proportional to formation resistivity because it is directly related to the magnitude of the ground loop current induced in the formation. When there are secondary ground loops present in very low resistivity formations, the R-Signal is no longer inversely proportional to formation resistivity, which is known as skin effect.

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• 19.

### The R-Signal has a ______ phase relationship with the transmitter current, and is said to be in-phase with the transmitter current.

• A.

180-degree

• B.

270-degree

• C.

90-degree

• D.

120-degree

A. 180-degree
Explanation
The R-Signal has a 180-degree phase relationship with the transmitter current, meaning that they are completely out of phase with each other. This means that when the transmitter current is at its maximum value, the R-Signal is at its minimum value, and vice versa. Being in-phase with the transmitter current means that the R-Signal is synchronized with it, reaching its maximum and minimum values at the same time.

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• 20.

### The magnetic field associated with the secondary ground loops induces the _______ in the receiver coil.

• A.

X-Signal

• B.

R-Signal

• C.

Mutual Signal

• D.

Taylor Signal

A. X-Signal
Explanation
The magnetic field associated with the secondary ground loops induces the X-Signal in the receiver coil.

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• 21.

### The HRID is unique among induction tools in that it dynamically corrects for skin effect through its measurement of the ______.

• A.

X-Signal

• B.

R-Signal

• C.

Mutual Signal

• D.

Taylor Signal

A. X-Signal
Explanation
The HRID is unique among induction tools because it dynamically corrects for skin effect through its measurement of the X-Signal. The X-Signal is a measurement of the induced voltage in the pipe or casing, and by analyzing this signal, the HRID can adjust for the skin effect, which is the tendency of alternating current to concentrate near the surface of a conductor. This correction allows for more accurate and reliable measurements of the casing or pipe integrity.

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• 22.

### What are the HRID measured depths of investigation with the DFL?

• A.

17-inches

• B.

24-inches

• C.

30-inches

• D.

39-inches

• E.

60-inches

• F.

91-inches

A. 17-inches
D. 39-inches
F. 91-inches
Explanation
The HRID (High-Resolution Induction Sonde) measured depths of investigation with the DFL (Dual-Frequency Laterolog) are 17 inches, 39 inches, and 91 inches. These measurements indicate the depths at which the DFL can accurately detect and measure the electrical properties of the formation. The DFL is designed to provide high-resolution data at different depths, allowing for a more detailed understanding of the subsurface formations.

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• 23.

### What are the HRID synthetic depths of investigation with the DFL?

• A.

17-inches

• B.

24-inches

• C.

30-inches

• D.

39-inches

• E.

60-inches

• F.

91-inches

B. 24-inches
C. 30-inches
E. 60-inches
Explanation
The HRID synthetic depths of investigation with the DFL are 24-inches, 30-inches, and 60-inches. These depths refer to the distances at which the DFL (Depth of Freshwater Limit) can effectively investigate and measure groundwater levels. The DFL is a tool used in hydrological studies to determine the depth at which freshwater and saltwater meet in coastal aquifers. By measuring at different depths, researchers can gather data on the extent of saltwater intrusion and monitor changes in groundwater levels.

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• Current Version
• Feb 06, 2024
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Jul 30, 2014
Quiz Created by
Taylor

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