# Physics Involved With Astronomy Quiz

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If you want to learn about astronomy science, then you should take this quiz it will helpful for you!

• 1.

### If we use 1 millimeter to represent 1 light-year, how large in diameter is the Milky Way Galaxy?

• A.

1 million millimeters

• B.

1 kilometer

• C.

100 kilometers

• D.

100 millimeters

• E.

100 meters

E. 100 meters
Explanation
If we use 1 millimeter to represent 1 light-year, and the diameter of the Milky Way Galaxy is 100 meters, it means that the Milky Way Galaxy is 100 million times larger than 1 light-year. Therefore, the correct answer is 100 meters.

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• 2.

### Why do the patterns of stars in our sky look the same from year to year?

• A.

Because the stars in the constellations are so far away

• B.

Because the stars in the constellations move so slowly- typically about the speed of a snail- that their motions are not noticeable

• C.

Because the stars in the constellations are not moving

• D.

Because the stars in the constellations all move at the same speeds and in the same directions, so they don't change their relative positions

A. Because the stars in the constellations are so far away
Explanation
The patterns of stars in our sky look the same from year to year because the stars in the constellations are so far away. Since the stars are located at such vast distances, their positions appear fixed relative to each other from the perspective of Earth. This creates the illusion that the patterns formed by the stars remain unchanged over time.

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• 3.

### If the Earth's rotation axis was tilted by 45 degrees instead of 23.5 degrees, what are some of the implications, and why?

• A.

The seasons would be less extreme, because the Sun's rays would be less direct in the summer, and more direct in the winter

• B.

The seasons would be less extreme, because the surface of the Earth would be farther from the Sun in the summer, and closer to the Sun in the winter

• C.

The seasons would be more extreme, because the Sun's rays would be more direct in summer, and less direct in winter

• D.

The seasons would be more extreme, because the surface of the Earth would be closer to the Sun in the summer, and farther from the Sun in the winter

C. The seasons would be more extreme, because the Sun's rays would be more direct in summer, and less direct in winter
Explanation
If the Earth's rotation axis was tilted by 45 degrees instead of 23.5 degrees, the seasons would be more extreme. This is because the Sun's rays would be more direct in the summer, leading to hotter temperatures and longer days. In contrast, the Sun's rays would be less direct in the winter, resulting in colder temperatures and shorter days. The increased tilt would cause a greater difference in the angle at which sunlight reaches the Earth's surface throughout the year, leading to more pronounced seasonal variations.

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• 4.

### An angle of 1 arc second is

• A.

Less than the thickness of a human hair held at arm's length

• B.

Slightly more than a width of a basketball held at arm's length

• C.

About the width of a finger held at arm's length

• D.

A. Less than the thickness of a human hair held at arm's length
Explanation
An angle of 1 arc second is a very small unit of measurement. It is smaller than the thickness of a human hair held at arm's length. This means that if you were to hold a human hair at arm's length and measure the angle between the two ends of the hair, it would be larger than 1 arc second. Therefore, the correct answer is that an angle of 1 arc second is less than the thickness of a human hair held at arm's length.

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• 5.

### For most of history, the lack of observable stellar parallax was interpreted to mean that

• A.

Stars were too far away for parallax to be measured with available technology

• B.

Earth is stationary at the center of the universe

• C.

Galileo's theories of the universe were essentially correct

• D.

Stars must all lie at the same distance from Earth, on the celestial sphere

B. Earth is stationary at the center of the universe
• 6.

### You are standing on Earth's equator. Which way is Polaris, the North star?

• A.

The answer depends on whether it's winter or summer

• B.

30 degrees up, due West

• C.

On the northern horizon

• D.

The answer depends on what time of day (or night) it is

• E.

C. On the northern horizon
Explanation
Polaris, also known as the North Star, is located very close to the North Celestial Pole. As a result, it appears to be almost directly above the Earth's North Pole. Therefore, regardless of the season or time of day, if you are standing on the Earth's equator, Polaris will always be on the northern horizon.

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• 7.

### What happens during the apparent retrograde motion of a planet?

• A.

The planet moves backward through the sky

• B.

The planet moves backward in its orbit around the Sun

• C.

The planet moves through constellations that are not part of the zodiac

• D.

The planet rises in the west and sets in the east

• E.

The planet appears to move eastward with respect to the stars over a period of many nights

E. The planet appears to move eastward with respect to the stars over a period of many nights
Explanation
During the apparent retrograde motion of a planet, the planet appears to move eastward with respect to the stars over a period of many nights. This phenomenon occurs when the faster-moving Earth overtakes a slower-moving outer planet in its orbit around the Sun. As a result, the outer planet appears to move backward in the sky relative to the background stars. However, it is important to note that this backward motion is only apparent and not actual.

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• 8.

### How does a 12-month lunar calendar differ from our 12-month solar calendar?

• A.

It does not have seasons

• B.

It uses a 23-hour rather than a 24-hour day

• C.

It has about 11 fewer days

• D.

Its new year always occurs in February instead of on January 1

C. It has about 11 fewer days
Explanation
A 12-month lunar calendar differs from our 12-month solar calendar by having about 11 fewer days. This means that the lunar calendar is shorter than the solar calendar and does not align perfectly with the Earth's orbit around the sun. As a result, the lunar calendar may require adjustments or additional months to keep it in sync with the solar calendar.

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• 9.

### Galileo observed all of the following. Which observation offered direct proof of a planet orbiting the Sun?

• A.

The Milky Way is composed of many individual stars

• B.

Patterns of shadow and sunlight near the dividing line between the light and dark portions of the Moon's face

• C.

Four moons of Jupiter

• D.

Phases of Venus

D. Phases of Venus
Explanation
The phases of Venus offered direct proof of a planet orbiting the Sun. Galileo observed that Venus went through a series of phases similar to the Moon, going from a crescent shape to a full circle and back again. This observation could only be explained if Venus was orbiting the Sun, with its illuminated side facing away from Earth at certain points in its orbit. This provided evidence that not everything in the sky revolved around Earth, supporting the heliocentric model of the solar system.

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• 10.

### Kepler's third law, =  means that

• A.

The period of a planet does not depend on its mass

• B.

A planet's period does not depend on the eccentricity of its orbit

• C.

All orbits with the same semi-major axis have the same period

• D.

Planets that are farther from the Sun move at slower average speeds than nearer planets

• E.

All of the above are correct

E. All of the above are correct
Explanation
Kepler's third law states that all of the above statements are correct. The period of a planet does not depend on its mass, meaning that planets of different masses can have the same period. The period of a planet also does not depend on the eccentricity of its orbit, so planets with different eccentricities can have the same period. Additionally, all orbits with the same semi-major axis have the same period, meaning that planets with the same distance from the Sun will have the same period. Finally, planets that are farther from the Sun move at slower average speeds than nearer planets, which is consistent with Kepler's third law.

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• 11.

### The point along a planet's orbit where it is closest to the Sun is called the orbit's

• A.

Semi-major axis

• B.

Perihelion

• C.

Eccentricity

• D.

Aphelion

• E.

Period

B. Perihelion
Explanation
The point along a planet's orbit where it is closest to the Sun is called the perihelion. This term is used to describe the position of a planet in its elliptical orbit around the Sun. The perihelion is the point where the planet is at its shortest distance from the Sun, and it is opposite to the aphelion, which is the point where the planet is at its farthest distance from the Sun. The perihelion is an important concept in understanding the dynamics and characteristics of a planet's orbit.

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• 12.

### Which of the following statements about an ellipse is NOT true?

• A.

A circle is considered to be a special type of ellipse

• B.

The focus of an ellipse is always located precisely at the center of the ellipse

• C.

The semi-major axis of an ellipse is half the length of the longest line that you can draw across an ellipse

• D.

An ellipse with a large eccentricity looks much more elongated (stretched out) than an ellipse with a small eccentricity

B. The focus of an ellipse is always located precisely at the center of the ellipse
Explanation
An ellipse has two foci, which are located inside the ellipse. The foci are not always located precisely at the center of the ellipse.

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• 13.

### The astronauts feel weightless in the International Space Station, which orbits the Earth once every 90 minutes. Why?

• A.

Because the gravity from the Moon cancels out the gravity from Earth

• B.

Because there is no gravity in space

• C.

Because they are falling around the Earth

• D.

Because they are moving so fast

C. Because they are falling around the Earth
Explanation
The correct answer is because they are falling around the Earth. In the International Space Station, astronauts are in a constant state of freefall, which creates the sensation of weightlessness. Despite being pulled by Earth's gravity, they are moving at such a high speed that they continuously fall towards the Earth but also keep missing it, resulting in an orbit around the planet. This perpetual falling motion counteracts the feeling of gravity and gives the astronauts the sensation of weightlessness.

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• 14.

### As an interstellar cloud of hydrogen gas shrinks in size, its rate of rotation

• A.

Decreases, because the force of gravity strengthens as the cloud shrinks

• B.

Increases, because the force of gravity strengthens as the cloud shrinks

• C.

Decreases, because its angular momentum is conserved

• D.

Increases, because its angular momentum is conserved

• E.

Increases, because its total energy is conserved

D. Increases, because its angular momentum is conserved
Explanation
As the interstellar cloud of hydrogen gas shrinks in size, its rate of rotation increases because of the conservation of angular momentum. As the cloud contracts, its mass is brought closer to the center, resulting in a decrease in the moment of inertia. To conserve angular momentum, the cloud must rotate faster to compensate for the decrease in moment of inertia. Therefore, the rate of rotation increases as the cloud shrinks.

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• 15.

### A net force acting on an object will always cause a change in the object's

• A.

Direction

• B.

Speed

• C.

Momentum

• D.

Mass

C. Momentum
Explanation
When a net force acts on an object, it causes a change in the object's momentum. Momentum is the product of an object's mass and its velocity, and it is a measure of how difficult it is to stop the object or change its motion. So, when a net force acts on an object, it will cause a change in the object's velocity, which in turn affects its momentum. Therefore, the correct answer is momentum.

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• 16.

### A rock held above the ground has potential energy. As the rock falls, this potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. Finally, the rock hits the ground and stays there. What has happened to the energy?

• A.

The energy goes into the ground, and as a result, the orbit of the Earth about the Sun is slightly changed

• B.

It is transformed back into gravitational potential energy

• C.

The rock keeps the energy inside it in the form of mass-energy

• D.

The energy goes to producing sound and to heating the ground, rock, and surrounding air

C. The rock keeps the energy inside it in the form of mass-energy
• 17.

### Newton showed that Kepler's laws are

• A.

Actually only three of seven distinct laws of planetary motion

• B.

Natural consequences of the law of universal gravitation

• C.

The key to proving that Earth orbits our Sun

• D.

Seriously in error

B. Natural consequences of the law of universal gravitation
Explanation
Newton showed that Kepler's laws are natural consequences of the law of universal gravitation. This means that Newton was able to mathematically derive Kepler's laws using his law of universal gravitation. This discovery was significant because it provided a deeper understanding of the motion of celestial bodies and helped to establish the heliocentric model of the solar system, proving that Earth orbits the Sun. Therefore, the statement "Natural consequences of the law of universal gravitation" is a valid explanation for the correct answer.

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• 18.

### What is the acceleration of gravity on Earth?

• A.

9.8 km/s downward

• B.

9.8 km/s^2 downward

• C.

9.8 m/s downward

• D.

9.8 m/s^2 downward

• E.

9.8 m^2/s downward

D. 9.8 m/s^2 downward
Explanation
The acceleration of gravity on Earth is 9.8 m/s^2 downward. This means that any object near the surface of the Earth will experience a constant acceleration of 9.8 meters per second squared towards the center of the Earth. This acceleration is due to the gravitational force exerted by the Earth on the object.

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• 19.

### Considering Einstein's famous equation, E=mc^2, which of the following statements is true?

• A.

You can make mass into energy if you can accelerate the mass to the speed of light

• B.

It takes a large amount of mass to produce a small amount of energy

• C.

A small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy

• D.

One kilogram of mass represents 1 joule of energy

• E.

Mass can be turned into energy, but energy cannot be turned back into mass

C. A small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy
Explanation
According to Einstein's famous equation, E=mc^2, a small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy. This equation states that energy (E) is equal to mass (m) multiplied by the speed of light (c) squared. Since the speed of light is a very large number, even a small amount of mass can be converted into a large amount of energy. Therefore, the statement that a small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy is true.

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• 20.

### According to the universal law of gravitation, the force due to gravity is

• A.

Inversely proportional to the distance between objects

• B.

Directly proportional to the distance between objects

• C.

Not dependent on the distance between objects

• D.

Directly proportional to the square of the distance between objects

• E.

Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects

E. Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects
Explanation
The correct answer is "Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects" because according to the universal law of gravitation formulated by Isaac Newton, the force of gravity between two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. This means that as the distance between two objects increases, the force of gravity between them decreases. Conversely, as the distance between two objects decreases, the force of gravity between them increases.

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• 21.

### According to the universal law of gravitation, if you double the masses of both attracting objects, then the gravitational force between them will

• A.

Decrease by a factor of 4

• B.

Increase by a factor of 2

• C.

Decrease by a factor of 2

• D.

Not change at all

• E.

Increase by a factor of 4

E. Increase by a factor of 4
Explanation
According to the universal law of gravitation, the gravitational force between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses. If the masses of both attracting objects are doubled, the product of their masses will also double. Since the gravitational force is directly proportional to this product, it will increase by a factor of 2. Additionally, the gravitational force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. However, the question does not mention any change in distance, so we can assume it remains constant. Therefore, the correct answer is that the gravitational force will increase by a factor of 4.

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• 22.

### The mass of Jupiter can be calculated by

• A.

Measuring the orbital period and distance of Jupiter's orbit around the Sun

• B.

Knowing the Sun's mass and measuring the average distance of Jupiter from the Sun

• C.

Measuring the orbital speed of one of Jupiter's moons

• D.

Knowing the Sun's mass and measuring how Jupiter's speed changes during its elliptical orbit around the Sun

• E.

Measuring the orbital period and distance of one of Jupiter's moons

E. Measuring the orbital period and distance of one of Jupiter's moons
Explanation
The mass of Jupiter can be calculated by measuring the orbital period and distance of one of Jupiter's moons. This is because the mass of a planet can be determined using Kepler's Third Law of Planetary Motion, which states that the square of the orbital period of a moon or a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. By measuring the orbital period and distance of one of Jupiter's moons, we can apply this law to calculate the mass of Jupiter.

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• 23.

### Suppose you drop a 10-pound weight and a 5-pound weight on the Moon, both from the same height at the same time. What will happen?

• A.

The 10-pound weight will hit the ground before the 5-pound weight

• B.

Both weights will float freely, since everything is weightless on the Moon

• C.

Both will hit the ground at the same time

• D.

The 5-pound weight will hit the ground before the 10-pound weight

C. Both will hit the ground at the same time
Explanation
Both weights will hit the ground at the same time because the acceleration due to gravity on the Moon is the same for all objects, regardless of their mass. This means that both the 10-pound weight and the 5-pound weight will experience the same acceleration and fall at the same rate, resulting in them hitting the ground simultaneously.

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• 24.

### Compare the energy and speed of infrared and visible light. Which of the following statements is true?

• A.

Infrared light has higher energy, and moves faster

• B.

Infrared light has higher energy, but the same speed

• C.

Visible light has higher energy, and moves faster

• D.

Visible light has higher energy, but the same speed

D. Visible light has higher energy, but the same speed
Explanation
Visible light has higher energy, but the same speed. This is because the energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency, and visible light has a higher frequency compared to infrared light. However, the speed of light in a vacuum is constant for all wavelengths, including both infrared and visible light. Therefore, although visible light has higher energy, it still moves at the same speed as infrared light.

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• 25.

### The angular separation of two stars is 0.1 arc seconds and you photograph them with a telescope that has an angular resolution of 1 arc second. What will you see?

• A.

You will see two distinct stars in your photograph

• B.

The photo will seem to show only one star rather than two

• C.

The two stars will appear to be touching, looking rather like a small dumbbell

• D.

The stars will not show up at all in your photograph

B. The photo will seem to show only one star rather than two
Explanation
When the angular separation of two stars is smaller than the angular resolution of the telescope, they will appear as a single point of light. In this case, the angular separation of the stars is 0.1 arc seconds, which is smaller than the angular resolution of the telescope (1 arc second). Therefore, when the stars are photographed with this telescope, they will appear as one star instead of two distinct stars.

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• 26.

### The Chandra X-ray Observatory must operate in space because

• A.

X-ray telescopes require the use of grazing incidence mirrors

• B.

X-rays are too dangerous to be allowed on the ground

• C.

X-rays do not penetrate Earth's atmosphere

• D.

It was built by NASA

C. X-rays do not penetrate Earth's atmosphere
Explanation
X-rays do not penetrate Earth's atmosphere. This is the reason why the Chandra X-ray Observatory must operate in space. X-rays have a high energy level and are easily absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, making it impossible to observe them from the ground. By operating in space, the Chandra X-ray Observatory can avoid the interference and absorption caused by the atmosphere, allowing it to capture and study X-ray emissions from celestial objects more effectively.

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• 27.

### What is the purpose of adaptive optics?

• A.

It allows several small telescopes to work together like a single larger telescope

• B.

It allows ground-based telescopes to observe ultraviolet light that normally does not penetrate the atmosphere

• C.

It is a special technology that allows the Hubble Space Telescope to adapt to study many different types of astronomical objects

• D.

It reduces blurring caused by atmospheric turbulence for telescopes on the ground

D. It reduces blurring caused by atmospheric turbulence for telescopes on the ground
Explanation
Adaptive optics is a technology used to reduce blurring caused by atmospheric turbulence for telescopes on the ground. By continuously monitoring the distortions caused by the Earth's atmosphere, adaptive optics systems can make rapid adjustments to the telescope's mirrors in real-time, counteracting the blurring effects and producing clearer and sharper images. This allows astronomers to obtain more precise observations and study celestial objects with greater detail.

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• 28.

### Why does Earth have the strongest magnetic field among the terrestrial worlds?

• A.

It rotates much faster than any other terrestrial world

• B.

It is the only one that has a metallic core

• C.

It is the only one that has both a partially molten metallic core and reasonably rapid rotation

• D.

It is the most volcanically active world

• E.

It is by far the largest terrestrial world

C. It is the only one that has both a partially molten metallic core and reasonably rapid rotation
Explanation
The Earth has the strongest magnetic field among the terrestrial worlds because it is the only one that has both a partially molten metallic core and reasonably rapid rotation. The molten metallic core generates a magnetic field through the process of convection, where the movement of the liquid metal creates electric currents. The rapid rotation of the Earth helps to amplify this magnetic field, creating a strong and stable magnetic field around the planet.

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• 29.

### We are not yet capable of detecting life on planets around other stars. But as our technology develops, our first real chance of detecting such life will probably come from

• A.

Examining spectral lines from the atmospheres of distant planets

• B.

Examining high-resolution images of the planets made by orbiting telescopes

• C.

Determining the orbital properties of the planets

• D.

Sending spacecraft to study the planets up close

A. Examining spectral lines from the atmospheres of distant planets
Explanation
As technology develops, examining spectral lines from the atmospheres of distant planets is considered the most viable method for detecting life on planets around other stars. By analyzing the spectral lines, scientists can look for signs of chemical compounds that are indicative of life, such as oxygen, methane, or water vapor. This method allows for remote observation and does not require sending spacecraft to study the planets up close. Additionally, high-resolution images of the planets or determining their orbital properties may provide valuable information about the planets themselves, but they may not directly indicate the presence of life.

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• 30.

### Olympus Mons is

• A.

A huge volcano on Mars

• B.

A large lava plain on the Moon

• C.

A huge volcano on Venus

• D.

A great canyon on Mars

A. A huge volcano on Mars
Explanation
Olympus Mons is a massive volcano on Mars. It is the largest volcano in the solar system, standing at a height of about 13.6 miles (22 kilometers) and having a diameter of approximately 370 miles (600 kilometers). This volcano is a shield volcano, characterized by its broad, low-profile shape. It is believed to have formed through multiple eruptions over millions of years, resulting in its enormous size. The volcanic activity on Mars has been relatively dormant for millions of years, but Olympus Mons serves as a testament to the planet's volcanic past.

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• 31.

### In general, how does the size and location of a star's habitable zone depend on the star's mass?

• A.

The smaller (less massive) the star, the larger and farther-out the habitable zone

• B.

The smaller (less massive) the star, the larger and the closer-in the habitable zone

• C.

The habitable zone is always about the same size, but its location moves inward for smaller stars

• D.

The smaller (less massive) the star, the smaller and the closer-in the habitable zone

D. The smaller (less massive) the star, the smaller and the closer-in the habitable zone
Explanation
The size and location of a star's habitable zone depend on the star's mass. Smaller (less massive) stars have a smaller habitable zone, meaning that the region where liquid water can exist on a planet's surface is smaller. Additionally, the habitable zone for smaller stars is closer to the star itself. This is because smaller stars emit less energy, so the region where temperatures are suitable for liquid water is closer to the star.

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• 32.

### The Antarctic ice-core plot of carbon dioxide (ppm) shows peaks and valleys at about the same times as the temperature plot has peaks and valleys, over 400,000 years. What can we conclude based on this fact alone?

• A.

The carbon dioxide concentration is inversely related to the global average temperature

• B.

Higher carbon dioxide concentrations cause higher global average temperatures

• C.

Higher global average temperatures cause higher global carbon dioxide concentrations

• D.

There is a correlation between the carbon dioxide concentration and the average temperature

D. There is a correlation between the carbon dioxide concentration and the average temperature
Explanation
Based on the fact that the Antarctic ice-core plot of carbon dioxide (ppm) shows peaks and valleys at about the same times as the temperature plot, we can conclude that there is a correlation between the carbon dioxide concentration and the average temperature. This means that as the carbon dioxide concentration increases or decreases, the average temperature also tends to increase or decrease. However, this fact alone does not provide information about the direction or causality of the relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and temperature.

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• 33.

### Which moons are sometimes called the Galilean moons?

• A.

The two largest moons in the solar system: Ganymede and Titan

• B.

The moons orbiting Uranus, which was once named "planet Galileo"

• C.

The four largest moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto

• D.

The moons that orbit their planet "backward" compared to their planet's rotation, such as Neptune's moon Triton

C. The four largest moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto
Explanation
The four largest moons of Jupiter, namely Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, are sometimes called the Galilean moons. This is because they were discovered by the astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610 and were the first objects observed to orbit another planet. They are also the largest and most massive moons in the solar system.

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• 34.

### Which of the following methods uses the principle of orbital acceleration to detect planets around another star?

• A.

Taking a picture of the planet next to the star

• B.

Measuring a single Doppler shift of a star, one time

• C.

Measuring the change of light of a star as the planet crosses in front of it

• D.

Measuring change in the Doppler shifts of a star over the course of many nights

D. Measuring change in the Doppler shifts of a star over the course of many nights
Explanation
The method of measuring change in the Doppler shifts of a star over the course of many nights uses the principle of orbital acceleration to detect planets around another star. This is because as a planet orbits a star, it exerts a gravitational pull on the star, causing the star to "wobble" back and forth. This motion creates a change in the wavelengths of light emitted by the star, known as the Doppler shift. By measuring these shifts over multiple nights, astronomers can infer the presence of a planet and gather information about its orbit and characteristics.

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• 35.

### How does the Kepler mission plan to detect Earth-like planets around other stars?

• A.

By directly imaging the planet in the infrared

• B.

By observing the slight dip in brightness of the central star as the planet transits

• C.

By observing the spectrum of the planet

• D.

By measuring the Doppler shift in spectral lines as the central star is tugged to and fro by the planet

• E.

By measuring the slight shift in position of the central star as it is tugged to and fro by the planet

B. By observing the slight dip in brightness of the central star as the planet transits
Explanation
The Kepler mission plans to detect Earth-like planets around other stars by observing the slight dip in brightness of the central star as the planet transits. This method involves monitoring the changes in the brightness of the star as the planet passes in front of it, causing a temporary decrease in the star's brightness. By analyzing these fluctuations, scientists can determine the presence and characteristics of the planet. This technique is effective in identifying exoplanets and has been successfully used by the Kepler mission to discover thousands of planets beyond our solar system.

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• 36.

### Hot Jupiters were a surprise to astronomers. What is the current explanation for their existence?

• A.

Jupiters are supposed to form far away from their host star, and then they migrate closer through gravitational interactions with the protoplanetary disk

• B.

Jupiters form as a companion to the host star, but fail to become actual stars themselves because they are not massive enough

• C.

The temperature of the hot Jupiters is highly uncertain, so they might not be as hot as the astronomers say

• D.

Jupiters actually can form close to the host star, since they do not require as much hydrogen compounds and ice as originally thought

A. Jupiters are supposed to form far away from their host star, and then they migrate closer through gravitational interactions with the protoplanetary disk
Explanation
Hot Jupiters were initially unexpected because Jupiters were believed to form far away from their host star and then migrate closer through gravitational interactions with the protoplanetary disk. This explanation suggests that the hot Jupiters observed are the result of this migration process, rather than forming close to the host star as originally thought.

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• 37.

### What kind of thermal radiation does the Earth emit?

• A.

Visible light

• B.

Infrared light

• C.

Visible and ultraviolet light

• D.

Infrared and visible light

• E.

Infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light

B. Infrared light
Explanation
The Earth emits thermal radiation in the form of infrared light. This is because the Earth's surface absorbs sunlight and then re-emits it as heat energy in the form of infrared radiation. This infrared radiation is responsible for the Earth's heat budget and plays a crucial role in maintaining the planet's temperature.

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• 38.

### If the freezing point of ices of all types was at a much lower temperature, what change would that imply for the formation of our solar system?

• A.

The gas giants could have formed at a closer distance

• B.

There would be no change in where gas giants could form, because the freezing point of ices did not affect the formation of gas giants

• C.

The gas giants would have to form at a larger distance

C. The gas giants would have to form at a larger distance
Explanation
If the freezing point of ices of all types was at a much lower temperature, it would imply that the gas giants would have to form at a larger distance. This is because the lower freezing point of ices would lead to the formation of more ice-rich bodies farther away from the central star. As a result, the gas giants would need to form in regions where there is a higher concentration of these ice-rich bodies, which would be at a larger distance from the star.

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• 39.

### Which of the following discoveries would cause us to re-evaluate the nebular theory for forming planets?

• A.

A star has 20 planets

• B.

A star has zero planets

• C.

Of the star's five terrestrial planets, one has a large moon

• D.

A star's 5 terrestrial planets orbit in the opposite direction of its 3 jovian planets

• E.

Two of the star's planets are rotating in directions backwards compared to their orbital direction

D. A star's 5 terrestrial planets orbit in the opposite direction of its 3 jovian planets
Explanation
If a star's 5 terrestrial planets orbit in the opposite direction of its 3 jovian planets, it would cause us to re-evaluate the nebular theory for forming planets. The nebular theory suggests that planets form from a rotating disk of gas and dust around a young star. If the planets in a star system have different orbital directions, it would challenge this theory and require a new explanation for their formation.

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• 40.

### Which of the following gases, which we can detect (if present) in infrared spectra, would be a strong indicator of life on another planet?

• A.

Carbon dioxide

• B.

Sulfuric acid

• C.

Methane

• D.

Water vapor

• E.

Ozone

E. Ozone
Explanation
Ozone is a strong indicator of life on another planet because it is primarily produced by the interaction of oxygen with ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The presence of ozone suggests the existence of oxygen and the possibility of photosynthetic organisms, which are key indicators of life. Additionally, ozone acts as a shield against harmful ultraviolet radiation, making it essential for the survival of life forms on Earth. Therefore, the detection of ozone in the infrared spectra of another planet would strongly suggest the presence of life.

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• 41.

### Where is most of the water on Mars?

• A.

Frozen on the peaks of its tall volcanoes

• B.

In its clouds

• C.

In its polar caps and subsurface ground ice

• D.

Distributed evenly throughout its atmosphere

• E.

In deep underground deposits

C. In its polar caps and subsurface ground ice
Explanation
Most of the water on Mars is found in its polar caps and subsurface ground ice. This is supported by scientific evidence and observations from spacecraft missions. The polar caps are composed of a mix of water ice and carbon dioxide ice, and the subsurface ground ice is found beneath the surface of the planet. This distribution of water suggests that Mars had a wetter past and that water may still exist in these frozen forms on the planet.

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• 42.

### According to modern science, what was the approximate chemical composition of the solar nebula?

• A.

50% hydrogen and helium, 50% everything else

• B.

98% hydrogen and helium, 2% everything else

• C.

98% hydrogen, 2% helium

• D.

Roughly equal proportions of hydrogen, helium, water, and methane

B. 98% hydrogen and helium, 2% everything else
Explanation
According to modern science, the approximate chemical composition of the solar nebula was 98% hydrogen and helium, with the remaining 2% consisting of other elements. This composition is based on observations and studies of the early solar system and is consistent with the abundance of elements found in other stars and interstellar clouds. The high percentage of hydrogen and helium reflects their abundance in the universe, while the 2% of other elements includes heavier elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and trace amounts of other elements. This composition is important in understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system.

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• 43.

### How do scientists estimate how old the solar system is?

• A.

They make up a guess

• B.

They look up the answer in a book

• C.

They measure the abundances of radioactive elements in meteorites, and use their half-lives to calculate the age

• D.

They measure how fast the Sun is losing energy, and how much energy it has to lose

• E.

They measure the speeds and distances of galaxies, and calculate the time it took for them to travel that distance

C. They measure the abundances of radioactive elements in meteorites, and use their half-lives to calculate the age
Explanation
Scientists estimate the age of the solar system by measuring the abundances of radioactive elements in meteorites and using their half-lives to calculate the age. Radioactive elements decay over time at a known rate, so by measuring the amounts of these elements and their decay products in meteorites, scientists can determine how long it has been since the meteorites formed. This method provides a reliable estimate of the age of the solar system.

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• 44.

### How do we know the mass of Neptune?

• A.

The size and density of Neptune

• B.

The orbital speed of Neptune moving around the Sun

• C.

The distance of Neptune from the Earth and its rotation period

• D.

The period and size of Neptune's orbit around the Sun

• E.

The periods and sizes of the orbits of the moons around Neptune

E. The periods and sizes of the orbits of the moons around Neptune
• 45.

### Which in its gaseous form is not a greenhouse gas?

• A.

Carbon dioxide

• B.

Water

• C.

Molecular nitrogen

• D.

Methane

C. Molecular nitrogen
Explanation
Molecular nitrogen is not a greenhouse gas because it does not absorb or emit infrared radiation, which is the primary mechanism by which greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere. While carbon dioxide, water, and methane are all greenhouse gases, molecular nitrogen, which makes up about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.

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• 46.

### What atmospheric constituent is responsible for the blue color of Uranus and Neptune?

• A.

Hydrogen

• B.

Water

• C.

Methane

• D.

Ammonia

C. Methane
Explanation
Methane is responsible for the blue color of Uranus and Neptune. Methane absorbs red light and reflects blue light, giving these planets their distinct blue appearance. The high concentration of methane in their atmospheres creates a strong blue coloration, making them stand out from other planets in the solar system.

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• 47.

### Which moon is considered likely to have a deep, subsurface ocean of liquid water?

• A.

Io

• B.

Miranda

• C.

Europa

• D.

Triton

C. Europa
Explanation
Europa is considered likely to have a deep, subsurface ocean of liquid water. This is because observations from the Galileo spacecraft and other missions have provided strong evidence of a global ocean beneath Europa's icy crust. The moon's surface shows signs of geological activity, such as fractures and ridges, which suggest that the ice shell is interacting with the ocean below. Additionally, Europa's gravitational interactions with Jupiter generate tidal heating, providing a potential energy source to maintain a liquid ocean. These factors make Europa a prime candidate for the existence of a subsurface ocean.

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• 48.

### Which of the following statements best explains why the planets orbit in nearly a single plane and in the same direction around the Sun?

• A.

The Sun rotates in the same direction, and spun out the planets as it formed

• B.

It's a mysterious coincidence: the planets form randomly, so it's a puzzle how they orbit that way

• C.

The planets formed from a disk of rotating gas

• D.

The planets all rotate in the same direction as the orbit

C. The planets formed from a disk of rotating gas
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that the planets orbit in a nearly single plane and in the same direction around the Sun because they formed from a disk of rotating gas. This explanation aligns with the widely accepted theory of planet formation, known as the nebular hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, planets are formed from a rotating disk of gas and dust surrounding a young star. As the gas and dust in the disk gradually come together due to gravity, they form clumps that eventually become planets. The rotation of the disk causes the planets to orbit in a similar plane and direction around the star.

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• 49.

### The Huygens probe took numerous pictures as it descended to Titan's surface in 2005. What did the pictures show?

• A.

A densely cratered surface

• B.

Lava flows of molten basalt

• C.

Primitive life forms

• D.

Features or erosion, including what appeared to be dry river valleys and lake beds

D. Features or erosion, including what appeared to be dry river valleys and lake beds
Explanation
The correct answer is "Features of erosion, including what appeared to be dry river valleys and lake beds." The Huygens probe captured numerous pictures during its descent to Titan's surface in 2005. These pictures revealed various features of erosion, such as dry river valleys and lake beds. This suggests that there might have been liquid flowing on Titan's surface in the past, indicating a dynamic geological history. The presence of these features provides valuable insights into the geological processes and history of Titan, Saturn's largest moon.

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• Current Version
• Mar 20, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• May 10, 2014
Quiz Created by
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