Lesson 3 Chapter 10 #2 Researching The Polity Chapter Quiz

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Lesson 3 Chapter 10 #2 Researching The Polity Chapter Quiz - Quiz

Remember, a variable is a characteristic or property that differs in value from one unit of analysis to another. Variables are concepts that you operationalize, or measure, in a sample of data. In short, a variable is a measured concept. Concept Measurement Variable


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The General Social Survey asked respondents to assess their own health as excellent, good, fair or poor. The level of measurement of this variable is

    • A.

      Ordinal

    • B.

      Nominal

    • C.

      Interval

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Ordinal
    Explanation
    Page 184 Ordinal variables, like their name suggests, can be ordered or ranked. Questions such as a survey rating scale (poor, fair, good, excellent) or level of agreement with a statement (strongly agree, somewhat agree, agree, disagree) used in attitude surveys are examples of ordinal variables. The category has a natural order to it, but the distance between choices are not equivalent or standardized by set intervals

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  • 2. 

    A student conducted a survey that asked respondents to identify their race as white, African American, or Other. The level if measurement of this variable is 

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Ordinal

    • C.

      Interval

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Nominal
    Explanation
    Page 183 Nominal measurement merely involves the assignment of numeric labels to the categories of a variable. Race, as discussed, is an example of a nominal-level measure. Each time the program counts a 1, it is also counting an African American. There are many other examples of nominal measures applicable to political research. Gender, political party affiliation, nationality, and college major are common examples that you will probably use in your studies

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  • 3. 

    Avgtemp is a variable included in a data set of America's fifty largest cities. the variable represents the acerage annual temperature (in Fahrenheit) of each city. The level of measurement of this variable is

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Interval

    • C.

      Ordinal

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    B. Interval
    Explanation
    page 185 Interval does not have an absolute zero point. A good example of an interval variable is the Fahrenheit thermometer.

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  • 4. 

    Suppose that a researcher conducting a survey based on a sample of government workers asks respondents their annual incomes using these values: $20,000 or less; $20,000 through $60,000;$60,000 or more. A problem with this set of values is that

    • A.

      They are not continuous

    • B.

      They are measured at the nominal level

    • C.

      They are population data

    • D.

      They are not collectively exhaustive

    • E.

      They are not mutually exclusive

    Correct Answer
    E. They are not mutually exclusive
    Explanation
    page 184
    As with nominal variables, ordinal measures merely assign numeric labels to the categories of a variable. There are, however, certain rules you should follow when measuring or coding, ordinal variables. Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias offer the following when assigning numbers for variables that can be ranked (Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias 2000, 304-309). First, assigned numbers should make intuitive sense. Higher scores, for example, should be assigned higher code numbers.
    Second, the coding categories must be mutually exclusive. That is, each unit of analysis should fit into one and only one category. Consider the following measurement scheme for a respondent's level of income:

    1. 0–$20,000

    1. $20,000–$40,000

    1. $40,000–$60,000

    1. $60,000–$80,000

    The example violates the mutually exclusive rule.
    Third, the coding scheme must be exhaustive. This means that every response must fit into a category. Looking at the income example just presented, you can readily see that anyone earning more than $80,000 does not have a category representing their income level. Thus, perhaps an additional category could be coded as “Greater than $80,000.”

    no 2 amounts should be use twice

    Last, categories must be specific enough to capture differences using the smallest possible number of categories. Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias call this requirement the “criterion of detail.” In other words, while you want to ensure you meet the criteria, you do not want to have too many categories for a particular variable. For the income example in this section, you would not want to code income as under $1,000; $1,000 to $2,000; $2,001 to $3,000; and so on.

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  • 5. 

    _______________ scales incorporate an empirical test of unidimensionality and are cumulative.  

    • A.

      Likert

    • B.

      Guttman

    • C.

      Composite

    • D.

      Simple

    Correct Answer
    B. Guttman
    Explanation
    page 192
    Guttman scales have several characteristics. First, they incorporate an empirical test of unidimensionality. They measure only a single dimension or attitude. Second, Guttman scales are cumulative. Potential scale items are ordered according to the degree of difficulty associated with responding positively to each item. The technique, however, assumes that respondents who answer positively to a difficult item will also respond positively to less difficult items.

    As a result of the ordering process, Guttman scales, generally yield scale scores resulting from a single set of responses. That is, to get a 20 on the ideological perception scale, a particular pattern of responses is essential.
    Table 10-3. Illustration of Unidimensionality


    More Difficult Less Difficult
    Respondent Stranger Prayer Group Shopping Services Pray Score
    1 yes YES yes YES yes 5
    2 no yes yes yes yes 4
    3 no no yes yes yes 3
    4 no no no yes yes 2
    5 no no no no yes 1
    6 no no no no no 0

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  • 6. 

    ___________________ refers to the extent to which a measurement procedure consistently measures whatever it measures.

    • A.

      Unidimensionality

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Validity

    • D.

      Correlation

    Correct Answer
    C. Validity
    Explanation
    page 186

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  • 7. 

    There are two types of _________________ measurement: interval measurement and ratio measurement.

    • A.

      Metric

    • B.

      Normative

    • C.

      Unidimensionality

    • D.

      Central tendency

    Correct Answer
    A. Metric
    Explanation
    page 185
    Metric measurement is more precise than either nominal or ordinal measurement. Numbers do not just stand for categories, as in nominal and ordinal measurements. There are two types of metric measurement: interval measurement and ratio measurement. Interval and ratio measurements are very similar. With each level, the values assigned to the classes of a variable have meaning

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  • 8. 

    Measurement ___________ is concerned with the effectiveness of the measuring instrument and the extent that the instrument reflect the actual activity or behavior one wants to study.  

    • A.

      Unidimensionality

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Validity

    • D.

      Correlation

    Correct Answer
    C. Validity
    Explanation
    page 186 (10-4)

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  • 9. 

    ____________ is an attempt to enhance the reliability and validity of measurement by using multiple and overlapping measurement strategies.

    • A.

      Likert scaling

    • B.

      Guttman scaling

    • C.

      Triangulation

    • D.

      Unidimensionality scaling

    Correct Answer
    C. Triangulation
    Explanation
    page 189

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  • 10. 

    A(N) _____________ variable takes on only certain values within its range

    • A.

      Discrete

    • B.

      Antecedent

    • C.

      Continuous

    • D.

      Intervening

    Correct Answer
    A. Discrete
    Explanation
    page 186
    Continous and discrete variables

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  • 11. 

    ________________writes that "measurement is the quantifying of any phenomenon, substantial or insubstantial, and involves a comparison with a standard"

    • A.

      Anthony Downs

    • B.

      Paul D. Leedy

    • C.

      Edward Olson

    • D.

      Isaac Newton

    Correct Answer
    B. Paul D. Leedy
  • 12. 

    ____________are the weakest or least precise level of measurement.

    • A.

      Ordinal measures

    • B.

      Interval measures

    • C.

      Nominal measures

    • D.

      Ration measures

    Correct Answer
    C. Nominal measures
    Explanation
    Nominal measures are the weakest or least precise level of measurement. This is because they only categorize data into distinct groups or categories, without any inherent order or numerical value. Nominal measures simply assign labels or names to different observations or variables, making them the least precise form of measurement. In contrast, ordinal measures have a natural order or ranking, interval measures have equal intervals between values, and ratio measures have a true zero point and meaningful ratios between values.

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  • 13. 

    _________ measures lack any sense of relative size or magnitude; they only allow you to say that the classes of a variable are different. There is no mathematical relationship between the classes.

    • A.

      Interval

    • B.

      Nominal

    • C.

      Ratio

    • D.

      Ordinal

    Correct Answer
    B. Nominal
    Explanation
    This question is asking about the type of measurement that lacks any sense of relative size or magnitude and only allows you to say that the classes of a variable are different, without any mathematical relationship between the classes. The correct answer is "nominal".

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  • 14. 

    When coding categories of each  unit of analysis fit into one and only one category. Example1.) 0-102. )11-203.) 21-30

    • A.

      Virtually exclusive

    • B.

      Really exclusive

    • C.

      Mutually exclusive

    • D.

      Exclusive

    Correct Answer
    C. Mutually exclusive
    Explanation
    When coding categories of each unit of analysis, the term "mutually exclusive" means that each unit can only fit into one category and cannot fit into multiple categories at the same time. In this case, the given examples of 0-10, 11-20, and 21-30 represent mutually exclusive categories because each unit can only belong to one of these ranges and cannot belong to multiple ranges simultaneously.

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  • 15. 

    The coding scheme that fits every response and never ends. Example1.) $0-$25,0002.) $25,001-$50,0003.) $50,000 or above

    • A.

      Mutually exclusive

    • B.

      Infinite

    • C.

      Exhaustive

    • D.

      Range

    Correct Answer
    C. Exhaustive
    Explanation
    The given coding scheme includes all possible options or categories for the responses. It covers every possible range of income, including those below $25,000, between $25,001 and $50,000, and above $50,000. Therefore, it can be considered exhaustive as it leaves no option or response uncovered.

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  • 16. 

    _________ level data is reported in the ten-year census. More specific examples include a state's population, the number of senior citizens living in cities, and the number of African Americans living in a state. All percentages and proportions are also _______ because we start out with ______ measurements to derive them.

    • A.

      Ordinal

    • B.

      Nominal

    • C.

      Interval

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    D. Ratio
    Explanation
    Ratio level data is reported in the ten-year census. More specific examples include a state's population, the number of senior citizens living in cities, and the number of African Americans living in a state. All percentages and proportions are also ratio because we start out with actual measurements to derive them.

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  • 17. 

     When collecting your data, you should try to measure concepts at the ______________ level possible. This will permit enhanced mathematical manipulation and more sophisticated statistical analysis.

    • A.

      Lowest

    • B.

      Highest

    • C.

      Mid-point

    • D.

      Earliest

    Correct Answer
    B. Highest
    Explanation
    When collecting data, it is ideal to measure concepts at the highest level possible. This allows for more advanced mathematical manipulation and sophisticated statistical analysis. By measuring concepts at a higher level, researchers have more flexibility in analyzing the data and drawing meaningful conclusions. This can lead to more accurate and reliable results in their research.

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  • 18. 

    __________-level variables are always discrete.

    • A.

      Ratio

    • B.

      Ordinal

    • C.

      Nominal

    • D.

      Interval

    Correct Answer
    C. Nominal
    Explanation
    Nominal-level variables are always discrete because they represent categories or groups that cannot be ordered or ranked. These variables have distinct categories with no inherent numerical value or order. For example, variables like gender, ethnicity, or marital status are nominal variables as they represent different categories without any specific order or ranking. In contrast, ratio, ordinal, and interval variables involve numerical values and can be continuous or discrete depending on the context.

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  • 19. 

    __________-level variables can be continuous or discrete.

    • A.

      Ordinal

    • B.

      Interval

    • C.

      Ratio

    • D.

      Nominal

    Correct Answer
    C. Ratio
    Explanation
    Ratio-level variables can be continuous or discrete. Ratio level of measurement is the highest level of measurement that provides the most precise and comprehensive information about a variable. It has all the properties of interval level, along with a true zero point, which allows for meaningful ratios and comparisons between values. Therefore, ratio-level variables can take on any numerical value, whether they are continuous (can take on any value within a range) or discrete (can only take on specific values).

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  • 20. 

    _____________involves the use of multiple observers for the same research activity. It reduces potential bias that might come from a single observer. Examples include the use of several interviewers, analysts, and decision makers.

    • A.

      Methodological triangulation

    • B.

      Multiple triangulation

    • C.

      Investigator triangulation

    • D.

      Observer triangulation

    Correct Answer
    C. Investigator triangulation
    Explanation
    Investigator triangulation involves the use of multiple observers for the same research activity. This method reduces potential bias that might come from a single observer. By having several interviewers, analysts, and decision makers, different perspectives and interpretations can be gathered, increasing the reliability and validity of the research findings.

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  • 21. 

     ______________combines two or more information collection methods in the study of a single concept. It uses the strengths of various methods. For example, you might use surveys to gather information about a phenomenon. To complement this method, you might discretely observe and chart the activities of your subjects. This method can compensate for the possible bias that could result from interviews and surveys.

    • A.

      Investigator triangulation

    • B.

      Methodological triangulation

    • C.

      Immediate triangulation

    • D.

      Collection triangulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Methodological triangulation
    Explanation
    Methodological triangulation combines two or more information collection methods in the study of a single concept. It utilizes the strengths of various methods to gather comprehensive and reliable data. By using surveys to collect information and complementing it with discrete observation and activity charting, this method can help compensate for any potential bias that may arise from interviews and surveys.

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  • 22. 

    __________ involve the principle of unidimensionality, which implies that the items comprising the _______ reflect a single dimension or concept.

    • A.

      Measurement

    • B.

      Indexes

    • C.

      Scales

    • D.

      Concept

    Correct Answer
    C. Scales
    Explanation
    Scales involve the principle of unidimensionality, which means that the items comprising the scales reflect a single dimension or concept. Scales are used in measurement to assign numerical values to different levels of a specific characteristic or attribute. These numerical values help in quantifying and comparing the levels of the concept being measured. Therefore, scales are a reliable and valid tool for measuring and assessing various constructs or variables in research and data analysis.

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  • 23. 

    This following is an example of a ________? The United States Supreme Court has ruled that no state or local government may require the reading of the Lord’s Prayer or Bible verses in public schools. The Court’s decision was correct.1) Strongly disagree2) Disagree3) Undecided4) Agree5) Strongly agree

      • A.

        Ratio Scale

      • B.

        Guttman Scale

      • C.

        Likert Scale

      • D.

        Ordinal Scale

      Correct Answer
      C. Likert Scale
      Explanation
      The given question is an example of a Likert Scale because it asks for the respondent's level of agreement or disagreement with a statement. The options provided range from strongly disagree to strongly agree, allowing the respondent to express their opinion on the Court's decision.

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    • 24. 

      True or False: Likert scales have some obvious advantages. They are relatively easy to administer, they provide a more rational basis for item selection, and they provide a range of alternative responses to each question

      • A.

        True

      • B.

        False

      Correct Answer
      A. True
      Explanation
      Likert scales do have some obvious advantages. They are relatively easy to administer, as they involve asking participants to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with a statement. They also provide a more rational basis for item selection, as they allow researchers to measure attitudes or opinions on a continuum. Additionally, Likert scales provide a range of alternative responses to each question, allowing participants to choose the response that best represents their opinion. Therefore, the statement that Likert scales have some obvious advantages is true.

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    • 25. 

      True or False: Likert scales are more accurate then Guttman scales?

      • A.

        True

      • B.

        False

      Correct Answer
      B. False
      Explanation
      The statement that Likert scales are more accurate than Guttman scales is false. Both Likert and Guttman scales are commonly used in research to measure attitudes or opinions, but they have different characteristics. While Likert scales measure the degree of agreement or disagreement with a statement using a range of response options, Guttman scales are designed to measure a respondent's level of agreement with a set of statements on a cumulative scale. The accuracy of a scale depends on various factors such as the quality of the items, the sample size, and the context of the study. Therefore, it is not accurate to claim that one type of scale is universally more accurate than the other.

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