MAT September 2012: Language Comprehension Question Paper

40 Questions | Total Attempts: 1856

SettingsSettingsSettings
MAT September 2012: Language Comprehension Question Paper

Find here Solved MAT September 2012 Question Paper on Language Comprehension. It has 40 questions in it.


Related Topics
Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Directions: In this question choose the option which can be substituted for the given words. To cancel (a law, agreement, etc.) formally or officially
    • A. 

      Terminate

    • B. 

      Adjure

    • C. 

      Object

    • D. 

      Abrogate

  • 2. 
    Directions: In this question choose the option which can be substituted for the given words. To form a plot of scheme, especially on to do something wrong or wicked or designed to cause harm
    • A. 

      Machinate

    • B. 

      Conspire

    • C. 

      Fatal

    • D. 

      Machete

  • 3. 
    Directions: In this question choose the option which can be substituted for the given words. Very high-spirited, full of cheerfulness or enthusiasm
    • A. 

      Eccentric

    • B. 

      Eburmean

    • C. 

      Sporting

    • D. 

      Ebullient

  • 4. 
    Directions: In this question choose the option which can be substituted for the given words. A way of doing something, especially on ordered set of procedures or an orderly system
    • A. 

      Presentation

    • B. 

      Process

    • C. 

      Method

    • D. 

      Agendas

  • 5. 
    A sentence has been broken into four parts with an error in one of the parts. Identify the part that has an error.
    • A. 

      A temple was erected to him

    • B. 

      At the foot of the Capitoline Hill

    • C. 

      At which were deposited the

    • D. 

      Public treasury & the laws of the State

  • 6. 
    A sentence has been broken into four parts with an error in one of the parts. Identify the part that has an error.
    • A. 

      I soon lost sight & recollection of ghastly fears

    • B. 

      In the beauty of the scene as we drove along

    • C. 

      Although had I known the language, or rather languages which my fellow passengers were speaking

    • D. 

      I might not have been able to throw them off so easily

  • 7. 
    A sentence has been broken into four parts with an error in one of the parts. Identify the part that has an error.
    • A. 

      He has refused to accept the summons and should, therefore, be prosecuted under the provisions of Section 172 of IPC

    • B. 

      The police may proceed to register a case against the absconder and proceed under the provisions of IPC

    • C. 

      He may be prosecuted under the provisions of Section 172 of IPC for not responding to summons by the police

    • D. 

      He will be prosecuted under the provisions of Section 172 ('Absconding to avoid service of summons or other proceeding') of IPC for not responding to police summons

  • 8. 
    Identify the best way of writing the sentence in the context of correct usage of standard written English.
    • A. 

      We can divide the problem into parts in the present case firstly by considering events which are localised on the x-axis

    • B. 

      In the present case we can divide the problem into parts by considering events first which are localised as per x -axis

    • C. 

      By considering firs t the events which are localised on the x-axis, in the present case we can divide the problem into parts

    • D. 

      In the present case we can divide the problem into parts by first considering events which are localised on the x-axis

  • 9. 
    Identify the best way of writing the sentence in the context of correct usage of standard written English.
    • A. 

      If the constants 'a' and 'b' were known, thus we should have the solution of our problem

    • B. 

      We should thus have a solution to our problem, if the constants 'a' and 'b' are known

    • C. 

      We should, if the constants 'a' and 'b' were known, thus have the solution of our problem

    • D. 

      We should thus have the solution to our problem, if the constants 'a' and 'b' were known

  • 10. 
    Identify the best way of writing the sentence in the context of correct usage of standard written English.
    • A. 

      Excellence will come when the performer takes pride in doing his best

    • B. 

      Excellence comes as the performer will take pride in doing his best

    • C. 

      The excellence will come when the performer will take pride in doing his best

    • D. 

      Excellence comes when the performer takes pride in doing his best

  • 11. 
    Directions: Rearrange the letters of the jumbled word to identify the correct word, and select the option from below which is opposite in meaning to that word. SISPNHAPE
    • A. 

      Surrender

    • B. 

      Quickness

    • C. 

      Richness

    • D. 

      Sorrow

  • 12. 
    Directions: Rearrange the letters of the jumbled word to identify the correct word, and select the option from below which is opposite in meaning to that word. BRENYA
    • A. 

      Delight

    • B. 

      Discover

    • C. 

      Distant

    • D. 

      Direct

  • 13. 
    Directions: Rearrange the letters of the jumbled word to identify the correct word, and select the option from below which is opposite in meaning to that word. OSYIN
    • A. 

      Happy

    • B. 

      Quiet

    • C. 

      Laugh

    • D. 

      Sleep

  • 14. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage I Universal Health Coverage CUHC) has now been widely adopted by Canada and many other developing countries both as a developmental imperative and the moral obligation of a civilised society. India embraced this vision at its independence. However, insufficient funding of public facilities, combined with faulty planning and inefficient management over the years, has resulted in a dysfunctional health system that has been yielding poor health outcomes. Private health services have grown by default, without checks on cost and quality, escalating private out-of- pocket health expenditures and exacerbating health inequity. Out-of- pocket expenditure still remains at 71 percent of all spending, without coverage for outpatient care, medicines and basic diagnostic tests. The High Level Expert Group (HLEG) established by the Planning Commission has submitted a comprehensive framework for providing UHC in India. A health entitlement card should assure every citizen access to a national health package of essential primary, secondary and tertiary care, both inpatient and outpatient. The HLEG is very clear that services included under UHC must be tax funded and cashless at delivery. Contributory social insurance is not appropriate for countries like India where a large segment of the workforce -close to 93 percent-is in the unorganised sector and vast numbers are below or near the poverty line. Increasing the public spending on health is the first immediate requirement. However, even the doubling of public financing will not be adequate to support all the components of a fully evolved UHC Priorities need to be defined. Clearly, there is no alternative to progressively strengthening public facilities, and thereby reducing people's dependence on private providers. However, the public system may need to "contract-in" the services of willing private providers, to fill gaps in its capacity to deliver all the services assured under UHC Such "contracted-in" private providers will have to deliver cashless services and would be compensated on the basis of pre-determined cost per package of health services rather than "fee-for-service" for each visit or procedure. In such an arrangement, the private sector acts as an extension of the public sector where needed, and will not compete for the same set of services for the same people. It is time to recognise that everyone, not just the poor, needs to be protected against rising health costs that can impoverish any family. Apart from improving people's health, adopting UHC is likely to generate millions of new jobs, enhance productivity, and promote equity. It can be inferred from the passage that
    • A. 

      Better health conditions prevailing in society lead to better impetus for development

    • B. 

      Civilised societies usually enjoy better health conditions than uncivilised ones

    • C. 

      Morality and development in society are two sides of the same coin

    • D. 

      All these

  • 15. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage I Universal Health Coverage CUHC) has now been widely adopted by Canada and many other developing countries both as a developmental imperative and the moral obligation of a civilised society. India embraced this vision at its independence. However, insufficient funding of public facilities, combined with faulty planning and inefficient management over the years, has resulted in a dysfunctional health system that has been yielding poor health outcomes. Private health services have grown by default, without checks on cost and quality, escalating private out-of- pocket health expenditures and exacerbating health inequity. Out-of- pocket expenditure still remains at 71 percent of all spending, without coverage for outpatient care, medicines and basic diagnostic tests. The High Level Expert Group (HLEG) established by the Planning Commission has submitted a comprehensive framework for providing UHC in India. A health entitlement card should assure every citizen access to a national health package of essential primary, secondary and tertiary care, both inpatient and outpatient. The HLEG is very clear that services included under UHC must be tax funded and cashless at delivery. Contributory social insurance is not appropriate for countries like India where a large segment of the workforce -close to 93 percent-is in the unorganised sector and vast numbers are below or near the poverty line. Increasing the public spending on health is the first immediate requirement. However, even the doubling of public financing will not be adequate to support all the components of a fully evolved UHC Priorities need to be defined. Clearly, there is no alternative to progressively strengthening public facilities, and thereby reducing people's dependence on private providers. However, the public system may need to "contract-in" the services of willing private providers, to fill gaps in its capacity to deliver all the services assured under UHC Such "contracted-in" private providers will have to deliver cashless services and would be compensated on the basis of pre-determined cost per package of health services rather than "fee-for-service" for each visit or procedure. In such an arrangement, the private sector acts as an extension of the public sector where needed, and will not compete for the same set of services for the same people. It is time to recognise that everyone, not just the poor, needs to be protected against rising health costs that can impoverish any family. Apart from improving people's health, adopting UHC is likely to generate millions of new jobs, enhance productivity, and promote equity. It is implied in the passage that
    • A. 

      About 30% of population in India is covered by health insurance

    • B. 

      The private sector health care industry in India has grown essentially because the public healthcare systems are inefficient and/or inadequate

    • C. 

      India adopted 'Universal Health Coverage' as early as in the year 1947

    • D. 

      All these

  • 16. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage I Universal Health Coverage CUHC) has now been widely adopted by Canada and many other developing countries both as a developmental imperative and the moral obligation of a civilised society. India embraced this vision at its independence. However, insufficient funding of public facilities, combined with faulty planning and inefficient management over the years, has resulted in a dysfunctional health system that has been yielding poor health outcomes. Private health services have grown by default, without checks on cost and quality, escalating private out-of- pocket health expenditures and exacerbating health inequity. Out-of- pocket expenditure still remains at 71 percent of all spending, without coverage for outpatient care, medicines and basic diagnostic tests. The High Level Expert Group (HLEG) established by the Planning Commission has submitted a comprehensive framework for providing UHC in India. A health entitlement card should assure every citizen access to a national health package of essential primary, secondary and tertiary care, both inpatient and outpatient. The HLEG is very clear that services included under UHC must be tax funded and cashless at delivery. Contributory social insurance is not appropriate for countries like India where a large segment of the workforce -close to 93 percent-is in the unorganised sector and vast numbers are below or near the poverty line. Increasing the public spending on health is the first immediate requirement. However, even the doubling of public financing will not be adequate to support all the components of a fully evolved UHC Priorities need to be defined. Clearly, there is no alternative to progressively strengthening public facilities, and thereby reducing people's dependence on private providers. However, the public system may need to "contract-in" the services of willing private providers, to fill gaps in its capacity to deliver all the services assured under UHC Such "contracted-in" private providers will have to deliver cashless services and would be compensated on the basis of pre-determined cost per package of health services rather than "fee-for-service" for each visit or procedure. In such an arrangement, the private sector acts as an extension of the public sector where needed, and will not compete for the same set of services for the same people. It is time to recognise that everyone, not just the poor, needs to be protected against rising health costs that can impoverish any family. Apart from improving people's health, adopting UHC is likely to generate millions of new jobs, enhance productivity, and promote equity. Which of the following statements is true in the context of the passage?
    • A. 

      The private health care centres certainly provide better facilities than the government-run centres

    • B. 

      The government of India proposes to issue health entitlement cards to all citizens for free health care

    • C. 

      The UHC system is fully evolved in India but the government has to pump in more funds to keep it running smoothly

    • D. 

      Implementing the UHC will create employment opportunities

  • 17. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage I Universal Health Coverage CUHC) has now been widely adopted by Canada and many other developing countries both as a developmental imperative and the moral obligation of a civilised society. India embraced this vision at its independence. However, insufficient funding of public facilities, combined with faulty planning and inefficient management over the years, has resulted in a dysfunctional health system that has been yielding poor health outcomes. Private health services have grown by default, without checks on cost and quality, escalating private out-of- pocket health expenditures and exacerbating health inequity. Out-of- pocket expenditure still remains at 71 percent of all spending, without coverage for outpatient care, medicines and basic diagnostic tests. The High Level Expert Group (HLEG) established by the Planning Commission has submitted a comprehensive framework for providing UHC in India. A health entitlement card should assure every citizen access to a national health package of essential primary, secondary and tertiary care, both inpatient and outpatient. The HLEG is very clear that services included under UHC must be tax funded and cashless at delivery. Contributory social insurance is not appropriate for countries like India where a large segment of the workforce -close to 93 percent-is in the unorganised sector and vast numbers are below or near the poverty line. Increasing the public spending on health is the first immediate requirement. However, even the doubling of public financing will not be adequate to support all the components of a fully evolved UHC Priorities need to be defined. Clearly, there is no alternative to progressively strengthening public facilities, and thereby reducing people's dependence on private providers. However, the public system may need to "contract-in" the services of willing private providers, to fill gaps in its capacity to deliver all the services assured under UHC Such "contracted-in" private providers will have to deliver cashless services and would be compensated on the basis of pre-determined cost per package of health services rather than "fee-for-service" for each visit or procedure. In such an arrangement, the private sector acts as an extension of the public sector where needed, and will not compete for the same set of services for the same people. It is time to recognise that everyone, not just the poor, needs to be protected against rising health costs that can impoverish any family. Apart from improving people's health, adopting UHC is likely to generate millions of new jobs, enhance productivity, and promote equity. Which of the following statements is not necessarily true in the context of the passage?
    • A. 

      Contributory social insurance works best where a large segment of the country's workforce is above the poverty line

    • B. 

      The author of the passage feels that the government should outsource some of the health care services under the UHC to private players

    • C. 

      Cost of health care is rising rapidly and could severely dent a family's finances

    • D. 

      The primary objective behind issuing of UHC health entitlement cards is to avoid having to pay in cash when citizens avail health care services

  • 18. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage II In order to capitalise on the groundwork done for creation of a successful solar market through the launch of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, a recent report has suggested that India now needs to adopt greater transparency, benchmarking and monitoring, strategic approaches to finance, and technology- neutral policies for manufacturing to take the renewable energy mission forward. According to an independent report published by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) and the Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC), it has been found that India's solar industry is at a crucial stage of its growth and needs strategic nurturing. The report is of the view that a productive solar manufacturing base is an important part of India's aspirations to become a major global solar player. Investing in solar manufacturing now could provide long- term strategic value for India. But to be a dominant player in the global arena, India needs to make prompt, smart and concerted investments in manufacturing. "The National Solar Mission deserves much credit for laying the groundwork for a successful solar market, but a lot of market uncertainty still permeates the solar ecosystem and affects development of manufacturing capacity," says the Director, India Initiative at NRDC It has pointed out that a range of systemic issues hinder domestic manufacturing in India. "Indian manufacturing is of a smaller scale and more fragmented, leading to higher costs," says the CEO, CEEW. The report finds that the Indian solar manufacturing sector requires systemic improvements in infrastructure, domestic low-cost financing, and raw materials. The director of NRDC said policy makers should also not lose sight of value added industries and job creating potential further downstream. Outlining the priorities, the report states that Government must bring together different financial institutions to strengthen the solar financing ecosystem, which would operate at the strategic level, project level and offer ancillary support (R&D, skill development). Which of the following statements is/are implied in the passage in respect of the solar energy capability building in India? 1. A lot of work has already been done in this direction. 2. Transparency has been totally lacking with regard to the Indian government's research work done in this field. 3. India could soon be a global player in the area of solar energy.
    • A. 

      A only

    • B. 

      A & B

    • C. 

      A & C

    • D. 

      A, B & C

  • 19. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage II In order to capitalise on the groundwork done for creation of a successful solar market through the launch of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, a recent report has suggested that India now needs to adopt greater transparency, benchmarking and monitoring, strategic approaches to finance, and technology- neutral policies for manufacturing to take the renewable energy mission forward. According to an independent report published by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) and the Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC), it has been found that India's solar industry is at a crucial stage of its growth and needs strategic nurturing. The report is of the view that a productive solar manufacturing base is an important part of India's aspirations to become a major global solar player. Investing in solar manufacturing now could provide long- term strategic value for India. But to be a dominant player in the global arena, India needs to make prompt, smart and concerted investments in manufacturing. "The National Solar Mission deserves much credit for laying the groundwork for a successful solar market, but a lot of market uncertainty still permeates the solar ecosystem and affects development of manufacturing capacity," says the Director, India Initiative at NRDC It has pointed out that a range of systemic issues hinder domestic manufacturing in India. "Indian manufacturing is of a smaller scale and more fragmented, leading to higher costs," says the CEO, CEEW. The report finds that the Indian solar manufacturing sector requires systemic improvements in infrastructure, domestic low-cost financing, and raw materials. The director of NRDC said policy makers should also not lose sight of value added industries and job creating potential further downstream. Outlining the priorities, the report states that Government must bring together different financial institutions to strengthen the solar financing ecosystem, which would operate at the strategic level, project level and offer ancillary support (R&D, skill development). Which of the following statements is not implied in the passage?
    • A. 

      A sound financial strategy is essential for developing a good solar energy market

    • B. 

      Developing a sound solar energy industry would lead to development of other (related) industries as a spin-off benefit

    • C. 

      The uncertainties in the solar system are affecting the growth of the solar energy industry

    • D. 

      Solar energy could playa vital role in India's economic development

  • 20. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage II In order to capitalise on the groundwork done for creation of a successful solar market through the launch of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, a recent report has suggested that India now needs to adopt greater transparency, benchmarking and monitoring, strategic approaches to finance, and technology- neutral policies for manufacturing to take the renewable energy mission forward. According to an independent report published by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) and the Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC), it has been found that India's solar industry is at a crucial stage of its growth and needs strategic nurturing. The report is of the view that a productive solar manufacturing base is an important part of India's aspirations to become a major global solar player. Investing in solar manufacturing now could provide long- term strategic value for India. But to be a dominant player in the global arena, India needs to make prompt, smart and concerted investments in manufacturing. "The National Solar Mission deserves much credit for laying the groundwork for a successful solar market, but a lot of market uncertainty still permeates the solar ecosystem and affects development of manufacturing capacity," says the Director, India Initiative at NRDC It has pointed out that a range of systemic issues hinder domestic manufacturing in India. "Indian manufacturing is of a smaller scale and more fragmented, leading to higher costs," says the CEO, CEEW. The report finds that the Indian solar manufacturing sector requires systemic improvements in infrastructure, domestic low-cost financing, and raw materials. The director of NRDC said policy makers should also not lose sight of value added industries and job creating potential further downstream. Outlining the priorities, the report states that Government must bring together different financial institutions to strengthen the solar financing ecosystem, which would operate at the strategic level, project level and offer ancillary support (R&D, skill development). According to the passage, the solar industry in India
    • A. 

      Is very much dependent on the National Solar Mission for its future growth

    • B. 

      Is still in its launch phase

    • C. 

      Needs governmental support to ensure its progress in the growth path

    • D. 

      All these

  • 21. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage II In order to capitalise on the groundwork done for creation of a successful solar market through the launch of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, a recent report has suggested that India now needs to adopt greater transparency, benchmarking and monitoring, strategic approaches to finance, and technology- neutral policies for manufacturing to take the renewable energy mission forward. According to an independent report published by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) and the Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC), it has been found that India's solar industry is at a crucial stage of its growth and needs strategic nurturing. The report is of the view that a productive solar manufacturing base is an important part of India's aspirations to become a major global solar player. Investing in solar manufacturing now could provide long- term strategic value for India. But to be a dominant player in the global arena, India needs to make prompt, smart and concerted investments in manufacturing. "The National Solar Mission deserves much credit for laying the groundwork for a successful solar market, but a lot of market uncertainty still permeates the solar ecosystem and affects development of manufacturing capacity," says the Director, India Initiative at NRDC It has pointed out that a range of systemic issues hinder domestic manufacturing in India. "Indian manufacturing is of a smaller scale and more fragmented, leading to higher costs," says the CEO, CEEW. The report finds that the Indian solar manufacturing sector requires systemic improvements in infrastructure, domestic low-cost financing, and raw materials. The director of NRDC said policy makers should also not lose sight of value added industries and job creating potential further downstream. Outlining the priorities, the report states that Government must bring together different financial institutions to strengthen the solar financing ecosystem, which would operate at the strategic level, project level and offer ancillary support (R&D, skill development). As per the passage, which of the following factors is/are seen as disadvantageous to the Indian solar industry while competing in the global market? 1. Government's apathy towards this industry. 2. Robust manufacturing practices of the other global players. 3. Lack of adequate capital in the country for channelising into this industry.
    • A. 

      A only

    • B. 

      A & B

    • C. 

      A & C

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 22. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage III Most Indians are not particularly worried about Indian Standard Times (IST), except for those who live in the Northeast where the sun rises around 4 a.m. in summer, and gets dark well before 4 p.m. in winter. Those of us who have to make overseas long distance calls and get into trouble with fractions are not even aware that we belong to a minority (three percent) of regions whose standard times are fractional hours off from GMT. India spans longitudes of 68° at the western end and 98° at the eastern boundary and, as there is a difference of one hour for every 15° of longitude, the two extremes differ by two hours. Thus, when the sun sets at 4 p.m. in Kohima, it sets at 6 p.m. in Porbunder. IST was fixed in 1906 midway at 82.5°, or  hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Periodically, there are demands from the Northeast region for a separate time zone so that the clocks there may be advanced by an hour. There is a general misconception among those who worry about saving energy-such as the Planning Commission-that dividing the country into time zones will save "a lot of energy." The savings are almost always described by adjectives, for very few have estimated correctly the amount of savings that may accrue by altering IST or creating two time zones. There is also the practice in several countries, of "Daylight Saving Time" (DST), wherein the time in summer is advanced (or the clocks put forward) by one hour and retracted during winter. This enables people to enjoy sunlight longer in summer and avoid the inconveniences of late sunrises and early sunsets during winter. Our proposal for India is to introduce neither time zones nor DST, but to advance IST by half an hour to being six hours ahead of GMT, once and permanently. Such a suggestion has been made before, but until now no one has computed the energy savings that would accrue as a result, using a correct model and dependable data. Our fairly rigorous method has been vetted by national and international experts and is based on load demand data at five electrical zones of India, provided by the Power Grid Corporation of India. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency provided financial support for the study.. It can be inferred from the passage that 1. Time, by clocks across India, would be same at any given point of the day. 2. People in North-East India go to bed well before people in Western India do. 3. People in the North-Eastern part of India work longer hours in summer than they do in winter.
    • A. 

      A only

    • B. 

      A & B

    • C. 

      A & C

    • D. 

      A, B & C

  • 23. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage III Most Indians are not particularly worried about Indian Standard Times (IST), except for those who live in the Northeast where the sun rises around 4 a.m. in summer, and gets dark well before 4 p.m. in winter. Those of us who have to make overseas long distance calls and get into trouble with fractions are not even aware that we belong to a minority (three percent) of regions whose standard times are fractional hours off from GMT. India spans longitudes of 68° at the western end and 98° at the eastern boundary and, as there is a difference of one hour for every 15° of longitude, the two extremes differ by two hours. Thus, when the sun sets at 4 p.m. in Kohima, it sets at 6 p.m. in Porbunder. IST was fixed in 1906 midway at 82.5°, or  hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Periodically, there are demands from the Northeast region for a separate time zone so that the clocks there may be advanced by an hour. There is a general misconception among those who worry about saving energy-such as the Planning Commission-that dividing the country into time zones will save "a lot of energy." The savings are almost always described by adjectives, for very few have estimated correctly the amount of savings that may accrue by altering IST or creating two time zones. There is also the practice in several countries, of "Daylight Saving Time" (DST), wherein the time in summer is advanced (or the clocks put forward) by one hour and retracted during winter. This enables people to enjoy sunlight longer in summer and avoid the inconveniences of late sunrises and early sunsets during winter. Our proposal for India is to introduce neither time zones nor DST, but to advance IST by half an hour to being six hours ahead of GMT, once and permanently. Such a suggestion has been made before, but until now no one has computed the energy savings that would accrue as a result, using a correct model and dependable data. Our fairly rigorous method has been vetted by national and international experts and is based on load demand data at five electrical zones of India, provided by the Power Grid Corporation of India. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency provided financial support for the study. Which of the following statements is true as per the passage?
    • A. 

      India is amongst the three percent of nations in the world which follow standard time patterns

    • B. 

      India is among the minority of nations whose standard time is at variance with GMT

    • C. 

      Days in North-East India generally begin at 4 a.m. and end at about 4 p.m

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 24. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage III Most Indians are not particularly worried about Indian Standard Times (IST), except for those who live in the Northeast where the sun rises around 4 a.m. in summer, and gets dark well before 4 p.m. in winter. Those of us who have to make overseas long distance calls and get into trouble with fractions are not even aware that we belong to a minority (three percent) of regions whose standard times are fractional hours off from GMT. India spans longitudes of 68° at the western end and 98° at the eastern boundary and, as there is a difference of one hour for every 15° of longitude, the two extremes differ by two hours. Thus, when the sun sets at 4 p.m. in Kohima, it sets at 6 p.m. in Porbunder. IST was fixed in 1906 midway at 82.5o, or  hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Periodically, there are demands from the Northeast region for a separate time zone so that the clocks there may be advanced by an hour. There is a general misconception among those who worry about saving energy-such as the Planning Commission-that dividing the country into time zones will save "a lot of energy." The savings are almost always described by adjectives, for very few have estimated correctly the amount of savings that may accrue by altering IST or creating two time zones. There is also the practice in several countries, of "Daylight Saving Time" (DST), wherein the time in summer is advanced (or the clocks put forward) by one hour and retracted during winter. This enables people to enjoy sunlight longer in summer and avoid the inconveniences of late sunrises and early sunsets during winter. Our proposal for India is to introduce neither time zones nor DST, but to advance IST by half an hour to being six hours ahead of GMT, once and permanently. Such a suggestion has been made before, but until now no one has computed the energy savings that would accrue as a result, using a correct model and dependable data. Our fairly rigorous method has been vetted by national and international experts and is based on load demand data at five electrical zones of India, provided by the Power Grid Corporation of India. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency provided financial support for the study. What is the specific misconception of the Planning Commission in respect of energy saving, according to the passage?
    • A. 

      Dividing the country into multiple time zones would surely save energy for the nation

    • B. 

      The one and only way to save energy is to divide the country into time zones

    • C. 

      Substantial energy savings could be effected by dividing the country into two time zones

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 25. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage III Most Indians are not particularly worried about Indian Standard Times (IST), except for those who live in the Northeast where the sun rises around 4 a.m. in summer, and gets dark well before 4 p.m. in winter. Those of us who have to make overseas long distance calls and get into trouble with fractions are not even aware that we belong to a minority (three percent) of regions whose standard times are fractional hours off from GMT. India spans longitudes of 68° at the western end and 98° at the eastern boundary and, as there is a difference of one hour for every 15° of longitude, the two extremes differ by two hours. Thus, when the sun sets at 4 p.m. in Kohima, it sets at 6 p.m. in Porbunder. IST was fixed in 1906 midway at 82.5o, or  hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Periodically, there are demands from the Northeast region for a separate time zone so that the clocks there may be advanced by an hour. There is a general misconception among those who worry about saving energy-such as the Planning Commission-that dividing the country into time zones will save "a lot of energy." The savings are almost always described by adjectives, for very few have estimated correctly the amount of savings that may accrue by altering IST or creating two time zones. There is also the practice in several countries, of "Daylight Saving Time" (DST), wherein the time in summer is advanced (or the clocks put forward) by one hour and retracted during winter. This enables people to enjoy sunlight longer in summer and avoid the inconveniences of late sunrises and early sunsets during winter. Our proposal for India is to introduce neither time zones nor DST, but to advance IST by half an hour to being six hours ahead of GMT, once and permanently. Such a suggestion has been made before, but until now no one has computed the energy savings that would accrue as a result, using a correct model and dependable data. Our fairly rigorous method has been vetted by national and international experts and is based on load demand data at five electrical zones of India, provided by the Power Grid Corporation of India. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency provided financial support for the study. What is the primary concern of the author in writing this article?
    • A. 

      To align the clocks in the five different regions of India, in tune with the respective sunrise and sunset times

    • B. 

      To align IST with GMT

    • C. 

      To ensure that India advances its clock by half an hour only

    • D. 

      That India should implement an effective method of energy savings

  • 26. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage IV With the major economies of the United States and the euro zone still showing no let-up from their halting recovery, Indian apparel exporters continue to suffer from tepid demand. They are also, of late, compelled to make do with unpleasant non-tariff barriers (NTBs) such as rigorous standards. Apparently, the most galling one is insistence on fair labour standards. That includes not importing garments/ apparel made by child labour or forced labour or prison labour from exporting countries. While no one could fault the new perception of concerns for the vulnerable, the unilateral prescription of what constitutes proper labour practices continues to be a bone of contention. However, trading countries have braced themselves to face down any challenges with some of the exporting countries voluntarily taking on themselves the onus of putting in place a code of ethical standards so that their merchandise does not get jettisoned in the overseas markets on this count. Though India's merchandise exports overshot the target by a couple of billion dollars to reach $303 billion in 2011-12 fiscal year, the country could not achieve the target of $32.3 billion of textile and clothing exports as it fell short by a substantial value. Still, India ranks as the sixth largest exporter of apparel with a global market share of 3.25 percent, after China at 37 percent, the EU at 28 percent, Hong Kong at 7 percent, Bangladesh at 4.5 percent and Turkey at 3.6 percent. For a country that boasts of being the largest producer of King Cotton, the position behind tiny countries such as Bangladesh and Hong Kong has more to do with several domestic disabilities such as high cost of finance, lack of flexible labour policy and infrastructural impediments. Added to these travails is the emerging concern over and apprehension of India's apparel not making it to the traditional global markets if the orchestrated campaign for labour standards gets strident and stringent. Incidentally, the US and the European Union (EU) together account for 80 percent of India's total apparel exports and the retail stores in these countries, which stock up apparel from developing countries, have lately been crying hoarse over alleged harsh treatment to labourers in exporting countries. These concerns presumably arise out of the prodding from their own governments which find protectionist sentiments in times of trouble a facile course to resort to. It is against this sombre scenario that the Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) worked out a comprehensive compliance code for ethical sourcing for the apparel exports from India. This stems from both a conviction, and recognition of the crucial linkages between ethical trade and economic growth. What is the meaning of the word 'tepid' as used in the first sentence of the passage?
    • A. 

      Reduced

    • B. 

      Decreasing

    • C. 

      Erratic

    • D. 

      Rising

  • 27. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage IV With the major economies of the United States and the euro zone still showing no let-up from their halting recovery, Indian apparel exporters continue to suffer from tepid demand. They are also, of late, compelled to make do with unpleasant non-tariff barriers (NTBs) such as rigorous standards. Apparently, the most galling one is insistence on fair labour standards. That includes not importing garments/ apparel made by child labour or forced labour or prison labour from exporting countries. While no one could fault the new perception of concerns for the vulnerable, the unilateral prescription of what constitutes proper labour practices continues to be a bone of contention. However, trading countries have braced themselves to face down any challenges with some of the exporting countries voluntarily taking on themselves the onus of putting in place a code of ethical standards so that their merchandise does not get jettisoned in the overseas markets on this count. Though India's merchandise exports overshot the target by a couple of billion dollars to reach $303 billion in 2011-12 fiscal year, the country could not achieve the target of $32.3 billion of textile and clothing exports as it fell short by a substantial value. Still, India ranks as the sixth largest exporter of apparel with a global market share of 3.25 percent, after China at 37 percent, the EU at 28 percent, Hong Kong at 7 percent, Bangladesh at 4.5 percent and Turkey at 3.6 percent. For a country that boasts of being the largest producer of King Cotton, the position behind tiny countries such as Bangladesh and Hong Kong has more to do with several domestic disabilities such as high cost of finance, lack of flexible labour policy and infrastructural impediments. Added to these travails is the emerging concern over and apprehension of India's apparel not making it to the traditional global markets if the orchestrated campaign for labour standards gets strident and stringent. Incidentally, the US and the European Union (EU) together account for 80 percent of India's total apparel exports and the retail stores in these countries, which stock up apparel from developing countries, have lately been crying hoarse over alleged harsh treatment to labourers in exporting countries. These concerns presumably arise out of the prodding from their own governments which find protectionist sentiments in times of trouble a facile course to resort to. It is against this sombre scenario that the Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) worked out a comprehensive compliance code for ethical sourcing for the apparel exports from India. This stems from both a conviction, and recognition of the crucial linkages between ethical trade and economic growth. It is implied in the passage that 1. United States has put in place certain barriers to imports from countries using child labour in their manufacturing units. 2. only some of the exporting countries are really concerned about "ethical standards". 3. there cannot be one standard global definition for what constitutes fair labour practice.
    • A. 

      A & C

    • B. 

      A & B

    • C. 

      A only

    • D. 

      A, B & C

  • 28. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage IV With the major economies of the United States and the euro zone still showing no let-up from their halting recovery, Indian apparel exporters continue to suffer from tepid demand. They are also, of late, compelled to make do with unpleasant non-tariff barriers (NTBs) such as rigorous standards. Apparently, the most galling one is insistence on fair labour standards. That includes not importing garments/ apparel made by child labour or forced labour or prison labour from exporting countries. While no one could fault the new perception of concerns for the vulnerable, the unilateral prescription of what constitutes proper labour practices continues to be a bone of contention. However, trading countries have braced themselves to face down any challenges with some of the exporting countries voluntarily taking on themselves the onus of putting in place a code of ethical standards so that their merchandise does not get jettisoned in the overseas markets on this count. Though India's merchandise exports overshot the target by a couple of billion dollars to reach $303 billion in 2011-12 fiscal year, the country could not achieve the target of $32.3 billion of textile and clothing exports as it fell short by a substantial value. Still, India ranks as the sixth largest exporter of apparel with a global market share of 3.25 percent, after China at 37 percent, the EU at 28 percent, Hong Kong at 7 percent, Bangladesh at 4.5 percent and Turkey at 3.6 percent. For a country that boasts of being the largest producer of King Cotton, the position behind tiny countries such as Bangladesh and Hong Kong has more to do with several domestic disabilities such as high cost of finance, lack of flexible labour policy and infrastructural impediments. Added to these travails is the emerging concern over and apprehension of India's apparel not making it to the traditional global markets if the orchestrated campaign for labour standards gets strident and stringent. Incidentally, the US and the European Union (EU) together account for 80 percent of India's total apparel exports and the retail stores in these countries, which stock up apparel from developing countries, have lately been crying hoarse over alleged harsh treatment to labourers in exporting countries. These concerns presumably arise out of the prodding from their own governments which find protectionist sentiments in times of trouble a facile course to resort to. It is against this sombre scenario that the Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) worked out a comprehensive compliance code for ethical sourcing for the apparel exports from India. This stems from both a conviction, and recognition of the crucial linkages between ethical trade and economic growth. It can be inferred from the passage that
    • A. 

      AEPC is as concerned about fair labour practices as are the developed nations

    • B. 

      India fell short of its target for exports in 2011-12

    • C. 

      India is the world's largest producer of textiles made of King Cotton

    • D. 

      The US and EU are not really concerned over the fate of labourers in the developing countries

  • 29. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage IV With the major economies of the United States and the euro zone still showing no let-up from their halting recovery, Indian apparel exporters continue to suffer from tepid demand. They are also, of late, compelled to make do with unpleasant non-tariff barriers (NTBs) such as rigorous standards. Apparently, the most galling one is insistence on fair labour standards. That includes not importing garments/ apparel made by child labour or forced labour or prison labour from exporting countries. While no one could fault the new perception of concerns for the vulnerable, the unilateral prescription of what constitutes proper labour practices continues to be a bone of contention. However, trading countries have braced themselves to face down any challenges with some of the exporting countries voluntarily taking on themselves the onus of putting in place a code of ethical standards so that their merchandise does not get jettisoned in the overseas markets on this count. Though India's merchandise exports overshot the target by a couple of billion dollars to reach $303 billion in 2011-12 fiscal year, the country could not achieve the target of $32.3 billion of textile and clothing exports as it fell short by a substantial value. Still, India ranks as the sixth largest exporter of apparel with a global market share of 3.25 percent, after China at 37 percent, the EU at 28 percent, Hong Kong at 7 percent, Bangladesh at 4.5 percent and Turkey at 3.6 percent. For a country that boasts of being the largest producer of King Cotton, the position behind tiny countries such as Bangladesh and Hong Kong has more to do with several domestic disabilities such as high cost of finance, lack of flexible labour policy and infrastructural impediments. Added to these travails is the emerging concern over and apprehension of India's apparel not making it to the traditional global markets if the orchestrated campaign for labour standards gets strident and stringent. Incidentally, the US and the European Union (EU) together account for 80 percent of India's total apparel exports and the retail stores in these countries, which stock up apparel from developing countries, have lately been crying hoarse over alleged harsh treatment to labourers in exporting countries. These concerns presumably arise out of the prodding from their own governments which find protectionist sentiments in times of trouble a facile course to resort to. It is against this sombre scenario that the Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) worked out a comprehensive compliance code for ethical sourcing for the apparel exports from India. This stems from both a conviction, and recognition of the crucial linkages between ethical trade and economic growth. It is implied in the passage that
    • A. 

      The US and EU together account for four-fifths of the imports

    • B. 

      India has set up AEPC to expressly work out a code of ethics for Indian textile producers

    • C. 

      Economic growth is certainly dependent on ethical trade practices

    • D. 

      China is one of the major importers of textiles as are the US and EU

  • 30. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage V The tussle between coal mining and nature conservation has been long standing. But things have risen to a new level with the Group of Ministers (GoM) being set up to consider the various issues around coal mining. They have recently written to Chief Secretaries of all the coal-bearing states asking them to reapply for permissions to mine in very dense forests. However, environmental scientists and civil society groups worry about the GoM's decision to dilute the environmental safeguards currently in place and open up all forests to mining. They argue that there is an important need for some mechanism to be put in place that recognises certain forests in the country as being critical. And, therefore, not open to mining. Their first argument for forests is the various "ecosystem services" that humans derive from these forests. Hydrological, nutrient and nitrogen cycles help plants and food crops to grow. Carbon cycles regulate global climate. These cannot be replaced by afforestation programmes and artificial forests. Ecological scientists have estimated the net value of some of the more easily quantifiable ecosystem services to be around US $33 trillion a year; or more than twice the global GDP. They argue that any industrial projects that involve the destruction of forests must also factor in these ecological costs. Another concern is the large number of tribals and other forest dwellers who directly depend on forests for their livelihood. The current resettlement and rehabilitation policy for such people, in Madhya Pradesh for example, consists of one-tenth of an acre of land and the promise of one member of the household being employed in the mining project or thermal power plant after its completion. A body of work by the World Bank has highlighted the inadequacy of most of these rehabilitation packages. It argues that actual costs of displacing people are considerably more. These must be factored into the "real" costs of large development projects. Non-Government Organisations and activists across the board all accept the urgent need for India to produce more energy. But they express serious reservations about India locking itself into a carbon intense development path. It is implied in the passage that
    • A. 

      The coal minister and environment minister are constantly in a tussle in the GoM meetings

    • B. 

      Coal reserves have been discovered in several very dense forests that were earlier thought to be lacking in coal resources

    • C. 

      A great many tribals depend on forest produce for their livelihood

    • D. 

      None of these

  • 31. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage V The tussle between coal mining and nature conservation has been long standing. But things have risen to a new level with the Group of Ministers (GoM) being set up to consider the various issues around coal mining. They have recently written to Chief Secretaries of all the coal-bearing states asking them to reapply for permissions to mine in very dense forests. However, environmental scientists and civil society groups worry about the GoM's decision to dilute the environmental safeguards currently in place and open up all forests to mining. They argue that there is an important need for some mechanism to be put in place that recognises certain forests in the country as being critical. And, therefore, not open to mining. Their first argument for forests is the various "ecosystem services" that humans derive from these forests. Hydrological, nutrient and nitrogen cycles help plants and food crops to grow. Carbon cycles regulate global climate. These cannot be replaced by afforestation programmes and artificial forests. Ecological scientists have estimated the net value of some of the more easily quantifiable ecosystem services to be around US $33 trillion a year; or more than twice the global GDP. They argue that any industrial projects that involve the destruction of forests must also factor in these ecological costs. Another concern is the large number of tribals and other forest dwellers who directly depend on forests for their livelihood. The current resettlement and rehabilitation policy for such people, in Madhya Pradesh for example, consists of one-tenth of an acre of land and the promise of one member of the household being employed in the mining project or thermal power plant after its completion. A body of work by the World Bank has highlighted the inadequacy of most of these rehabilitation packages. It argues that actual costs of displacing people are considerably more. These must be factored into the "real" costs of large development projects. Non-Government Organisations and activists across the board all accept the urgent need for India to produce more energy. But they express serious reservations about India locking itself into a carbon intense development path. Environmental scientists are worried about
    • A. 

      Civil society groups as the latter generally tend to rake up issues only to target the former

    • B. 

      The GoM's decision to pour cold water on safety regulations

    • C. 

      The potential loss of livelihood of tribals due to coal mining projects

    • D. 

      The relaxing of norms to allow coal mining in all forests

  • 32. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage V The tussle between coal mining and nature conservation has been long standing. But things have risen to a new level with the Group of Ministers (GoM) being set up to consider the various issues around coal mining. They have recently written to Chief Secretaries of all the coal-bearing states asking them to reapply for permissions to mine in very dense forests. However, environmental scientists and civil society groups worry about the GoM's decision to dilute the environmental safeguards currently in place and open up all forests to mining. They argue that there is an important need for some mechanism to be put in place that recognises certain forests in the country as being critical. And, therefore, not open to mining. Their first argument for forests is the various "ecosystem services" that humans derive from these forests. Hydrological, nutrient and nitrogen cycles help plants and food crops to grow. Carbon cycles regulate global climate. These cannot be replaced by afforestation programmes and artificial forests. Ecological scientists have estimated the net value of some of the more easily quantifiable ecosystem services to be around US $33 trillion a year; or more than twice the global GDP. They argue that any industrial projects that involve the destruction of forests must also factor in these ecological costs. Another concern is the large number of tribals and other forest dwellers who directly depend on forests for their livelihood. The current resettlement and rehabilitation policy for such people, in Madhya Pradesh for example, consists of one-tenth of an acre of land and the promise of one member of the household being employed in the mining project or thermal power plant after its completion. A body of work by the World Bank has highlighted the inadequacy of most of these rehabilitation packages. It argues that actual costs of displacing people are considerably more. These must be factored into the "real" costs of large development projects. Non-Government Organisations and activists across the board all accept the urgent need for India to produce more energy. But they express serious reservations about India locking itself into a carbon intense development path. Which of the following statements is not implied in the passage?
    • A. 

      Need for energy production has been felt only lately in India

    • B. 

      Government of India's rehabilitation packages more or less suffice to help resettle the tribals from forests

    • C. 

      India has got blocked in its development path

    • D. 

      Afforestation programmes and artificial forests adequately make up for destruction of existing forest areas

  • 33. 
    Directions: Study the passages below and answer the questions that follow each passage. Passage V The tussle between coal mining and nature conservation has been long standing. But things have risen to a new level with the Group of Ministers (GoM) being set up to consider the various issues around coal mining. They have recently written to Chief Secretaries of all the coal-bearing states asking them to reapply for permissions to mine in very dense forests. However, environmental scientists and civil society groups worry about the GoM's decision to dilute the environmental safeguards currently in place and open up all forests to mining. They argue that there is an important need for some mechanism to be put in place that recognises certain forests in the country as being critical. And, therefore, not open to mining. Their first argument for forests is the various "ecosystem services" that humans derive from these forests. Hydrological, nutrient and nitrogen cycles help plants and food crops to grow. Carbon cycles regulate global climate. These cannot be replaced by afforestation programmes and artificial forests. Ecological scientists have estimated the net value of some of the more easily quantifiable ecosystem services to be around US $33 trillion a year; or more than twice the global GDP. They argue that any industrial projects that involve the destruction of forests must also factor in these ecological costs. Another concern is the large number of tribals and other forest dwellers who directly depend on forests for their livelihood. The current resettlement and rehabilitation policy for such people, in Madhya Pradesh for example, consists of one-tenth of an acre of land and the promise of one member of the household being employed in the mining project or thermal power plant after its completion. A body of work by the World Bank has highlighted the inadequacy of most of these rehabilitation packages. It argues that actual costs of displacing people are considerably more. These must be factored into the "real" costs of large development projects. Non-Government Organisations and activists across the board all accept the urgent need for India to produce more energy. But they express serious reservations about India locking itself into a carbon intense development path. Rehabilitation packages offered by the government to tribals displaced from forests due to mining activities 1. vary from state to state. 2. include instant employment for at least one member of the family. 3. do not take into account all the costs of displacing people.
    • A. 

      A & B

    • B. 

      B & C

    • C. 

      A & C

    • D. 

      A, B & C

  • 34. 
    Directions: Fill in the blanks. Television serials are characterised by a/an __________ story line and __________ plots and sub-plots.
    • A. 

      Unending, convoluted

    • B. 

      Infantile, simple

    • C. 

      Uniform, emotional

    • D. 

      Extempore, routine

  • 35. 
    Directions: Fill in the blanks. If mankind has to survive for long, it must __________ and deliberately renounce the fruits of and __________ whirling technology.
    • A. 

      Willfully, wild

    • B. 

      Honestly, responsible

    • C. 

      Sincerely, labour

    • D. 

      Effectively, sliding

  • 36. 
    Directions: Fill in the blanks. Pipes are not a safer __________ to cigarettes because, though pipe smokers do not inhale, they are still getting __________ lung and mouth cancers.
    • A. 

      Preference, not free from

    • B. 

      Answer, responsible for

    • C. 

      Alternative, prone to

    • D. 

      Rejoinder, involved in

  • 37. 
    Directions: Choose the order of the sentences marked A, B, C, D and E to form a logical paragraph. 1. The more fundamental and far-reaching a scientific theory, the more speculative it is likely to be. 2. But speculation is its very life- blood. 3. A mature science tries to arrange facts in significant patterns to see the relationship between unrelated aspects of the universe. 4. Idle speculation has no place in science. 5. It is erroneous to believe that science is only concerned with pure facts.
    • A. 

      DBAEC

    • B. 

      AECBD

    • C. 

      BDCEA

    • D. 

      AECDB

  • 38. 
    Directions: Choose the order of the sentences marked A, B, C, D and E to form a logical paragraph. 1. But this time a curious philosophy has emerged. 2. However, it seems that a regulatory solution is yet far away. 3. It says that the more we know about a problem, the more uncertainty is introduced and the more it needs to be studied. 4. The recent debates on acid rain have pitted the environmentalists head to head against industry. 5. As a result, today we know more about acid rain and its effect than ever before.
    • A. 

      ABDEC

    • B. 

      DACEB

    • C. 

      CEBAD

    • D. 

      BADCE

  • 39. 
    Directions: Choose the order of the sentences marked A, B, C, D and E to form a logical paragraph. 1. Seconds later, the glaring object swept past and he thought he had outmanoeuvred it. 2. While flying over enemy territory, Jones received the warning of an oncoming missile. 3. He was proved wrong when he saw the vertical tail fins on fire. 4. Without wasting time, he slammed the throttles forward and made the plane roll into a high speed turn. 5. Hardly had he responded to the message when he actually saw whatever he dreaded most.
    • A. 

      EDCBA

    • B. 

      BCDEA

    • C. 

      DAECB

    • D. 

      BEDAC

  • 40. 
    Directions: Choose the order of the sentences marked A, B, C, D and E to form a logical paragraph. 1. A film director has to translate the given scenario into visual medium. 2. A novelist works in the written word. 3. Whereas the film director works in pictures, in visual movement. 4. The pictures may be supported by speech and sound. 5. But primarily the film is a pictorial art.
    • A. 

      ABCDE

    • B. 

      CDEAB

    • C. 

      BCDEA

    • D. 

      EDCBA