Dual Spaced Neutron Measurement Principle

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Dual Spaced Neutron Measurement Principle - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Select all of the potential applications of logging the DSNT tool.

    • A.

      Measure formation porosity

    • B.

      Measure formation permeability

    • C.

      Identification of gas bearing zones

    • D.

      Determine formation lithology

    • E.

      Determine formation resistivity

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Measure formation porosity
    C. Identification of gas bearing zones
    D. Determine formation lithology
    Explanation
    Logging the DSNT tool can be used to measure formation porosity, identify gas bearing zones, and determine formation lithology. The DSNT tool is commonly used in the oil and gas industry to collect data about the subsurface formations. By measuring formation porosity, it is possible to determine the amount of pore space in the rock, which is important for assessing the potential for oil and gas reservoirs. Identification of gas bearing zones is crucial for locating areas with high gas content. Determining formation lithology helps in understanding the composition and characteristics of the rock formations, which is essential for reservoir characterization and exploration.

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  • 2. 

    Select the true statements regarding calibrating neutron tools at Halliburton.

    • A.

      All tools are calibrated at the API test pit in Houston

    • B.

      A snow block is used to verify neutron tools at the well site

    • C.

      A horizontal water tank is used to calibrate neutron tools at the well site

    • D.

      The standard tool is calibrated at the API test pit in Houston

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. A snow block is used to verify neutron tools at the well site
    D. The standard tool is calibrated at the API test pit in Houston
    Explanation
    Neutron tools at Halliburton are calibrated using a snow block at the well site to verify their accuracy. Additionally, the standard tool is calibrated at the API test pit in Houston.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a true statement?

    • A.

      The DSNT is used to help estimate the volume of shale in a formation when combined with density porosity or sonic porosity

    • B.

      The DSNT is used to help determine a value for true resistivity of a formation

    • C.

      The DSNT is often used as a qualitative estimate of permeability.

    • D.

      Yeeee

    Correct Answer
    A. The DSNT is used to help estimate the volume of shale in a formation when combined with density porosity or sonic porosity
    Explanation
    The DSNT is a tool used in geology to estimate the volume of shale in a formation. This estimation is done by combining the DSNT with either density porosity or sonic porosity measurements. By using these measurements together, geologists can obtain a more accurate understanding of the shale content within a formation. This information is valuable in various applications, such as oil and gas exploration, as it helps in determining the potential productivity and reservoir characteristics of the formation.

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  • 4. 

    In which of the following condition is the DSNT not able to provide accurate measurements?

    • A.

      Air-drilled holes

    • B.

      Oil-based muds

    • C.

      Saltwater based mud

    • D.

      Freshwater-based mud

    Correct Answer
    A. Air-drilled holes
    Explanation
    Air-drilled holes are not able to provide accurate measurements because they do not contain any fluid or mud. The DSNT (Downhole Sonic Tool) requires a medium such as mud or fluid to transmit sound waves and measure the properties of the formation. In the case of air-drilled holes, there is no medium for the sound waves to travel through, resulting in inaccurate measurements.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is the most efficient element at slowing neutrons?

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Hydrogen

    • C.

      Helium

    • D.

      Kryptonite

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydrogen
    Explanation
    Hydrogen is the most efficient element at slowing neutrons because it has the lowest atomic mass among the options given. Neutrons lose energy when they collide with atomic nuclei, and since hydrogen has the lightest nucleus, it is more likely to slow down neutrons effectively. Oxygen, helium, and kryptonite have higher atomic masses, so they are less efficient at slowing down neutrons.

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  • 6. 

    The radioactive source used by the DSNT consists of which of the following elements.

    • A.

      Helium and uranium

    • B.

      Potassium and thorium

    • C.

      Americium and beryllium

    • D.

      Protium and tritium

    Correct Answer
    C. Americium and beryllium
    Explanation
    The DSNT (Depth Sounding Nuclear Tool) uses a radioactive source consisting of americium and beryllium. Americium is a synthetic element that emits alpha particles, which are used for measuring the density of formations in the subsurface. Beryllium is used as a neutron source, as it can generate neutrons when bombarded with alpha particles. The combination of these elements allows the DSNT to accurately measure formation properties and gather data for geological studies.

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  • 7. 

    Which level can the DSNT detect neutrons?

    • A.

      10 MeV - 1 MeV

    • B.

      1 MeV - 10 eV

    • C.

      10 eV - .1 eV

    • D.

      Less than .1 eV

    Correct Answer
    D. Less than .1 eV
    Explanation
    The DSNT (Delayed Spectral Neutron Tool) is capable of detecting neutrons at energy levels that are less than 0.1 eV. This means that it can detect neutrons with very low energy, indicating the presence of thermal neutrons. Neutrons with higher energy levels, such as those in the ranges of 10 MeV - 1 MeV, 1 MeV - 10 eV, or 10 eV - 0.1 eV, would not be detected by the DSNT.

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  • 8. 

    In an elastic collision the deflected neutron will have a ________ energy level than before the collision.

    • A.

      Higher

    • B.

      Lower

    • C.

      Same

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower
    Explanation
    In an elastic collision, the total kinetic energy of the system is conserved. Since the neutron is deflected, it means that some of its kinetic energy is transferred to another object or particle. Therefore, the neutron will have a lower energy level than before the collision.

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  • 9. 

    Neutrons lose more energy in which type of collision?

    • A.

      Static

    • B.

      Direct

    • C.

      Glancing

    • D.

      T-Bone

    Correct Answer
    B. Direct
    Explanation
    Neutrons lose more energy in direct collisions. In a direct collision, the neutron collides head-on with another particle, transferring a significant amount of its energy to the other particle. This type of collision results in a larger change in the neutron's energy compared to other types of collisions, such as glancing or T-bone collisions, where the transfer of energy is less efficient.

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  • 10. 

    Hydrogen causes an energy loss of about ________ in each direct collision with a neutron. 

    • A.

      10%

    • B.

      35%

    • C.

      40%

    • D.

      50%

    Correct Answer
    D. 50%
    Explanation
    Hydrogen causes an energy loss of about 50% in each direct collision with a neutron. This means that when a hydrogen atom collides with a neutron, half of the energy is lost during the interaction. This can be attributed to the nature of the collision and the transfer of energy between the particles involved.

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  • 11. 

    About how many direct collisions with hydrogen are required to slow a fast neutron to a thermal level?

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      18

    • C.

      46

    • D.

      105

    Correct Answer
    B. 18
    Explanation
    To slow a fast neutron to a thermal level, it needs to undergo multiple direct collisions with hydrogen atoms. The correct answer is 18, indicating that approximately 18 direct collisions with hydrogen are required to achieve this slowing down process.

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  • 12. 

    What type of gas is present in a thermal neutron detector? 

    • A.

      Helium

    • B.

      Hydrogen

    • C.

      Argon

    • D.

      Neon

    • E.

      Krypton

    Correct Answer
    A. Helium
    Explanation
    A thermal neutron detector typically contains helium gas. Helium is used because it has a low atomic number and is therefore less likely to interact with neutrons, allowing them to pass through and be detected. Helium also has good thermal conductivity, which helps in efficiently transferring the energy from the neutron to the detector. This makes helium an ideal choice for detecting thermal neutrons.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following statements is true?

    • A.

      Hydrogen concentration does not influence count rate

    • B.

      High concentration of hydrogen results in lower count rates

    • C.

      Low concentration of hydrogen results in lower count rates

    • D.

      Taylor can throw an orange 1000 feet.

    Correct Answer
    B. High concentration of hydrogen results in lower count rates
  • 14. 

    What is the name of the part identified by the arrow?

    • A.

      Collection Anode

    • B.

      Scintillation Crystal

    • C.

      Cathode

    Correct Answer
    A. Collection Anode
    Explanation
    The part identified by the arrow is called the Collection Anode.

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  • 15. 

    Count rate for the DSNT thermal neutron detector is defined as.

    • A.

      Number of epithermal neutrons multiplied by 100

    • B.

      Number of thermal neutrons multiplied by 100

    • C.

      Number epithermal neutrons detected in one second

    • D.

      Number of thermal neutrons detected in one second

    Correct Answer
    D. Number of thermal neutrons detected in one second
    Explanation
    The count rate for the DSNT thermal neutron detector is defined as the number of thermal neutrons detected in one second. This means that the detector measures and counts the amount of thermal neutrons it detects within a one-second interval.

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  • 16. 

    What effect does substituting chlorine and sodium for hydrogen have on the thermal neutron count rate?

    • A.

      Increases the count rate

    • B.

      Decreases the count rate

    • C.

      Does not change the count rate

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreases the count rate
    Explanation
    When chlorine and sodium are substituted for hydrogen, the thermal neutron count rate decreases. This is because chlorine and sodium have a higher neutron absorption cross-section compared to hydrogen. Neutron absorption cross-section refers to the likelihood of an atom to absorb a neutron. Since chlorine and sodium have a higher absorption cross-section, they are more likely to absorb neutrons, resulting in a decrease in the count rate.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following statements is true?

    • A.

      The larger the hole size, the lower the count rate detected

    • B.

      The larger the hole size, the higher the count rate detected

    • C.

      Large hole size has no effect on the count rate detected

    • D.

      Size does matter according to women

    Correct Answer
    A. The larger the hole size, the lower the count rate detected
    Explanation
    The statement "The larger the hole size, the lower the count rate detected" is true because when the hole size is larger, more particles can pass through it, resulting in a lower count rate detected. This is because a larger hole allows more particles to escape detection or be missed by the detector, leading to a decrease in the count rate.

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  • 18. 

    Stand-off is defined as

    • A.

      The distance between the tool and the borehole wall

    • B.

      The centralization of the detector in the borehole

    • C.

      Any physical separation between a detector and formation

    • D.

      Someone who doesn't want to talk to anyone

    Correct Answer
    C. Any physical separation between a detector and formation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Any physical separation between a detector and formation." Stand-off refers to the physical gap or distance between a detector and the formation being measured. This separation is important in order to accurately detect and measure the properties of the formation without interference or distortion caused by direct contact. By having a stand-off, the detector can effectively capture the signals or measurements from the formation, providing more accurate and reliable data.

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  • 19. 

    Stand-off can be completely eliminated with the use of a decentralizer.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the use of a decentralizer can completely eliminate stand-off. However, this is not necessarily true. While decentralization can help reduce stand-off to some extent by distributing power and decision-making, it cannot guarantee complete elimination. Stand-off can still occur due to various factors such as conflicting interests, lack of communication, or power struggles. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following zero porosity formations has the highest SS/LS ratio?

    • A.

      Sandstone

    • B.

      Dolomite

    • C.

      Limestone

    Correct Answer
    B. Dolomite
    Explanation
    Dolomite has the highest SS/LS ratio among the given zero porosity formations. This means that dolomite has a higher amount of sand-sized particles compared to limestone and sandstone. The SS/LS ratio refers to the ratio of sand-sized particles to larger-sized particles in a formation. Since dolomite has a higher SS/LS ratio, it indicates a higher proportion of sand-sized particles, which suggests a more compact and dense formation compared to limestone and sandstone.

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  • 21. 

    The DSNT compensates for the borehole by taking a ratio of the..

    • A.

      Short spaced detector count rate to the long spaced detector count rate

    • B.

      Long spaced detector count rate to the short spaced detector count rate

    Correct Answer
    A. Short spaced detector count rate to the long spaced detector count rate
    Explanation
    The DSNT compensates for the borehole by taking a ratio of the short spaced detector count rate to the long spaced detector count rate. This ratio helps to correct for the effects of the borehole on the measurements. By comparing the count rates from detectors at different distances, the DSNT can account for variations in the detector response caused by the borehole and provide more accurate measurements of the subsurface formations.

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  • 22. 

    As porosity of the formation increases the SS/LS ratio

    • A.

      Increases

    • B.

      Decreases

    • C.

      Remains the same

    Correct Answer
    A. Increases
    Explanation
    The porosity of a formation refers to the amount of empty space or voids within the rock or soil. When the porosity of the formation increases, it means that there are more empty spaces available. The SS/LS ratio, which stands for the saturated soil/loose soil ratio, measures the amount of water that can be retained in the soil. As the porosity increases, there are more empty spaces for water to fill, resulting in a higher SS/LS ratio. Therefore, the SS/LS ratio increases as the porosity of the formation increases.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is true?

    • A.

      Quartz sandstone is characterized by a higher SS/LS ratio than limestone

    • B.

      The SS/LS ratio increases with increased porosity

    • C.

      The SS/LS ratio decreases with increased porosity

    • D.

      Dolomite is characterized by a lower SS/LS ratio than limestone

    Correct Answer
    B. The SS/LS ratio increases with increased porosity
    Explanation
    The SS/LS ratio refers to the ratio of the volume of solid particles (SS) to the volume of liquid and solid particles combined (LS) in a sediment or rock. The given answer states that the SS/LS ratio increases with increased porosity. Porosity refers to the percentage of empty spaces or voids in a rock or sediment. When porosity increases, it means there are more empty spaces, which leads to a decrease in the volume of solid particles compared to the total volume. Therefore, the SS/LS ratio would increase as the volume of solid particles decreases relative to the volume of liquid and solid particles combined.

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  • 24. 

    Which statement is true?

    • A.

      The SS/LS is inversely proportional to formation porosity

    • B.

      Formation lithology must be known to determine accurate formation porosity.

    • C.

      Different formation lithologies do not affect the formation porosity.

    Correct Answer
    B. Formation lithology must be known to determine accurate formation porosity.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Formation lithology must be known to determine accurate formation porosity." This is because the porosity of a formation, which refers to the amount of empty space or voids within the rock, is influenced by the type of rock or lithology present. Different lithologies have different porosity characteristics, and understanding the specific lithology is essential in accurately determining the porosity of a formation.

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  • 25. 

    The addition of shale into a given formation would ________ the hydrogen concentration.

    • A.

      Increase

    • B.

      Decrease

    • C.

      Not Change

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase
    Explanation
    The addition of shale into a given formation would increase the hydrogen concentration. Shale is rich in organic matter, such as kerogen, which can release hydrogen through processes like thermal decomposition. As shale is added to the formation, the organic matter within it can release hydrogen, leading to an increase in the overall concentration of hydrogen in the formation.

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  • 26. 

    The Dual Spaced Neutron Tool (DSNT) is designed to measure the abundance of ____ energy neutrons in a formation.

    • A.

      Low

    • B.

      High

    • C.

      Zero

    • D.

      Fast

    Correct Answer
    A. Low
    Explanation
    The Dual Spaced Neutron Tool (DSNT) is designed to measure the abundance of low energy neutrons in a formation. This tool is specifically designed to detect and measure the thermal or slow neutrons present in the formation. By measuring the abundance of low energy neutrons, the DSNT can provide valuable information about the porosity and fluid content of the formation, which is crucial in various applications such as oil and gas exploration and reservoir characterization.

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  • 27. 

    Neutrons are emitted from a chemical radioactive source in the DSNT and slow down, or lose energy, as they collide with the nuclei of atoms in the formation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Neutrons are emitted from a chemical radioactive source in the DSNT and slow down, or lose energy, as they collide with the nuclei of atoms in the formation. This statement is true because neutrons, being uncharged particles, can interact with atomic nuclei through the strong nuclear force. These interactions cause the neutrons to transfer some of their kinetic energy to the nuclei, resulting in a decrease in their speed and energy. This process is known as neutron moderation, and it is essential for various applications, such as nuclear reactors and neutron scattering experiments.

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  • 28. 

    A formation containing gas will exhibit a neutron porosity that is much ______ than the true porosity of the formation.

    • A.

      Lower

    • B.

      Higher

    • C.

      Sexier

    Correct Answer
    A. Lower
    Explanation
    A formation containing gas will exhibit a neutron porosity that is much lower than the true porosity of the formation. This is because gas has a lower neutron capture cross-section compared to other formation materials, such as rock or water. Neutron porosity measurements rely on the capture of neutrons by the surrounding formation, and since gas has a reduced ability to capture neutrons, the measured neutron porosity will be lower than the actual porosity.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following conditions can the DSNT be used?

    • A.

      Fresh water based mud

    • B.

      Saltwater based mud

    • C.

      Oil based mud

    • D.

      Cased hole

    • E.

      Air drilled

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fresh water based mud
    B. Saltwater based mud
    C. Oil based mud
    D. Cased hole
    Explanation
    The DSNT (Drilling Safety Notification Tool) can be used in all of the mentioned conditions: fresh water based mud, saltwater based mud, oil based mud, cased hole, and air drilled. This tool is versatile and can be employed in various drilling scenarios to ensure safety and mitigate risks.

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  • 30. 

    The larger the slowing down cross section of a nucleus, the _____ effective it is at slowing a fast neutron to a thermal level.

    • A.

      More

    • B.

      Less

    • C.

      Has no effect

    Correct Answer
    A. More
    Explanation
    The larger the slowing down cross section of a nucleus, the more effective it is at slowing a fast neutron to a thermal level. This means that a nucleus with a larger slowing down cross section has a higher probability of interacting with a fast neutron and transferring energy to it, causing it to slow down. Therefore, the larger the slowing down cross section, the more effective the nucleus is at slowing down the neutron.

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  • 31. 

    The probability that a nucleus will capture a thermal neutron is reflected by its thermal neutron ________________.

    • A.

      Capture cross section

    • B.

      Slowing down cross section

    Correct Answer
    A. Capture cross section
    Explanation
    The probability that a nucleus will capture a thermal neutron is reflected by its capture cross section. This cross section represents the effective area that the nucleus presents for the neutron to be captured. A larger capture cross section indicates a higher probability of capture, while a smaller cross section indicates a lower probability. Therefore, the capture cross section is a measure of the likelihood of a nucleus capturing a thermal neutron.

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  • 32. 

    The larger the slowing down cross section of the environment, the ______ the count rate.

    • A.

      Lower

    • B.

      Higher

    Correct Answer
    A. Lower
    Explanation
    The larger the slowing down cross section of the environment, the lower the count rate. This is because a larger slowing down cross section means that more particles are being scattered or absorbed by the environment, reducing the number of particles that reach the detector and hence lowering the count rate.

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  • 33. 

    The larger the thermal neutron capture cross section of the environment, the ______ the count rate.

    • A.

      Lower

    • B.

      Higher

    Correct Answer
    A. Lower
    Explanation
    The larger the thermal neutron capture cross section of the environment, the lower the count rate. This is because a larger cross section means that more neutrons are being captured by the environment, reducing the number of neutrons available to be detected and counted. Therefore, the count rate decreases.

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  • 34. 

    As the salinity of the borehole increases, the count rate _________.

    • A.

      Decreases

    • B.

      Increases

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreases
    Explanation
    As the salinity of the borehole increases, the count rate decreases. This is because higher salinity levels in the borehole can interfere with the detection and measurement of particles or radiation that contribute to the count rate. The increased presence of salts or minerals in the water can absorb or scatter the particles, reducing their ability to reach the detector and be counted accurately. Therefore, as the salinity increases, the count rate decreases.

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  • 35. 

    As the borehole size increases, the count rate _________.

    • A.

      Decreases

    • B.

      Increases

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreases
    Explanation
    As the borehole size increases, the count rate decreases. This is because a larger borehole allows more background radiation to enter, leading to a higher count rate. Conversely, a smaller borehole restricts the entry of background radiation, resulting in a lower count rate. Therefore, as the borehole size increases, the count rate decreases.

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  • 36. 

    The use of the SS/LS ratio significantly reduces the borehole effect, but does not completely eliminate it.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The use of the SS/LS ratio refers to the practice of measuring the ratio of shear wave velocity (SS) to compressional wave velocity (LS) in order to reduce the borehole effect. The borehole effect refers to the distortion of seismic waves caused by the presence of a borehole. While the use of the SS/LS ratio can significantly reduce this effect, it cannot completely eliminate it. Therefore, the statement that the use of the SS/LS ratio significantly reduces the borehole effect, but does not completely eliminate it, is true.

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  • 37. 

    Halliburton uses _________ for calibrating the response of each DSNT in the shop.

    • A.

      Horizontal water tanks

    • B.

      Thorium blankets

    • C.

      Aluminum blocks

    • D.

      Magnesium blocks

    Correct Answer
    A. Horizontal water tanks
    Explanation
    Halliburton uses horizontal water tanks for calibrating the response of each DSNT in the shop. This is because water tanks provide a stable and controlled environment for calibrating the DSNTs. The horizontal orientation ensures that the water level is consistent throughout the tank, allowing for accurate calibration. Water has specific properties that make it suitable for calibration purposes, such as its density and ability to transmit sound waves. Therefore, the use of horizontal water tanks ensures precise and reliable calibration of the DSNTs.

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  • 38. 

    Halliburton uses _________ for calibrating the response of each DSNT at the wellsite.

    • A.

      Snow blocks

    • B.

      Thorium blankets

    • C.

      Aluminum blocks

    • D.

      Magnesium blocks

    Correct Answer
    A. Snow blocks
    Explanation
    Halliburton uses snow blocks for calibrating the response of each DSNT at the wellsite. Snow blocks are commonly used in wellsite operations as they provide a stable and consistent medium for calibrating equipment. They are easy to obtain and manipulate, and their properties closely resemble those of certain wellbore fluids, making them suitable for calibration purposes. Snow blocks allow for accurate measurements and ensure that the DSNT equipment is properly calibrated, leading to reliable data collection and analysis in the field.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 29, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Taylor
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