Drugs During For Pregnant Woman

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Drugs During For Pregnant Woman - Quiz

In this quiz, you will get multiple choice questions on Pregnant women, fertilization, brain development. Let's start and learn now!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    When sound waves produced by an animal excite receptors in 2-year-old Ben's ears, ___ has occurred. When that sound is identified as being the "moo" of a cow, ___ has occurred.

    • A.

      Sensation; perception

    • B.

      Basic perception; intermodal perception

    • C.

      Perception; sensation

    • D.

      Reception; senation

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensation; perception
    Explanation
    When sound waves produced by an animal excite receptors in 2-year-old Ben's ears, sensation has occurred. This refers to the process of detecting and receiving sensory information from the environment. When that sound is identified as being the "moo" of a cow, perception has occurred. This refers to the process of interpreting and giving meaning to sensory information.

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  • 2. 

    Since the birth of her baby, Rene has been feeling postpartum blues, demonstrating what behavior?

    • A.

      Mild depression and anxiety

    • B.

      Severe depression and anxiety

    • C.

      Hallucinations and delusions

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Mild depression and anxiety
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mild depression and anxiety. Postpartum blues, also known as "baby blues," is a common condition that affects many new mothers. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, mood swings, irritability, and anxiety. These symptoms are usually mild and resolve on their own within a few weeks after giving birth. Severe depression and anxiety, as well as hallucinations and delusions, are more indicative of postpartum depression or postpartum psychosis, which are more serious conditions that require medical attention.

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  • 3. 

    A developmental psychologist with a strong belief in the influence of nurture on social development would most likely explain a youngster's behavioral problem by saying:

    • A.

      It's in his genes

    • B.

      He's just a late bloomer

    • C.

      He was raised by incompetent parents

    • D.

      He probably had a traumatic prenatal period

    Correct Answer
    C. He was raised by incompetent parents
    Explanation
    A developmental psychologist with a strong belief in the influence of nurture on social development would most likely explain a youngster's behavioral problem by saying that he was raised by incompetent parents. This explanation suggests that the child's problematic behavior is a result of the parents' inability to provide appropriate guidance, support, and socialization opportunities during his upbringing. It emphasizes the importance of environmental factors, such as parenting style and quality of care, in shaping a child's social development.

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  • 4. 

    Cathy is in Erikson's autonomy vs shame and doubt stage and has spilled a jug of milk while trying to pour it into a cup. According to Erikson her father should:

    • A.

      Punish Cathy for her carelessness

    • B.

      Ignore the event entirely

    • C.

      Quickly clean up the mess so Cathy doesn't experience any shame or doubt.

    • D.

      Recognize that Cathy needs to experience some shame and doubt for the best psychosocial development.

    Correct Answer
    D. Recognize that Cathy needs to experience some shame and doubt for the best psychosocial development.
    Explanation
    In Erikson's autonomy vs shame and doubt stage, children are developing a sense of independence and self-control. By recognizing that Cathy needs to experience some shame and doubt, her father is allowing her to learn from her mistakes and develop a sense of responsibility. This will contribute to her psychosocial development by helping her understand the consequences of her actions and fostering a healthy sense of autonomy. Punishing Cathy or ignoring the event would not provide her with the opportunity for growth and learning.

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  • 5. 

    When he was 6 years old, Ron could recite the Pledge of Allegiance from memory. When Ron was 9 years old, he began to understand what the terms pledge and republic meant. Finally, at age 12, Ron realized the political importance of this pledge. This illustrates the concept of

    • A.

      Cognitive development

    • B.

      Kinesthetic development

    • C.

      Biological development

    • D.

      Socioemotional development

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive development
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes Ron's progression in understanding and realizing the significance of the Pledge of Allegiance as he grows older. This demonstrates cognitive development, which refers to the growth and maturation of a person's thinking, understanding, and knowledge. Ron's ability to recite the pledge at a young age shows early cognitive abilities, while his understanding of the terms pledge and republic at age 9 indicates further cognitive development. Finally, his realization of the political importance of the pledge at age 12 highlights his continued cognitive growth and comprehension.

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  • 6. 

    Bandura's social cognitive theory identified that immediately after children watched a model hitting a blow-up Bobo doll these children 

    • A.

      Were less likely to be violent as they played in the same setting

    • B.

      Were more likely to be violent as they played in the same setting

    • C.

      Were not influenced by the model at all

    • D.

      Boys were more likely to be violent but girls were less likely to be violent

    Correct Answer
    B. Were more likely to be violent as they played in the same setting
    Explanation
    Bandura's social cognitive theory suggests that children are likely to imitate the behavior they observe in others, particularly if the behavior is rewarded or not punished. In this case, the children who watched a model hitting a blow-up Bobo doll are more likely to be violent as they play in the same setting. This is because they have witnessed the aggressive behavior and may see it as acceptable or even rewarding. This supports Bandura's theory that observational learning plays a significant role in shaping behavior.

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  • 7. 

    At the center of Bronfenbrenner's environmental system is the 

    • A.

      Individual

    • B.

      Microsystem

    • C.

      Exosystem

    • D.

      Chronosystem

    Correct Answer
    A. Individual
    Explanation
    Bronfenbrenner's environmental system is a theory that emphasizes the importance of the individual as the central focus of their environment. This theory suggests that an individual's development is influenced by various systems, including their immediate surroundings (microsystem), the larger social settings they are a part of (exosystem), and the changes that occur over time (chronosystem). However, at the core of this system is the individual themselves, as their characteristics, behaviors, and experiences shape their interactions with these different environmental systems.

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  • 8. 

    Correlation ___________ causation

    • A.

      Equals

    • B.

      Does not equal

    • C.

      Proves

    • D.

      Is not related to

    Correct Answer
    B. Does not equal
    Explanation
    The statement "Correlation does not equal causation" means that just because two variables are correlated, it does not necessarily mean that one variable causes the other. Correlation only indicates a relationship or association between variables, but it does not imply a cause-and-effect relationship. Other factors or variables could be influencing the relationship or there may be a coincidence between the two variables. Therefore, correlation should not be mistaken as proof of causation.

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  • 9. 

    _________________ is using an ethnic label such as African American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is.

    • A.

      Ethnic value-free

    • B.

      Ethnicity interpretation

    • C.

      Ethnic gloss

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Ethnic gloss
    Explanation
    Ethnic gloss refers to the act of using an ethnic label, such as African American or Latino, in a superficial way that oversimplifies the diversity within the ethnic group. It portrays the group as more homogeneous than it actually is, ignoring the individual differences and variations within the group. This term highlights the danger of making assumptions or generalizations about an entire ethnic group based on limited or stereotypical understanding.

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  • 10. 

    The basic premise of identical-twins-reared-apart research is-that the origins of a behavior can be identified by

    • A.

      Varying both genetics and the environment.

    • B.

      Holding both the environment and genetics constant.

    • C.

      Holding an environment constant while varying genetics.

    • D.

      Holding genetics constant while varying the environment.

    Correct Answer
    D. Holding genetics constant while varying the environment.
    Explanation
    The basic premise of identical-twins-reared-apart research is to determine the influence of genetics and environment on behavior. By holding genetics constant (as identical twins share the same genetic makeup) and varying the environment, researchers can identify the impact of the environment on behavior. This approach allows for isolating the effects of genetics and environment, providing insights into the relative contributions of each factor in shaping behavior.

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  • 11. 

    In the_________________ view of social cognitive theory, the evolutionary pressures create changes in biological structures for the use of tools, which enable organisms to manipulate, alter, and construct new environmental conditions.

    • A.

      One-sided evoluionsim

    • B.

      Physical evolutionism

    • C.

      Bidirectional

    • D.

      Monodirectional

    Correct Answer
    C. Bidirectional
    Explanation
    According to the given information, the correct answer is "bidirectional." This suggests that the social cognitive theory views the evolutionary pressures as causing changes in biological structures, enabling organisms to use tools and manipulate their environment. The term "bidirectional" implies that this relationship works in both directions, meaning that evolutionary pressures influence biological structures, and these structures, in turn, allow organisms to adapt to and modify their environment.

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  • 12. 

    What is the chromosomal pattern for females?

    • A.

      XX chromosome pattern

    • B.

      XY chromosome pattern

    • C.

      XXY chromosome pattern

    • D.

      YY chromosome pattern

    Correct Answer
    A. XX chromosome pattern
    Explanation
    The chromosomal pattern for females is XX. This means that females have two X chromosomes. The presence of two X chromosomes determines the female sex characteristics and reproductive system.

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  • 13. 

    If a pregnant woman is using drugs during her pregnancy and the baby is born with an addiction, this would be an example of

    • A.

      Nature

    • B.

      Nurture

    • C.

      Continuity

    • D.

      Maturation

    Correct Answer
    B. Nurture
    Explanation
    This scenario suggests that the baby's addiction is a result of the environment in which it was raised, specifically the mother's drug use during pregnancy. This aligns with the concept of nurture, which emphasizes the role of external factors such as upbringing and environment in shaping an individual's traits and behaviors.

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  • 14. 

    One study (Golombok et al., 2001) investigated the socioemotional development of children in three types of families: families created by in vitro fertilization, adopted families, and naturally conceived families. What were the findings of the study?

    • A.

      The adoptive families experienced superior bonding and attachment in comparison to the control group families.

    • B.

      The families created by reproductive technologies experienced inferior bonding and attachment in comparison to the control group families.

    • C.

      The families created by natural conception were more cohesive.

    • D.

      There were no differences between the three types of families on any of the measures of children's socioemotional development.

    Correct Answer
    D. There were no differences between the three types of families on any of the measures of children's socioemotional development.
    Explanation
    The study found that there were no differences between the three types of families (families created by in vitro fertilization, adopted families, and naturally conceived families) on any of the measures of children's socioemotional development.

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  • 15. 

    __________________________ correlations occur when children seek out environments that they find compatible and stimulating, which means finding a setting that is suited to one's abilities. 

    • A.

      Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment

    • B.

      Evocative genotype-environment

    • C.

      Passive genotype-environment

    • D.

      Shared environmental

    Correct Answer
    A. Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment
    Explanation
    Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations occur when children actively seek out environments that match their genetic predispositions. This means that children select environments that are compatible with their abilities and interests. For example, a child who is naturally athletic may choose to participate in sports activities. This correlation suggests that individuals play an active role in shaping their own environments based on their genetic characteristics.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following locations would not be considered for a naturalistic observation?

    • A.

      A home

    • B.

      A daycare center

    • C.

      A child-study lab at the university

    • D.

      A sporting event

    Correct Answer
    C. A child-study lab at the university
    Explanation
    A child-study lab at the university would not be considered for a naturalistic observation because it is a controlled environment where researchers manipulate variables and conditions. Naturalistic observation involves observing individuals in their natural setting without any interference or manipulation. The child-study lab at the university is a controlled setting specifically designed for research purposes, which does not reflect the natural environment of the individuals being observed.

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  • 17. 

    A person's intelligence, temperament, height, weight, ability to pitch a baseball, and ability to read are all examples of   ________ and ______ working together.

    • A.

      Shared experiences; nonshared experiences

    • B.

      Emergence; non-emergence

    • C.

      Heredity; environment

    • D.

      Genotype; phenotype

    Correct Answer
    C. Heredity; environment
    Explanation
    Heredity refers to the genetic factors that are passed down from parents to their offspring, which can influence a person's intelligence, temperament, and physical characteristics such as height and weight. Environment refers to the external factors and experiences that a person is exposed to, which can also shape their intelligence, temperament, and abilities such as pitching a baseball and reading. Therefore, heredity and environment both play a role in determining these traits and abilities, working together to shape an individual's development.

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  • 18. 

    ______________________ is a way of holding a preterm infant so that there is skin-to-skin contact. The baby is wearing only a diaper and is held upright against the parent's bare chest.

    • A.

      Kangaroo care

    • B.

      Neonatal holding

    • C.

      Toddler bonding

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Kangaroo care
    Explanation
    Kangaroo care is a method of holding a preterm infant that involves direct skin-to-skin contact with the parent. The baby is placed against the parent's bare chest, wearing only a diaper. This practice has been shown to have numerous benefits for both the baby and the parent, including promoting bonding, regulating the baby's body temperature, improving breastfeeding success, and reducing the risk of infection. Kangaroo care is often recommended for premature infants as a way to provide them with the warmth, comfort, and closeness they need for optimal development and growth.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the statements below is true?

    • A.

      Perceptual and motor development do not occur in isolation from one another but instead are coupled.

    • B.

      Perceptual and cognitive development do occur in isolation and are not coupled.

    • C.

      Perceptual development is always displayed separately.

    • D.

      Motor development is always displayed separately.

    Correct Answer
    A. Perceptual and motor development do not occur in isolation from one another but instead are coupled.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that perceptual and motor development do not occur in isolation from one another but instead are coupled. This means that these two aspects of development are interconnected and influence each other. As children develop their perceptual abilities, such as vision and hearing, they are also developing their motor skills, such as reaching and grasping. These two processes work together and support each other, allowing children to explore and interact with their environment.

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  • 20. 

    Fertilization occurs when one single sperm unites with an ovum. This takes place in the

    • A.

      Uterus

    • B.

      Vagina

    • C.

      Fallopian tube

    • D.

      Cervix

    Correct Answer
    C. Fallopian tube
    Explanation
    Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube. This is where the sperm and the ovum meet and unite to form a zygote. The fallopian tube is the pathway that allows the sperm to travel from the vagina to reach the ovum. Once fertilization occurs, the zygote will continue its journey towards the uterus for implantation and development.

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  • 21. 

    The placenta develops from

    • A.

      Blood

    • B.

      Dead cells

    • C.

      Maternal wastes

    • D.

      The fertilized egg

    Correct Answer
    D. The fertilized egg
    Explanation
    During fertilization, the sperm and egg combine to form a fertilized egg, also known as a zygote. This zygote undergoes cell division and differentiation, eventually forming an embryo. As the embryo implants into the uterine wall, a structure called the placenta starts to develop. The placenta is formed from the outer layer of the fertilized egg, known as the trophoblast. This layer grows and attaches to the uterine lining, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother and the developing embryo/fetus. Therefore, the placenta develops from the fertilized egg.

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  • 22. 

    Sally (who is 5 weeks pregnant) and Norma (who is 5 months pregnant) both work in a plant that produces toxic chemicals. One day there is an accident and both are exposed to a number of these chemicals. Sally's physician tells her that they are going to watch for liver damage in the fetus she is carrying, whereai Norma's physician tells her that her baby may be born smaller than expected. The physicians likely have such differing concerns because

    • A.

      The effects of chemicals on prenatal development can never be predicted.

    • B.

      One of the physicians is a female while the other is male.

    • C.

      Differing aspects of development are vulnerable to damage at different times during development.

    • D.

      Older doctors are taught to focus on organ formation while newly trained physicians focus on global aspects of development.

    Correct Answer
    C. Differing aspects of development are vulnerable to damage at different times during development.
    Explanation
    Differing aspects of development are vulnerable to damage at different times during development. This means that certain chemicals may affect the liver development in the early stages of pregnancy, which is why Sally's physician is concerned about liver damage in the fetus. On the other hand, exposure to the same chemicals may affect the overall growth and size of the baby in the later stages of pregnancy, which is why Norma's physician is concerned about the baby being born smaller than expected. Thus, the physicians likely have differing concerns based on the timing and vulnerability of different aspects of development.

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  • 23. 

    Two-year-old Donald has below-average intelligence, had a heart defect, and facial deformities. Based on this description, a physician would likely hypothesize that Donald's mother

    • A.

      Smoked throughout her pregnancy.

    • B.

      Was exposed to German measles during her pregnancy.

    • C.

      Drank alcohol throughout her pregnancy.

    • D.

      Had AIDS when she was carrying Donald.

    Correct Answer
    C. Drank alcohol throughout her pregnancy.
    Explanation
    Based on the given description, the physician would likely hypothesize that Donald's mother drank alcohol throughout her pregnancy. This is because alcohol consumption during pregnancy is known to cause developmental issues, including below-average intelligence, heart defects, and facial deformities in the child. The other options, such as smoking, exposure to German measles, or having AIDS, may have their own potential risks and complications during pregnancy, but they are not specifically mentioned in the given description.

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  • 24. 

    If a pregnant woman contracts an active case of____________ close to her delivery date, a cesarean section can be performed to prevent the virus from infecting the newborn.

    • A.

      Rubella

    • B.

      Syphillis

    • C.

      Genital herpes

    • D.

      Chicken pox

    Correct Answer
    C. Genital herpes
    Explanation
    If a pregnant woman contracts an active case of genital herpes close to her delivery date, a cesarean section can be performed to prevent the virus from infecting the newborn. Genital herpes can be transmitted to the baby during vaginal delivery if the mother has an active outbreak. By opting for a cesarean section, the risk of transmission can be significantly reduced, as the baby does not come into contact with the infected birth canal. This is an important precautionary measure to protect the health of the newborn.

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  • 25. 

    If a pregnant woman contracts an active case of____________ close to her delivery date, a cesarean section can be performed to prevent the virus from infecting the newborn.

    • A.

      Apgar Scale

    • B.

      Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment

    • C.

      Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

    • D.

      Sonography

    Correct Answer
    A. Apgar Scale
    Explanation
    If a pregnant woman contracts an active case of a virus close to her delivery date, a cesarean section can be performed to prevent the virus from infecting the newborn. The Apgar Scale is not relevant to this situation as it is a method used to assess the physical condition of a newborn immediately after birth, not a virus. The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children are also not relevant as they are assessments of a newborn's behavior and intelligence, respectively. Sonography is a medical imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the body and is not related to preventing virus transmission during childbirth.

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  • 26. 

    If you touch an infant's palms, you will elicit the _________ reflex.

    • A.

      Rooting

    • B.

      Moro

    • C.

      Grasping

    • D.

      Babinski

    Correct Answer
    C. Grasping
    Explanation
    When you touch an infant's palms, you will elicit the grasping reflex. This reflex is characterized by the baby's instinctive response to curl their fingers around the object or your finger that is touching their palm. It is a primitive reflex that is present from birth and gradually disappears as the baby grows older. The grasping reflex is believed to be a survival mechanism that helps infants hold onto their caregivers and objects for support and security.

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  • 27. 

    In the United States, there has been__________________ in low-birth-weight infants in the last two decades.

    • A.

      A large decrease

    • B.

      An increase

    • C.

      No increase or decrease

    • D.

      A small decrease

    Correct Answer
    B. An increase
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an increase" because the phrase "there has been" indicates a change in the number of low-birth-weight infants in the United States. The word "increase" suggests that the number of low-birth-weight infants has gone up over the last two decades.

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  • 28. 

    Since development occurs in a cephalocaudal sequence, what can Sarah, an infant, control first?

    • A.

      Legs

    • B.

      Arms

    • C.

      Head

    • D.

      Hands

    Correct Answer
    C. Head
    Explanation
    Development in a cephalocaudal sequence means that control and coordination of body parts typically occur from the head down to the lower body. As an infant, Sarah would first gain control over her head movements before being able to control her legs, arms, and hands. This is because the muscles and nerves in the head develop earlier and are more developed at birth compared to the muscles in the rest of the body.

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  • 29. 

    When Roberto observes his two children drawing, he notes a striking difference in their motor behaviors. Two-year-old Mona makes crude drawings utilizing mostly upper-arm movement, whereas 6-year-old Mary makes very precise strokes utilizing fine finger movements. This difference is best explained by the _______ principle.

    • A.

      Proximodistal

    • B.

      Dominant-recessive

    • C.

      Cephalocaudal

    • D.

      Hierarchial

    Correct Answer
    A. Proximodistal
    Explanation
    The proximodistal principle explains the difference in motor behaviors between Roberto's two children. This principle states that development occurs from the center of the body outward. In this case, Mona, the two-year-old, is using mostly upper-arm movements, which are closer to the center of her body. On the other hand, Mary, the six-year-old, is using fine finger movements, which are further away from the center of her body. This difference in motor behaviors aligns with the proximodistal principle.

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  • 30. 

    Who is closest to half of her adult height?

    • A.

      Kara, who is 5 years old

    • B.

      Heather who is 7 years old

    • C.

      Victoria who is 4 years old

    • D.

      Ryan who is 2 years old

    Correct Answer
    D. Ryan who is 2 years old
    Explanation
    Ryan, who is 2 years old, is closest to half of his adult height because children typically grow the most during their first two years of life. By the age of 2, most children have reached approximately half of their adult height. In contrast, the other options are older children who have likely already surpassed half of their adult height or are still in the process of growing. Therefore, Ryan is the closest to half of his adult height.

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  • 31. 

    ______________________ is a period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that takes place in early adolescence for both boys and girls.

    • A.

      Growth hormone

    • B.

      Puberty

    • C.

      Physical challenge

    • D.

      Menarche

    Correct Answer
    B. Puberty
    Explanation
    Puberty is the correct answer because it refers to the period of rapid physical maturation that occurs during early adolescence for both boys and girls. It involves hormonal and bodily changes that lead to the development of secondary sexual characteristics, such as the growth of breasts in girls and the deepening of the voice in boys. Puberty is a natural and necessary process that prepares individuals for reproductive maturity.

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  • 32. 

    It is difficult to use sophisticated scanning techniques to study brain development in infants because

    • A.

      Some scans pose a radiation risk

    • B.

      Infants wiggle too much for the examinations

    • C.

      Brain-imaging technologies can't make out the fine details

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of these." It is difficult to use sophisticated scanning techniques to study brain development in infants because some scans pose a radiation risk, infants wiggle too much for the examinations, and brain-imaging technologies can't make out the fine details.

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  • 33. 

    The brains of animals growing up in an enriched environment develop better than the brains of animals reared in standard or isolated conditions. The brains of the animals in the enriched environment weighed more, had thicker layers, and had more neuronal connections. This statenjent is a strong argument that

    • A.

      Animal and human research is very different

    • B.

      Early enrichment can benefit the young in a species

    • C.

      Animal and human research is very different and that early enrichment can benefit the young in a species.

    • D.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    B. Early enrichment can benefit the young in a species
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the brains of animals raised in an enriched environment have better development compared to those raised in standard or isolated conditions. This implies that early enrichment can benefit the young in a species, as evidenced by the increased brain weight, thicker layers, and more neuronal connections observed in animals in enriched environments. Therefore, the correct answer is that early enrichment can benefit the young in a species.

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  • 34. 

    ___________________________ correlations occur because biological parents who are genetically related to the child provide a rearing environment for the child.

    • A.

      Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment

    • B.

      Evocative genotype-environment

    • C.

      Passive genotype-environment

    • D.

      Shared environmental

    Correct Answer
    C. Passive genotype-environment
    Explanation
    Passive genotype-environment correlations occur because biological parents who are genetically related to the child provide a rearing environment for the child. This means that the child's genetic predispositions are indirectly influenced by their parents' genes and the environment they create.

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  • 35. 

    What is the purpose of experimental research?

    • A.

      To determine the cause of a behavior

    • B.

      To describe the strength of the relationship between two events

    • C.

      To compare the responses of an individual with that of a group

    • D.

      To compare groups from at least two different cultures or geographic areas

    Correct Answer
    A. To determine the cause of a behavior
    Explanation
    The purpose of experimental research is to determine the cause of a behavior. Experimental research involves manipulating variables and observing the effect on the behavior being studied. By systematically controlling and manipulating variables, researchers can establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables and determine what factors influence a particular behavior. This allows researchers to understand the underlying causes of behaviors and make informed conclusions about why certain behaviors occur.

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  • 36. 

    If Scarlett compared her overall sleep pattern with that of her 2-month-old infant son, the main difference that she would likely note is that her son spends more time than she does.

    • A.

      In deep sleep

    • B.

      In REM sleep

    • C.

      Sleeping during nighttime hours

    • D.

      Following a rhythmic sleep pattern

    Correct Answer
    B. In REM sleep
    Explanation
    Scarlett would likely note that her 2-month-old infant son spends more time in REM sleep compared to her. REM sleep is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement and is associated with dreaming. Infants spend a significant amount of time in REM sleep, which is important for their brain development. On the other hand, adults typically spend less time in REM sleep as they age. Therefore, the main difference Scarlett would observe is that her son spends more time in REM sleep than she does.

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  • 37. 

    Six-month-old Sally's closeness to her mother and father ensures feeding and protection. Her attachment is called

    • A.

      Conditioned

    • B.

      Adaptive behavior

    • C.

      Unimportant for her development

    • D.

      Culturally determined

    Correct Answer
    B. Adaptive behavior
    Explanation
    The attachment that Sally has to her mother and father at six months old is called adaptive behavior. This is because her closeness to her parents ensures that she is fed and protected, which are essential for her survival and development. This attachment allows her to form a secure base from which she can explore her environment and learn about the world around her. It is a natural and necessary behavior for her overall well-being and growth.

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  • 38. 

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that infants be placed to sleep

    • A.

      On their sides

    • B.

      On their stomachs

    • C.

      On their backs

    • D.

      Propped up with their heads higher than their feet

    Correct Answer
    C. On their backs
    Explanation
    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be placed to sleep on their backs. This is because placing infants on their backs reduces the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). When infants sleep on their backs, it allows for better airflow and reduces the likelihood of suffocation. This sleeping position has been found to be the safest and most effective way to protect infants during sleep.

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  • 39. 

    If adolescents need more sleep before beginning their high-school day, which of the following should be done?

    • A.

      Ensure that the adolescent goes to bed by 9:30 p.m.

    • B.

      Shorten the school day so the adolescent can take a small rest.

    • C.

      Start the school day later so the adolescent can sleep in longer.

    • D.

      Make sure the adolescent has his or her own room so as not to be disturbed.

    Correct Answer
    C. Start the school day later so the adolescent can sleep in longer.
    Explanation
    Adolescents typically require more sleep than adults, and starting the school day later would allow them to get the recommended amount of sleep. Going to bed earlier may not be feasible for some adolescents due to various commitments and responsibilities. Shortening the school day may not necessarily address the issue of sleep deprivation. Having their own room may help reduce disturbances, but it does not directly address the need for more sleep. Therefore, starting the school day later is the best option to ensure that adolescents get enough sleep.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following statements about breast feeding is true?

    • A.

      It can be unsanitary

    • B.

      It helps immunize the newborn from disease

    • C.

      Breast-fed babies do not gain weight as quickly as bottle fed babies

    • D.

      Most women find the practice disgusting

    Correct Answer
    B. It helps immunize the newborn from disease
    Explanation
    Breastfeeding helps immunize the newborn from disease because breast milk contains antibodies and other immune factors that help protect the baby against infections and illnesses. These antibodies are passed from the mother to the baby through breast milk, providing the baby with passive immunity. This helps to strengthen the baby's immune system and reduce the risk of various diseases and infections.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is not a prenatal test used to determine abnormalities?

    • A.

      Amniocentesis

    • B.

      In vitro fertilization

    • C.

      Chorionic villi sampling

    • D.

      Maternal blood screening

    Correct Answer
    B. In vitro fertilization
    Explanation
    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a method used to assist with conception and does not involve testing for abnormalities in the fetus. IVF involves fertilizing an egg with sperm outside of the body and then implanting the resulting embryo into the uterus. It is not a prenatal test used to determine abnormalities, but rather a method of conception for individuals experiencing infertility or other reproductive challenges.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following reflexes is permanent?

    • A.

      Rooting

    • B.

      Stepping

    • C.

      Blinking

    • D.

      Grasping

    Correct Answer
    C. Blinking
    Explanation
    Blinking is a reflex that is considered permanent because it continues throughout a person's lifetime. It is an involuntary action that helps protect the eyes from foreign objects, bright lights, and dryness. The reflex is controlled by the trigeminal nerve, which sends signals to the brain to close the eyelids in response to stimuli. Unlike rooting, stepping, and grasping reflexes, which are present in infants but gradually disappear as they develop, blinking remains a constant reflex that helps maintain eye health and prevent damage.

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  • 43. 

    Why do pediatricians repeatedly check for reflexes across the first year of life?

    • A.

      Because they want to see that these reflexes are still active.

    • B.

      Because they want to see most of the reflexes stop occurring.

    • C.

      Because they want to establish a relationship with the child.

    • D.

      Because reflexes are a good predictor of later intelligence.

    Correct Answer
    B. Because they want to see most of the reflexes stop occurring.
    Explanation
    Pediatricians repeatedly check for reflexes across the first year of life because they want to see most of the reflexes stop occurring. Reflexes are involuntary movements that are present in infants as a result of their immature nervous system. As the nervous system develops and matures, these reflexes should gradually disappear. Monitoring the disappearance of reflexes is an important developmental milestone and indicates the normal progression of neurological development in infants.

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  • 44. 

    Child development experts believe that motor activity during the second year is vital to the child's competent development and they should have

    • A.

      As many restrictions as possible.

    • B.

      Only restrictions for safety.

    • C.

      Only restriction for social development

    • D.

      No restrictions

    Correct Answer
    B. Only restrictions for safety.
    Explanation
    Motor activity during the second year is crucial for a child's competent development, as it helps them develop important physical skills and coordination. However, at this age, children may not have the cognitive abilities to fully understand potential dangers and make safe choices. Therefore, it is important to impose restrictions on their motor activity to ensure their safety. These restrictions should be specifically focused on preventing accidents and injuries, while still allowing the child to explore and develop their motor skills within a safe environment.

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  • 45. 

    Which statement below is true about elementary-aged children?

    • A.

      Generally they have difficulty in sitting and paying attention for short periods of time.

    • B.

      They are as physically fit as they will ever be.

    • C.

      They become more fatigued by long periods of sitting than by running and jumping.

    • D.

      They can engage better in passive learning rather than active learning.

    Correct Answer
    C. They become more fatigued by long periods of sitting than by running and jumping.
    Explanation
    Elementary-aged children tend to have more energy and are more physically active compared to other age groups. As a result, they are more likely to become fatigued by long periods of sitting and inactivity. This is because their bodies and minds are constantly seeking stimulation and movement. Running and jumping allows them to release energy and maintain focus, while prolonged sitting can lead to restlessness and decreased attention span. Therefore, the statement that elementary-aged children become more fatigued by long periods of sitting than by running and jumping is true.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is not a fine motor skill?

    • A.

      Grasping a toy to play

    • B.

      Using a spoon to eat

    • C.

      Running across the toddler playground

    • D.

      Zipping a jacket to go play outside

    Correct Answer
    C. Running across the toddler playground
    Explanation
    Running across the toddler playground is not a fine motor skill because it involves gross motor skills, which refer to the use of larger muscle groups to perform actions like running, jumping, or climbing. Fine motor skills, on the other hand, involve the coordination of smaller muscle groups, such as those in the hands and fingers, to perform more precise tasks like grasping objects or using utensils.

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  • 47. 

    One of the major difficulties in determining the exact effects of maternal cocaine use on prenatal development is the fact that

    • A.

      The infants are typically stillborn.

    • B.

      Cocaine use has dropped dramatically and mothers who used cocaine while pregnant are now hard to find.

    • C.

      The effects appear to involve changes in zygotic DNA structure and our ability to identify such changes is limited by technology.

    • D.

      Pregnant mothers who are using cocaine are also often ingesting other harmful substances.

    Correct Answer
    D. Pregnant mothers who are using cocaine are also often ingesting other harmful substances.
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that one of the major difficulties in determining the exact effects of maternal cocaine use on prenatal development is the fact that pregnant mothers who are using cocaine are also often ingesting other harmful substances. This implies that it is challenging to isolate and identify the specific effects of cocaine alone on prenatal development, as the presence of other harmful substances may confound the results.

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  • 48. 

    Reading Dr. Seussis classic story The Cat in the Hat to the child in the mother's womb, according to a recent research project, showed that the

    • A.

      Newborn prefers hearing the story after birth.

    • B.

      Infant sucked on a nipple in a different way when the mother read the story.

    • C.

      The rhythm of the stories read was an important characteristic.

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of these." This means that all of the given statements are true. The research project found that reading Dr. Seuss's classic story The Cat in the Hat to the child in the mother's womb had several effects. First, the newborn preferred hearing the story after birth. Second, the infant sucked on a nipple in a different way when the mother read the story. And finally, the rhythm of the stories read was an important characteristic.

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  • 49. 

    Your eye color is expressed by your

    • A.

      Allele

    • B.

      Gene locus

    • C.

      Genotype

    • D.

      Phenotype

    Correct Answer
    D. Phenotype
    Explanation
    Phenotype refers to the physical characteristics or traits that are expressed as a result of the interaction between an individual's genetic makeup (genotype) and the environment. In the context of eye color, the phenotype represents the actual color of a person's eyes, which can vary from individual to individual. This answer is correct because eye color is determined by the expression of specific genes, but it is also influenced by other factors such as environmental conditions and genetic variations.

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  • 50. 

    Elizabeth Spelke showed a 4-month-old infant two films simultaneously. In each film, a puppet jumped up and down, but in one of the films the soundtrack matched the puppet's dancing movements and in the other film it did not. By measuring the infant's gaze, she found the infant looked more at the puppet whose actions were synchronized with the soundtrack, which is an example of  ______ perception.

    • A.

      Mono

    • B.

      Solo

    • C.

      Intermodal

    • D.

      Elementary

    Correct Answer
    C. Intermodal
    Explanation
    Elizabeth Spelke conducted an experiment where she showed a 4-month-old infant two films simultaneously, each featuring a puppet jumping up and down. However, in one film, the soundtrack matched the puppet's movements, while in the other film it did not. By measuring the infant's gaze, she observed that the infant looked more at the puppet whose actions were synchronized with the soundtrack. This finding suggests that the infant was perceiving the puppet's actions and the accompanying sound as a unified and coordinated event, demonstrating intermodal perception.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 06, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Nanda0506
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