Unit 3 Target 1 & 5: Atoms, Ions, And Isotopes Quiz

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Unit 3 Target 1 & 5: Atoms, Ions, And Isotopes Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What type of ion forms when an atom gains electrons?

    • A.

      Neutral

    • B.

      Positive

    • C.

      Negative

    • D.

      Possibly positive or negative

    Correct Answer
    C. Negative
    Explanation
    When an atom gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged, forming a negative ion. This is because electrons have a negative charge, and when they are added to an atom, the overall charge of the atom becomes negative. Therefore, the correct answer is negative.

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  • 2. 

    What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?

    • A.

      Positive

    • B.

      Possibly positive or negative

    • C.

      Negative

    • D.

      Neutral

    Correct Answer
    A. Positive
    Explanation
    When an atom loses electrons, it becomes positively charged. This is because electrons have a negative charge, so when they are removed from an atom, the overall charge of the atom becomes positive. Therefore, the correct answer is positive.

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  • 3. 

    Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and

    • A.

      A different number of neutrons.

    • B.

      A different number of electrons.

    • C.

      A different number of molecules.

    • D.

      The same number of neutrons.

    Correct Answer
    A. A different number of neutrons.
    Explanation
    Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Neutrons are subatomic particles that have no charge, and they are found in the nucleus of an atom along with protons. The number of neutrons in an atom can vary, resulting in different isotopes of the same element. This difference in the number of neutrons gives each isotope a different atomic mass. Therefore, the correct answer is that isotopes have a different number of neutrons.

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  • 4. 

    Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope used to determine the age of ancient objects composed of organic matter.  Carbon-12 and carbon-13 are other isotopes of carbon.  The number of what subatomic particles varies among these carbon isotopes?

    • A.

      Electrons

    • B.

      Neutrons

    • C.

      Photons

    • D.

      Protons

    Correct Answer
    B. Neutrons
    Explanation
    The number of neutrons varies among these carbon isotopes. Carbon-12 has 6 neutrons, carbon-13 has 7 neutrons, and carbon-14 has 8 neutrons. The number of protons and electrons remains the same in all carbon isotopes, which is 6. Photons are not subatomic particles, but rather particles of light, so they do not vary among carbon isotopes.

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  • 5. 

    Lead (Pb-208) is the heaviest stable isotope known.  It has an atomic number of 82.  How many neutrons does Pb-208 have?

    • A.

      82

    • B.

      126

    • C.

      164

    • D.

      208

    Correct Answer
    B. 126
    Explanation
    The atomic number of an element represents the number of protons in its nucleus. Since the atomic number of lead (Pb) is 82, it means that Pb-208 has 82 protons. The atomic mass of an element is the sum of its protons and neutrons. Therefore, to find the number of neutrons in Pb-208, we subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass. Pb-208 has an atomic mass of 208, so subtracting 82 from 208 gives us 126 neutrons.

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  • 6. 

    When a small neutral molecule becomes an ion, in which way is it better able to function?

    • A.

      Dissolving in blood plasma

    • B.

      Sharing electrons with other ions

    • C.

      Combining with ions of similar charges

    • D.

      Passing through a cell's plasma membrane.

    Correct Answer
    A. Dissolving in blood plasma
    Explanation
    When a small neutral molecule becomes an ion, it is better able to function by dissolving in blood plasma. Blood plasma is a liquid component of blood that contains various ions and molecules. When a small neutral molecule becomes an ion and dissolves in blood plasma, it can easily interact with other ions and molecules present in the plasma, allowing it to participate in various biochemical reactions and physiological processes within the body. This dissolution in blood plasma enhances its ability to function effectively.

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  • 7. 

    The particular type of element is determined by the number of

    • A.

      Electrons

    • B.

      Protons

    • C.

      Neutrons

    • D.

      Valence electrons

    • E.

      Energy levels

    Correct Answer
    B. Protons
    Explanation
    The particular type of element is determined by the number of protons. This is because the number of protons in an atom's nucleus defines its atomic number, which is unique to each element. The atomic number determines the element's properties and its position in the periodic table. Electrons, neutrons, valence electrons, and energy levels are all important factors in understanding an atom's behavior and reactivity, but they do not determine the element itself.

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  • 8. 

    An atom has six protons and eight neutrons.  Its atomic mass is ________________ atomic mass units.

    • A.

      Two

    • B.

      Four

    • C.

      Six

    • D.

      Eight

    • E.

      Fourteen

    Correct Answer
    E. Fourteen
    Explanation
    The atomic mass of an atom is determined by the sum of its protons and neutrons. In this case, the atom has six protons and eight neutrons, resulting in a total of fourteen particles. Therefore, the atomic mass of the atom is fourteen atomic mass units.

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  • 9. 

    Isotopes differ from each other with respect to the number of:

    • A.

      Protons only.

    • B.

      Neutrons only.

    • C.

      Electrons only.

    • D.

      Both protons and electrons.

    • E.

      Both neutrons and protons.

    Correct Answer
    B. Neutrons only.
    Explanation
    Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Since the question asks how isotopes differ from each other, the correct answer is "neutrons only" as the number of neutrons is the only characteristic that varies between isotopes.

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  • 10. 

    An atom becomes a cation if:

    • A.

      It gains one or more electron.

    • B.

      It loses one or more electron.

    • C.

      It shares electrons.

    • D.

      One or more of its electrons changes energy levels.

    • E.

      It emits radiation.

    Correct Answer
    B. It loses one or more electron.
    Explanation
    When an atom loses one or more electrons, it becomes positively charged and forms a cation. This occurs because the loss of electrons reduces the negative charge of the atom, leaving it with more protons than electrons. As a result, the atom becomes unstable and seeks to gain stability by losing electrons and forming a cation.

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  • 11. 

    The difference between an electrically neutral atom and an ion is that:

    • A.

      An ion has an unequal number of protons and electrons, while an atom has an equal number

    • B.

      An ion has an equal number of protons and electrons, while an atom has an unequal number

    • C.

      An atom has an unequal number of protons and neutrons, while an ion has an equal number

    • D.

      An atom has its electrons in orbitals, while an ion has its electrons in its nucleus

    • E.

      An atom must have an equal number of neutrons and electrons, while an ion does not.

    Correct Answer
    A. An ion has an unequal number of protons and electrons, while an atom has an equal number
    Explanation
    An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons. In the process, the number of protons and electrons in the ion becomes unequal, resulting in a net positive or negative charge. On the other hand, an electrically neutral atom has an equal number of protons and electrons, meaning the charges balance out and there is no net charge. Therefore, the difference between an electrically neutral atom and an ion is that an ion has an unequal number of protons and electrons, while an atom has an equal number.

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  • 12. 

    What is the maximum number of covalent bonds that can form between a single carbon atom and 1 or more hydrogen atoms?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    D. 4
    Explanation
    A single carbon atom can form a maximum of four covalent bonds with 1 or more hydrogen atoms. This is because carbon has four valence electrons and each hydrogen atom has one valence electron. By sharing electrons, carbon can form four bonds, one with each hydrogen atom, resulting in a stable molecule.

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  • 13. 

    Breaking which type of bond would require the most energy?

    • A.

      Covalent

    • B.

      Electrostatic

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Intermolecular

    Correct Answer
    A. Covalent
    Explanation
    Covalent bonds are formed when two atoms share electrons, resulting in a strong bond. Breaking covalent bonds requires a significant amount of energy because it involves breaking the shared electron pairs. Electrostatic bonds are formed between oppositely charged ions and are generally weaker than covalent bonds. Hydrogen bonds are relatively weak bonds that occur between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom. Intermolecular bonds are even weaker than hydrogen bonds and occur between molecules. Therefore, breaking covalent bonds would require the most energy compared to the other types of bonds listed.

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  • 14. 

    In glycerol (C3H8O3), there is a hydroxyl group (OH) bound to each of the 3 carbon atoms. The bond between the oxygen atom of a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a carbon atom in glycerol is best classified as what type of bond?

    • A.

      Covalent

    • B.

      Hydrogen

    • C.

      Intermolecular

    • D.

      Ionic

    Correct Answer
    A. Covalent
    Explanation
    The bond between the oxygen atom of a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a carbon atom in glycerol is best classified as a covalent bond. Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons, and in this case, the oxygen atom and the carbon atom share electrons to form the bond. This type of bond is common in organic compounds like glycerol, where carbon atoms often form covalent bonds with other atoms, such as oxygen.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 15, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Hbhutta
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