Cp Bio 2 Final Exam Review A

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Cp Bio 2 Final Exam Review A - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    If a pea plant were homozygous recessive for height, how would its alleles be represented?

    • A.

      Tt

    • B.

      TT

    • C.

      Tt

    • D.

      TT

    Correct Answer
    C. Tt
    Explanation
    If a pea plant were homozygous recessive for height, its alleles would be represented as "tt". This means that both alleles for height are identical and recessive, resulting in the plant being of short height.

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  • 2. 

    When an organism has two alleles at a particular locus that are different, the organism is called

    • A.

      Purebred

    • B.

      Dominant

    • C.

      Heterozygous

    • D.

      Recessive

    Correct Answer
    C. Heterozygous
    Explanation
    When an organism has two alleles at a particular locus that are different, it is called heterozygous. Heterozygous means that the organism has inherited different alleles for a specific trait from its parents. This term is often used in genetics to describe individuals who have a combination of both dominant and recessive alleles, resulting in a mixed expression of traits.

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  • 3. 

    Hair color and eye color are examples of a person's

    • A.

      Recessive traits.

    • B.

      Dominant alleles.

    • C.

      Genotype.

    • D.

      Phenotype.

    Correct Answer
    D. Phenotype.
    Explanation
    Hair color and eye color are examples of a person's phenotype. Phenotype refers to the observable characteristics or traits of an individual, which are determined by a combination of genetic factors (genotype) and environmental influences. Hair color and eye color are visible traits that can be easily observed and are influenced by both genetic factors and external factors such as sunlight exposure. Therefore, phenotype is the correct answer as it encompasses the observable traits of an individual.

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  • 4. 

    Mendel's second law of genetics, the law of independent assortment, is one explanation of the

    • A.

      Random fertilization of gametes.

    • B.

      Genetic variation within species.

    • C.

      Greater strength of dominant alleles.

    • D.

      Final stages of gametogenesis.

    Correct Answer
    B. Genetic variation within species.
    Explanation
    Mendel's second law of genetics, the law of independent assortment, states that alleles for different traits segregate independently during the formation of gametes. This means that the inheritance of one trait does not influence the inheritance of another trait. As a result, there is a random assortment of alleles during gamete formation, leading to genetic variation within species. This variation is important for evolution and adaptation to changing environments.

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  • 5. 

    A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait is called a ___.

    • A.

      Pedigree

    • B.

      Punnett square

    • C.

      Genetic linkage

    • D.

      DNA sequence

    Correct Answer
    A. Pedigree
    Explanation
    A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait is called a pedigree. Pedigrees are commonly used in genetics to study the inheritance patterns of specific traits or diseases within families. By mapping out the presence or absence of a trait across generations, pedigrees can help researchers understand the mode of inheritance and make predictions about the likelihood of passing on the trait to future generations.

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  • 6. 

    ___ studied traits of pea plants and discovered the two fundamental laws of genetics.

    • A.

      Mendel

    • B.

      Watson and Crick

    • C.

      Mack

    • D.

      Einstein

    Correct Answer
    A. Mendel
    Explanation
    Mendel is the correct answer because he is known for his extensive study of pea plants and is credited with discovering the two fundamental laws of genetics, namely the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment. Mendel's experiments and observations laid the foundation for the field of genetics and revolutionized our understanding of inheritance and heredity.

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  • 7. 

    ___ is a pattern of inheritance in which the gene for a trait is located on the X-chromosome, thereby creating disorders that are much more common in males than females.

    • A.

      Incomplete dominance

    • B.

      Co-dominance

    • C.

      Multiple allele

    • D.

      Sex-linked

    Correct Answer
    D. Sex-linked
    Explanation
    Sex-linked inheritance refers to the pattern of inheritance in which the gene for a particular trait is located on the X-chromosome. Since males have only one X-chromosome, they are more likely to be affected by disorders caused by these genes compared to females, who have two X-chromosomes. This is because males do not have a second X-chromosome to compensate for the faulty gene. Therefore, disorders that are sex-linked are much more common in males than in females.

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  • 8. 

    A form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells and produces gametes is known as ___.

    • A.

      Mitosis

    • B.

      Meiosis

    • C.

      Cellular regeneration

    • D.

      Binary fission

    Correct Answer
    B. Meiosis
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a form of nuclear division that occurs in diploid cells and results in the production of haploid cells called gametes. During meiosis, the genetic material is divided twice, resulting in four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction, as it introduces genetic variation through the shuffling and recombination of genetic material. Mitosis, on the other hand, is a form of nuclear division that results in two daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell and is involved in growth, development, and tissue repair. Cellular regeneration refers to the process of replacing damaged or lost cells, while binary fission is a form of division in prokaryotes.

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  • 9. 

    A female gamete ___.

    • A.

      Is produced in the testes.

    • B.

      Is called an ovum or an egg cell.

    • C.

      Is called a spermatocyte.

    • D.

      Is called a polar body.

    Correct Answer
    B. Is called an ovum or an egg cell.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "is called an ovum or an egg cell." In sexual reproduction, the female gamete is produced in the ovaries and is called an ovum or an egg cell. The ovum is larger than the male gamete (sperm) and contains the genetic material necessary for fertilization. It is released from the ovaries during ovulation and can be fertilized by a sperm to form a zygote, which develops into an embryo.

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  • 10. 

    Watson and Crick, with the help of Rosalind Franklin, were the first to suggest that DNA is ___.

    • A.

      A short molecule

    • B.

      A protein molecule

    • C.

      The shape of a double helix

    • D.

      The genetic material

    Correct Answer
    C. The shape of a double helix
    Explanation
    Watson and Crick, along with the assistance of Rosalind Franklin, proposed that DNA is the shape of a double helix. This means that DNA is structured as two strands that twist around each other in a spiral shape. This groundbreaking discovery revolutionized our understanding of genetics and laid the foundation for further research in the field.

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  • 11. 

    Organic compounds always contain the element ____.

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Organium

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbon
    Explanation
    Organic compounds are defined as compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to other carbon atoms or other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. Therefore, the correct answer is carbon, as it is a fundamental element that is always present in organic compounds.

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  • 12. 

    The process by which plants use sunlight to make glucose is called ___.

    • A.

      Photosynthesis

    • B.

      Cellular respiration

    • C.

      The cell cycle

    • D.

      Mitosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Photosynthesis
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the correct answer because it is the process by which plants convert sunlight into glucose. During photosynthesis, plants use chlorophyll to capture energy from the sun, which is then used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. This process is essential for plants to produce their own food and release oxygen into the atmosphere. Cellular respiration is the process by which cells break down glucose to release energy, the cell cycle is the series of events that cells go through to divide and grow, and mitosis is the process of cell division.

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  • 13. 

    ___ is known as the universal solvent.

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Acetone

    • C.

      Alcohol

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    A. Water
    Explanation
    Water is known as the universal solvent because it has the ability to dissolve a wide range of substances. This is due to its polar nature, with the oxygen atom having a slight negative charge and the hydrogen atoms having a slight positive charge. This polarity allows water molecules to attract and surround ions and polar molecules, breaking them apart and forming hydration shells. As a result, water can dissolve many different solutes, making it an excellent solvent for biological and chemical reactions to occur.

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  • 14. 

    In the Linnaean system of classification, which of the following is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring?

    • A.

      Phylum

    • B.

      Species

    • C.

      Genus

    • D.

      Order

    Correct Answer
    B. Species
    Explanation
    In the Linnaean system of classification, a species is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring. This is because species is the most specific level of classification, representing a group of individuals that have similar characteristics and are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. The other options, such as phylum, genus, and order, are higher levels of classification that encompass broader groups of organisms.

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  • 15. 

    Which kingdom is not included in domain Eukarya?

    • A.

      Bacteria

    • B.

      Plantae

    • C.

      Protista

    • D.

      Animalia

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacteria
    Explanation
    Bacteria is not included in domain Eukarya because it belongs to the domain Bacteria, which is separate from Eukarya. The domain Eukarya includes organisms that have cells with a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, while bacteria are prokaryotes and lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Therefore, bacteria are not part of the Eukarya domain.

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  • 16. 

    How many kingdoms are in the current tree of life?

    • A.

      Four

    • B.

      Five

    • C.

      Six

    • D.

      Eight

    Correct Answer
    C. Six
    Explanation
    The correct answer is six because the tree of life is a representation of the evolutionary relationships between all living organisms. It is divided into six major kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea, and Bacteria. Each kingdom consists of different groups of organisms with similar characteristics and evolutionary histories. Therefore, there are six kingdoms in the current tree of life.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following facts supporting evolution would be found in the study of paleontology?

    • A.

      Embryos of very different organisms have very similar developmental stages.

    • B.

      A bats wing and a whales flipper have very similar bone structure.

    • C.

      Large, flightless birds are found on different continents: Australia (Emu), Africa (Ostrich), and Rhea (South America).

    • D.

      More primative fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers.

    Correct Answer
    D. More primative fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers.
    Explanation
    In the study of paleontology, the fact that more primitive fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers supports evolution. This is because it suggests a progression of species over time, with simpler organisms appearing earlier in the fossil record and more complex organisms appearing later. The principle of superposition, which states that older rocks are found below younger rocks, is used to determine the relative ages of fossils and provides evidence for the gradual development and diversification of life forms over time.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following processes results in cells losing their potential to become any type of cell?

    • A.

      Decision

    • B.

      Apoptosis

    • C.

      Determination

    • D.

      Regeneration

    Correct Answer
    C. Determination
    Explanation
    Determination is the process that results in cells losing their potential to become any type of cell. During determination, cells become committed to a specific cell fate and acquire specific characteristics and functions. This process is important for the development and differentiation of cells in multicellular organisms. Once a cell is determined, it can no longer change its fate and become a different type of cell. Therefore, determination is the correct answer as it describes the loss of potential for cell differentiation.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is the most complex level of organization in a multi-cellular structure?

    • A.

      Organ systems

    • B.

      Cells

    • C.

      Organs

    • D.

      Tissues

    Correct Answer
    A. Organ systems
    Explanation
    Organ systems are the most complex level of organization in a multi-cellular structure because they consist of multiple organs working together to perform specific functions in the body. Each organ system has a specific role, such as the respiratory system for breathing or the circulatory system for transporting blood. These systems are made up of different organs, which are composed of tissues, which in turn are made up of cells. Therefore, organ systems involve the highest level of organization and coordination among different structures in the body.

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  • 20. 

    The major organ system that eliminates waste products is the ___.

    • A.

      Excretory system

    • B.

      Endocrine system

    • C.

      Reproductive system

    • D.

      Integumentary system

    Correct Answer
    A. Excretory system
    Explanation
    The excretory system is responsible for eliminating waste products from the body. It includes organs such as the kidneys, bladder, and urethra, which filter and remove waste materials, excess water, and toxins from the blood. This system plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's internal balance by regulating the levels of electrolytes, water, and pH. The endocrine system produces and releases hormones, the reproductive system is involved in reproduction, and the integumentary system protects the body from external threats. However, none of these systems are primarily responsible for eliminating waste products.

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  • 21. 

    The body's internal environment must stay ___.

    • A.

      Within narrow ranges that support human life

    • B.

      The same as its external environment

    • C.

      Exactly the same at all times

    • D.

      Away from sudden outside temperature changes

    Correct Answer
    A. Within narrow ranges that support human life
    Explanation
    The body's internal environment must stay within narrow ranges that support human life in order to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is the body's ability to regulate its internal conditions, such as temperature, pH levels, and fluid balance, within a narrow range. This is essential for the proper functioning of cells, tissues, and organs. Deviating too far from these optimal ranges can lead to various health problems and even death. Therefore, it is crucial for the body to maintain stability and balance in its internal environment to support human life.

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  • 22. 

    Internal control systems maintain homeostasis by regulating which of the following?

    • A.

      Receptors in the body

    • B.

      PH of body fluids

    • C.

      External conditions

    • D.

      The body's control centers

    Correct Answer
    A. Receptors in the body
    Explanation
    Internal control systems maintain homeostasis by regulating receptors in the body. These receptors are responsible for detecting changes in the internal and external environment. Once a change is detected, the receptors send signals to the body's control centers, which then initiate appropriate responses to restore balance and maintain homeostasis. By regulating the receptors, the internal control systems ensure that the body can respond effectively to changes and maintain a stable internal environment.

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  • 23. 

    Each organ system coordinates with other organ systems through ___.

    • A.

      Identical sensors and targets

    • B.

      Their stem cells

    • C.

      Connective and muscular tissue

    • D.

      Chemical and nerve messages

    Correct Answer
    D. Chemical and nerve messages
    Explanation
    The organ systems in the body coordinate with each other through chemical and nerve messages. Chemical messages are sent through hormones and other signaling molecules, which travel through the bloodstream to target organs or cells. Nerve messages are transmitted through the nervous system, allowing for rapid communication between different parts of the body. These messages help to regulate and synchronize the functions of various organ systems, ensuring that the body works together as a unified whole.

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  • 24. 

    The long-term effects of a disruption of homeostasis include ___.

    • A.

      Destruction of organ systems

    • B.

      Establishment of feedback mechanisms

    • C.

      Regulation of the internal environment

    • D.

      The immune system takes control

    Correct Answer
    A. Destruction of organ systems
    Explanation
    A disruption of homeostasis refers to an imbalance in the body's internal environment. When homeostasis is not maintained over a long period of time, it can lead to the destruction of organ systems. This is because the body's organs rely on a stable internal environment to function properly. Without homeostasis, the organs may not receive the necessary nutrients and oxygen, leading to their deterioration and eventual failure.

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  • 25. 

    What is another way of describing what happens to your body when you have a cold?

    • A.

      Immune system damage

    • B.

      Vitamin D deficiency

    • C.

      Short-term disruption of homeostasis

    • D.

      Homeostatic mechanism destruction

    Correct Answer
    C. Short-term disruption of homeostasis
    Explanation
    When you have a cold, your body experiences a short-term disruption of homeostasis. Homeostasis refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment. A cold causes various symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, congestion, and fever, which disrupt the normal balance and functioning of the body. This disruption is temporary and the body's homeostatic mechanisms work to restore the balance and fight off the cold virus. Immune system damage and vitamin D deficiency are not accurate descriptions of what happens during a cold.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 03, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Christopher Mack
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