Unit 7 Test - Cities And Urban Land Use

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The process of settlement formation, expansion, and change is called

    • A.

      Suburbanization

    • B.

      Urbanization

    • C.

      Post modern expansion

    • D.

      City growth

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Urbanization
    Explanation
    Urbanization refers to the process of settlement formation, expansion, and change in urban areas. It involves the growth of cities, the increase in population, and the development of infrastructure and services. This term encompasses the transformation of rural areas into urban ones and the overall growth and development of cities. Suburbanization, post-modern expansion, and city growth are all aspects of urbanization, making "all of the above" the correct answer.

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  • 2. 

    The most practical definition for an urban area is

    • A.

      The central city and its surrounding suburbs.

    • B.

      The economic influence of the central city.

    • C.

      The central and the continuously developed areas.

    • D.

      The central city and the land area inside the adjacent counties.

    • E.

      The central city and its neighboring municipalities.

    Correct Answer
    A. The central city and its surrounding suburbs.
    Explanation
    The most practical definition for an urban area is the central city and its surrounding suburbs. This definition takes into account the fact that urban areas are not limited to just the central city, but also include the areas immediately surrounding it. The suburbs are typically characterized by residential areas, commercial centers, and other urban features, making them an integral part of the overall urban landscape. By including the surrounding suburbs in the definition, it captures the full extent of the urban area and acknowledges the interconnectedness between the central city and its neighboring communities.

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  • 3. 

    An urban settlement that has incorporated into an independent self-governing unit is a

    • A.

      Metropolitan area

    • B.

      Micropolitan statistical area

    • C.

      City

    • D.

      Metropolitan statistical area

    • E.

      Consolidated metropolitan statistical area

    Correct Answer
    C. City
    Explanation
    The correct answer is city. A city is an urban settlement that has incorporated into an independent self-governing unit. It is typically larger and more developed than other types of settlements, such as micropolitan or metropolitan statistical areas. A city has its own local government and provides a wide range of services to its residents, including infrastructure, utilities, and public safety.

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  • 4. 

    The physical qualities of the original location for a city is referred to as the 

    • A.

      Relative location

    • B.

      Locational determinants

    • C.

      Site characteristics

    • D.

      Situational characteristics

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Site characteristics
    Explanation
    The physical qualities of the original location for a city are referred to as site characteristics. This includes factors such as the topography, climate, soil fertility, and access to water sources. These site characteristics play a crucial role in determining the suitability and potential development of a city in a particular location.

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  • 5. 

    In ancient Southeast Asia cities political acted as 

    • A.

      Empires

    • B.

      City governments

    • C.

      States

    • D.

      Unincorporated entities

    • E.

      Centers of culture

    Correct Answer
    C. States
    Explanation
    In ancient Southeast Asia, cities played a significant role as states. These cities were not just mere city governments or unincorporated entities, but rather they functioned as independent political entities with their own governance systems and territories. These states had their own rulers, laws, and administrative structures. They were often centers of culture and trade, exerting influence over surrounding regions and sometimes even expanding their territories through conquest. Therefore, the correct answer is states.

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  • 6. 

    Street patterns of Medieval European cities resembled 

    • A.

      A grid system

    • B.

      A chaotic haphazard layout

    • C.

      Curving streets inside a major grid network

    • D.

      A grid system with diagonal boulevards

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. A chaotic haphazard layout
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a chaotic haphazard layout." This is because during the Medieval period, European cities did not have planned or organized street patterns like a grid system or a grid system with diagonal boulevards. Instead, the streets were often irregular, winding, and unplanned, resulting in a chaotic and haphazard layout within the cities.

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  • 7. 

    Industries during the 1800s located close to Central Business District (CBDs) because

    • A.

      It was closest to the expanding urban population

    • B.

      They needed to locate close to transportation lines

    • C.

      It had the highest range and threshold

    • D.

      Of the availability of low-cost warehousing

    • E.

      That land was more affordable.

    Correct Answer
    B. They needed to locate close to transportation lines
    Explanation
    During the 1800s, industries located close to Central Business Districts (CBDs) because they needed to be near transportation lines. This allowed them to easily transport their goods and materials to and from their factories. Being close to transportation lines reduced transportation costs and increased efficiency in the supply chain. Additionally, being near transportation lines provided easy access to raw materials and markets, allowing industries to effectively distribute their products and reach a larger customer base.

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  • 8. 

    During the Industrial Revolution, what factor contributed the most to rapid urbanization?

    • A.

      The city was an economic pull.

    • B.

      The city was a political pull.

    • C.

      The city was an environmental pull.

    • D.

      The city was a cultural pull.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. The city was an economic pull.
    Explanation
    During the Industrial Revolution, the city being an economic pull contributed the most to rapid urbanization. This means that the city offered economic opportunities and benefits that attracted people from rural areas to move to urban areas. The availability of jobs, higher wages, and better living conditions in the city compared to rural areas motivated individuals to migrate in search of a better life and economic prosperity. This economic pull factor played a significant role in driving the rapid growth of cities during the Industrial Revolution.

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  • 9. 

    According to Brian Berry, people who are a part of a ''daily urban system'' ,supported by functional regions connected to urban hubs by commuter links, have access to a plethora of services in 

    • A.

      More developed countries

    • B.

      The United States

    • C.

      Less developed countries

    • D.

      Newly industrialized countries

    • E.

      A and B only.

    Correct Answer
    E. A and B only.
    Explanation
    In his statement, Brian Berry refers to a "daily urban system" that is supported by functional regions connected to urban hubs by commuter links. This suggests that the people who are part of this system have access to a wide range of services. The answer "A and B only" (more developed countries and the United States) is correct because these countries typically have well-developed urban systems with extensive services and infrastructure. Less developed countries and newly industrialized countries may have less developed urban systems and limited access to services.

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  • 10. 

    Choose the proper hierarchy of cities on the West Coast of the Unites States 

    • A.

      Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, San Jose, Sacramento, Santa Barbara

    • B.

      Los Angeles, Seattle, San Francisco, Sacramento, San Diego, Santa Barbara

    • C.

      Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Sacramento, Santa Barbara

    • D.

      Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, Seattle, Sacramento, Santa Barbara

    • E.

      Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Sacramento

    Correct Answer
    A. Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, San Jose, Sacramento, Santa Barbara
  • 11. 

    A primate city is

    • A.

      The most important city in a country

    • B.

      When the largest city in a country is twice the size of the next largest city

    • C.

      When the largest city in an LDC has a primitive infrastructure

    • D.

      The largest city in a region of a country

    • E.

      When the largest city is located on the periphery

    Correct Answer
    B. When the largest city in a country is twice the size of the next largest city
    Explanation
    A primate city is defined as the most important city in a country when the largest city in that country is twice the size of the next largest city. This means that the largest city holds a significantly higher population and economic importance compared to other cities in the country. The primate city often serves as the political, economic, and cultural center, exerting a dominant influence over the rest of the country. This concentration of power and resources in one city can lead to imbalances and disparities within the country's urban system.

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  • 12. 

    The three most important cities in the world are 

    • A.

      New York, Paris, and Shanghai

    • B.

      New York, London, and Tokyo

    • C.

      New York, London, and Beijing

    • D.

      New York, Paris, and Tokyo

    • E.

      New York, Rome, and Shanghai

    Correct Answer
    B. New York, London, and Tokyo
    Explanation
    The three most important cities in the world are New York, London, and Tokyo. These cities are considered important due to their significant influence in various aspects such as finance, commerce, culture, and politics. New York is a global financial hub and a major center for media, arts, and entertainment. London is renowned for its historical and cultural significance, as well as being a major financial and business center. Tokyo is a leading global city known for its technological advancements, economic power, and cultural heritage. Together, these cities play a crucial role in shaping global trends and developments.

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  • 13. 

    The continent with the least number of world cities is

    • A.

      Africa

    • B.

      South America

    • C.

      Australia

    • D.

      Europe

    • E.

      Asia

    Correct Answer
    C. Australia
    Explanation
    Australia is the continent with the least number of world cities because it has a relatively small population and a smaller land area compared to other continents. Additionally, Australia is geographically isolated, which limits its connectivity and interaction with other countries and cities around the world. This lack of connectivity and smaller population contribute to the lower number of world cities in Australia compared to other continents.

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  • 14. 

    What factor(s) have contributed to the rapid urbanization in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) since 1950?

    • A.

      Cities provide opportunity for displace rural residents

    • B.

      Explosive population growth has made difficult for subsistence farmers to support their families

    • C.

      Cultural amenities attract number of young urban professionals

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and B only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and B only
    Explanation
    The rapid urbanization in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) since 1950 can be attributed to two main factors. Firstly, cities provide opportunities for displaced rural residents. As rural areas face challenges such as lack of employment opportunities and limited access to basic services, people are drawn towards cities in search of better livelihoods. Secondly, explosive population growth has made it difficult for subsistence farmers to support their families. The increasing population puts pressure on limited agricultural resources, leading to decreased productivity and income. As a result, many farmers are forced to move to urban areas in search of alternative sources of income.

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  • 15. 

    Challenges for mega cities in More Developed Countries (MDCs) include

    • A.

      Overcrowding

    • B.

      Infrastructure maintenance

    • C.

      Crime

    • D.

      Pollution

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The challenges for mega cities in More Developed Countries (MDCs) include overcrowding, infrastructure maintenance, crime, and pollution. Overcrowding is a significant issue in mega cities, as the population density exceeds the capacity of the city's resources. Infrastructure maintenance is crucial to ensure the smooth functioning of the city and to meet the needs of its inhabitants. Crime rates tend to be higher in densely populated areas, posing a challenge for safety and security. Pollution is also a major concern in mega cities, with increased emissions from vehicles, industries, and waste management. Therefore, all of these factors contribute to the challenges faced by mega cities in MDCs.

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  • 16. 

    In the United States overlapping Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) eventually leads to conurbanaization or 

    • A.

      A megalopolis

    • B.

      A Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area

    • C.

      Many Micropolitan Statistical Areas

    • D.

      Cooperative regional council of governments

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. A megalopolis
    Explanation
    Overlapping Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States eventually lead to conurbanaization or a megalopolis. Conurbanaization refers to the merging of multiple cities or urban areas into one continuous urban region. This process occurs when MSAs, which are defined as areas with a high degree of economic and social integration, expand and overlap with each other. As a result, the separate urban areas become interconnected and form a larger, integrated urban region known as a megalopolis. This phenomenon is often observed in highly populated and developed regions where urbanization and economic growth are significant.

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  • 17. 

    Favelas are Brazil as _________ are to Mexico

    • A.

      Squatter settlements

    • B.

      Barrios

    • C.

      Bidonvilles

    • D.

      Barung- barong

    • E.

      Slums

    Correct Answer
    B. Barrios
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "barrios". Barrios are to Mexico what favelas are to Brazil. Both terms refer to impoverished neighborhoods or districts characterized by informal housing and poor living conditions. Barrios are commonly found in Mexican cities, while favelas are prevalent in Brazilian urban areas.

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  • 18. 

    From 1400 - 1700 many European power established _________ , which served as an entrance to or exit from a conquered area.

    • A.

      A colonial city

    • B.

      An administrative center

    • C.

      A gateway city

    • D.

      An outpost

    • E.

      Provisional government

    Correct Answer
    C. A gateway city
    Explanation
    During the period from 1400 to 1700, European powers established gateway cities, which served as an entrance to or exit from a conquered area. These cities acted as important trade hubs and allowed the colonial powers to control and regulate the flow of goods and people in and out of the conquered territories. They played a crucial role in facilitating colonial expansion and maintaining control over the regions under European rule.

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  • 19. 

    What assumption(s) are in Christaller's Central Place Theory?

    • A.

      A flat isotropic plane with no physical barriers

    • B.

      Uniform soil fertility

    • C.

      Population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed

    • D.

      Uniform transportation system in all directions

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed
    Explanation
    Christaller's Central Place Theory assumes that population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed. This means that people and their ability to buy goods and services are spread out evenly across a given area. This assumption is important because it forms the basis for the theory's predictions about the location and size of central places, which are settlements that provide goods and services to surrounding areas. Without this assumption, the theory would not be able to accurately predict the spatial distribution of central places and their relationship to each other.

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  • 20. 

    The minimum number of people needed to support a business is called the 

    • A.

      Range.

    • B.

      Peak land value intersection.

    • C.

      Economic base of settlement.

    • D.

      Threshold.

    • E.

      Minimum population requirement.

    Correct Answer
    D. Threshold.
    Explanation
    The threshold refers to the minimum number of people required to support a business. It represents the minimum population needed to sustain the demand for goods and services and ensure the profitability of the business. The threshold can vary depending on the type of business and the specific market conditions.

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  • 21. 

    Rank the following services from low to high order

    • A.

      Soft drink, bakery, shoe store , auto dealership.

    • B.

      Bakery, shoe store, soft drink, auto dealership.

    • C.

      Shoe store, soft drink, bakery, auto dealership

    • D.

      Auto dealership, shoe store, bakery, soft drink

    • E.

      Auto dealership, soft drink, shoe store, bakery

    Correct Answer
    D. Auto dealership, shoe store, bakery, soft drink
    Explanation
    The correct ranking of the services from low to high order is auto dealership, shoe store, bakery, and soft drink. This ranking is based on the assumption that auto dealerships generally involve higher-priced and more complex transactions compared to shoe stores, bakeries, and soft drink sales. Auto dealerships typically involve the purchase or lease of a high-value item such as a car, which requires more consideration and financial commitment. Shoe stores and bakeries typically involve lower-priced items and simpler transactions. Soft drink sales generally involve the lowest-priced items and simplest transactions, as they are often impulse purchases.

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  • 22. 

    The economic base of many cities in Rocky Mountain West includes

    • A.

      Mining

    • B.

      Recreation and tourism

    • C.

      Manufacturing

    • D.

      Business services

    • E.

      A and B only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and B only
    Explanation
    The economic base of many cities in the Rocky Mountain West includes mining, recreation and tourism. Mining is a significant industry in this region due to the abundance of natural resources such as coal, oil, and minerals. Recreation and tourism also play a vital role in the economy, as the Rocky Mountains offer various outdoor activities and attract tourists from around the world. Manufacturing and business services are not specifically mentioned in the question, so they are not included in the economic base of these cities. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B only.

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  • 23. 

    Cites significantly increased their population size in Europe and North America during the

    • A.

      Later Medieval Ages

    • B.

      Height of the Roman Empire

    • C.

      Post World war II

    • D.

      The roaring 20s

    • E.

      Industrial Revolution

    Correct Answer
    E. Industrial Revolution
    Explanation
    During the Industrial Revolution, there was a significant increase in the population size of cities in Europe and North America. This was mainly due to the migration of people from rural areas to urban centers in search of employment opportunities in factories and industries. The rapid industrialization and urbanization led to the growth of cities, with advancements in technology, transportation, and infrastructure. This resulted in a major shift from agrarian societies to industrialized urban societies, leading to a substantial increase in the population of cities during this time period.

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  • 24. 

    Which urban model best explains the spatial impact of automobiles and the construction of interstate highways on metropolitan areas in the United States?

    • A.

      Concentric Zone Model

    • B.

      Peripheral Model

    • C.

      Hoyt's Sector Model

    • D.

      Multi Nuclei Model

    • E.

      Lifestyle Model

    Correct Answer
    C. Hoyt's Sector Model
    Explanation
    Hoyt's Sector Model best explains the spatial impact of automobiles and the construction of interstate highways on metropolitan areas in the United States. This model suggests that cities grow outward from a central business district along transportation routes, such as highways. It emphasizes the development of sectors or wedges of land use that radiate out from the city center, with different sectors being occupied by different types of activities or housing. This model reflects the influence of automobiles and highways on urban development patterns, as they facilitate the expansion of cities along transportation corridors.

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  • 25. 

    How have industrially-based cities in the Northeastern United States attempt to combat the loss of jobs from the relocation of industries to suburbs and to Least Development Countries (LDC's)?

    • A.

      Invest heavily in community outreach programs

    • B.

      Develop health, research, and personal service sectors.

    • C.

      Develop tourism

    • D.

      Invest in vocational training

    • E.

      Rely on immigrant labor for business growth

    Correct Answer
    B. Develop health, research, and personal service sectors.
    Explanation
    Industrially-based cities in the Northeastern United States have attempted to combat the loss of jobs by developing health, research, and personal service sectors. By focusing on these sectors, cities can attract new industries and businesses that are related to healthcare, research, and personal services. This diversification of the economy helps to create new job opportunities and offset the loss of jobs from the relocation of industries. Additionally, these sectors often require skilled workers, which can lead to the development of vocational training programs to provide the necessary skills for these jobs.

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  • 26. 

    In which region of the United States have many cities been able to move up the urban hierarchy by increasing higher order goods and services due to explosive population growth?

    • A.

      Rust Belt

    • B.

      New England

    • C.

      Pacific Northwest

    • D.

      Sun belt

    • E.

      Upper Midwest

    Correct Answer
    D. Sun belt
    Explanation
    The Sun Belt region of the United States has experienced explosive population growth, leading to the development of many cities that have been able to move up the urban hierarchy. This growth has attracted investments in higher order goods and services, contributing to the region's economic development and urbanization.

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  • 27. 

    When inner city neighborhood property values decline , owner of large older homes often subdivide the home into multiple units. This process is known as 

    • A.

      Filtering

    • B.

      Gentrification

    • C.

      Redlining

    • D.

      Blockbusting

    • E.

      Urban renewal

    Correct Answer
    A. Filtering
    Explanation
    Filtering refers to the process of large older homes being subdivided into multiple units when property values in inner city neighborhoods decline. This is a common strategy used by homeowners to maximize their income and make the property more affordable for renters. By dividing the home into multiple units, the owner can attract a larger pool of potential tenants and generate more rental income. This process helps to maintain the housing stock in the neighborhood and prevent the deterioration of older homes.

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  • 28. 

    A bank would be engaging in ________ if the  would not grant mortgages to customers in certain neighborhoods or zip-codes.

    • A.

      Blockbusting

    • B.

      Down zoning

    • C.

      Ghettoization

    • D.

      Redlinning

    • E.

      Filtering

    Correct Answer
    D. Redlinning
    Explanation
    Redlining refers to the practice of denying or limiting financial services, such as mortgages, to certain neighborhoods or zip codes based on racial or ethnic composition. This discriminatory practice is illegal and unethical as it perpetuates segregation and inequality. By refusing to grant mortgages to customers in specific neighborhoods or zip codes, the bank would be engaging in redlining.

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  • 29. 

    Who is most likely to move into revitalized urban downtown area neighborhoods?

    • A.

      White collar empty nesters

    • B.

      Young urban professionals (yuppies)

    • C.

      Recent college graduates

    • D.

      Double income no kids households (dinks)

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above are likely to move into revitalized urban downtown area neighborhoods. White collar empty nesters, young urban professionals (yuppies), recent college graduates, and double income no kids households (dinks) are all attracted to the amenities and opportunities that urban downtown areas offer. These individuals or groups may be seeking a vibrant social and cultural scene, job opportunities, convenience, and a sense of community. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that all of these demographics would be interested in moving into revitalized urban downtown area neighborhoods.

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  • 30. 

    This age cohort is well represented in upscale wealthy suburban communities.

    • A.

      10-14

    • B.

      15-19

    • C.

      40-44

    • D.

      49-50

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that the age cohort mentioned is well represented in upscale wealthy suburban communities. The statement does not specify which age cohort it is referring to, but it mentions that all of the options (10-14, 15-19, 40-44, and 49-50) are well represented in these communities. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above".

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  • 31. 

    Due to the changing nature of a city's economic base in North America, what activities and lad uses have declined in and around the Central Business District (CBD)?

    • A.

      Manufacturing

    • B.

      Residential

    • C.

      Major department stores

    • D.

      Warehousing

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above." Due to the changing economic base in North American cities, activities and land uses such as manufacturing, residential areas, major department stores, and warehousing have all declined in and around the Central Business District (CBD). This can be attributed to factors such as the shift towards a service-based economy, the decentralization of retail and industry, and the conversion of old industrial areas into commercial or residential spaces.

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  • 32. 

    Many cities in North America have designed and set aside area where outdoor concerts, Street performers, ethnic events, farmers markets, and cart vendors come together and act as a positive focal point economically and socially for urban life. This recent trend is often referred to as   

    • A.

      An urban park

    • B.

      A festival market place

    • C.

      A service oriented center

    • D.

      A lifestyle mall

    • E.

      An urban interface zone

    Correct Answer
    B. A festival market place
    Explanation
    A festival market place refers to a designated area in a city where various events and activities such as outdoor concerts, street performers, ethnic events, farmers markets, and cart vendors come together. This concept serves as a positive focal point for urban life both economically and socially, attracting people and creating a vibrant atmosphere. It provides opportunities for local businesses and artisans to showcase their products and services, while also offering entertainment and cultural experiences to residents and visitors.

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  • 33. 

    A city grows outwards from a central location in a series of rings in the

    • A.

      Sector Model.

    • B.

      Multiple Nuclei Model

    • C.

      Hoyt Model

    • D.

      Von Thunen Model

    • E.

      Concentric Zone Model

    Correct Answer
    E. Concentric Zone Model
    Explanation
    The concentric zone model suggests that a city grows outward from a central location in a series of rings. These rings are characterized by different land uses and socio-economic activities. The model proposes that the central business district (CBD) is surrounded by a transition zone, followed by zones of working-class housing, middle-class housing, and finally, the outermost zone of suburban or rural areas. This model helps explain the spatial organization and patterns of urban development in many cities around the world.

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  • 34. 

    According to the Burgess Model of Urban Development, the outer most ring is the

    • A.

      Extensive agriculture

    • B.

      Extensive commercial agriculture

    • C.

      The zone of better residences

    • D.

      The zone of transition

    • E.

      The commuter zone

    Correct Answer
    E. The commuter zone
    Explanation
    According to the Burgess Model of Urban Development, the outermost ring is referred to as the commuter zone. This zone is characterized by the presence of residential areas where people live, but commute to work in the central business district or other more developed areas of the city. The commuter zone is usually located at the outskirts of the city and is marked by a lower population density compared to the inner rings. This zone is often connected to the city center through transportation networks such as highways or public transportation systems.

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  • 35. 

    What did Hoyt's research uncover regarding the highest social class district in a city?

    • A.

      High-class neighborhoods were susceptible to ghettoization.

    • B.

      High-c;ass residential areas don't change much over time

    • C.

      High-class residential areas went through a process of decline and deterioration

    • D.

      Gentrification improved the property values of high-class residential sector.

    • E.

      High-class residential sector migrated towards the west.

    Correct Answer
    B. High-c;ass residential areas don't change much over time
    Explanation
    Hoyt's research uncovered that high-class residential areas don't change much over time.

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  • 36. 

    In Chauncy Harris and Edward Ulman's Multiple Nuclei Model which of the following are nodes

    • A.

      University centers

    • B.

      Hospital centers

    • C.

      Airport and transportation centers

    • D.

      Central business district

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above". In Chauncy Harris and Edward Ulman's Multiple Nuclei Model, nodes refer to the various specialized centers within a city that attract and generate economic activity. University centers, hospital centers, airport and transportation centers, and the central business district are all considered nodes in this model. These nodes serve as focal points for different activities and contribute to the overall functionality and development of the city.

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  • 37. 

    The major advantage of the peripheral model over other urban model is the fact that it

    • A.

      Highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation

    • B.

      Explains why inner city neighborhoods decline

    • C.

      Explains why low income housing is adjacent to industrial sectors

    • D.

      Explains the importance of multiple centers of activity in an urban area

    • E.

      Explains why the high income district extends from the CBD to the periphery

    Correct Answer
    A. Highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation
    Explanation
    The major advantage of the peripheral model over other urban models is that it highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation. This means that the model focuses on the negative consequences of urban expansion and the separation of different social groups within a city. It helps to understand how urban development can lead to the spread of low-density, car-dependent suburbs and the concentration of certain populations in specific areas, which can have negative social and environmental impacts.

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  • 38. 

    What type of land use dominates on the peripheral of the Latin American Model?

    • A.

      Squatter settlements

    • B.

      Industrial activity

    • C.

      Elite residential

    • D.

      Commercial

    • E.

      Middle class residential

    Correct Answer
    A. Squatter settlements
    Explanation
    The Latin American Model is characterized by a central business district surrounded by elite residential areas, followed by middle-class residential areas and then squatter settlements on the periphery. Squatter settlements refer to informal settlements that are typically occupied by low-income families who do not have legal rights to the land they occupy. These settlements often lack basic services and infrastructure, and are a result of rapid urbanization and rural-urban migration. Therefore, squatter settlements dominate on the periphery of the Latin American Model.

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  • 39. 

    Inside the wall of the Medieval European cities street patterns are best described as 

    • A.

      Chaotic with a few streets meeting at right angles.

    • B.

      On an extensive grid system

    • C.

      Carefully planned with diagonal boulevards.

    • D.

      Circular in nature

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Chaotic with a few streets meeting at right angles.
    Explanation
    The street patterns inside the wall of Medieval European cities were chaotic with a few streets meeting at right angles. This means that the streets were not organized in a planned or systematic manner, but rather developed over time in a haphazard way. However, there were some streets that did intersect at right angles, providing a small sense of order within the overall chaotic layout.

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  • 40. 

    Even though land use in North America Central Business District (CBD's) is characterized by Skyscrapers and high-density uses a sizable percentage of land is still devoted to

    • A.

      Recreation

    • B.

      Arts and entertainment

    • C.

      Museums

    • D.

      Industry

    • E.

      Automobiles

    Correct Answer
    E. Automobiles
    Explanation
    In North America's Central Business Districts (CBDs), land use is primarily characterized by skyscrapers and high-density uses. However, a significant portion of land is still dedicated to automobiles. This is because CBDs are often crowded and heavily trafficked areas, requiring ample space for parking lots, garages, and road infrastructure to accommodate the large number of vehicles that enter and exit the area. Additionally, many businesses in CBDs rely on automobile transportation for goods delivery and commuting purposes. Therefore, a considerable amount of land is still allocated for automobiles in CBDs.

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  • 41. 

    What factor(s) contributed to the proliferation of suburbs in America during the post World War II era?

    • A.

      Brown v. Board of Education

    • B.

      Federal government programs

    • C.

      Low-interest GI mortgages loans

    • D.

      Demographic shifts

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The proliferation of suburbs in America during the post-World War II era can be attributed to multiple factors. Brown v. Board of Education, a landmark Supreme Court decision, played a role by sparking racial tensions and leading to "white flight" from cities to suburban areas. Federal government programs, such as the GI Bill and the Federal Housing Administration, provided low-interest mortgages that made homeownership more accessible, encouraging people to move to suburban areas. Additionally, demographic shifts, including the baby boom and increasing affluence, contributed to the demand for suburban living. Therefore, all of the mentioned factors played a part in the proliferation of suburbs during this period.

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  • 42. 

    Visually, the main difference between cities in North America and Europe is that there

    • A.

      Is a prevalence o skyscraper in North American cities

    • B.

      Are more lower income neighborhoods in European cities

    • C.

      Are fewer skyscrapers in European cities

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and C only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and C only
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A and C only. This is because the main difference between cities in North America and Europe is that there is a prevalence of skyscrapers in North American cities, while there are fewer skyscrapers in European cities. This suggests that visually, North American cities have more tall buildings compared to European cities. The option "B" is incorrect as it states that there are more lower income neighborhoods in European cities, which is not mentioned in the question.

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  • 43. 

    Mixed land use with high-density housing options located near light rail subway stops is referred to as  

    • A.

      Down zoning

    • B.

      Covenant communities

    • C.

      Urban renewal

    • D.

      Transit-oriented development

    • E.

      Multi-modal development

    Correct Answer
    D. Transit-oriented development
    Explanation
    Transit-oriented development refers to the practice of planning and designing communities in a way that encourages the use of public transportation, particularly light rail subway systems. This includes incorporating mixed land use, such as residential, commercial, and recreational spaces, near subway stops to create high-density housing options. This approach aims to reduce reliance on private vehicles and promote sustainable and efficient transportation options.

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  • 44. 

    Chicago incorporated land beyond its city limits to build O'hare International Airport in the !960s. This is an excellent example of 

    • A.

      Urban renewal

    • B.

      Flagpole annexation

    • C.

      Antecedent boundary changes

    • D.

      Subsequent boundaries changes

    • E.

      Regional council of government intervention

    Correct Answer
    B. Flagpole annexation
    Explanation
    Chicago incorporated land beyond its city limits to build O'Hare International Airport in the 1960s. This is an excellent example of flagpole annexation. Flagpole annexation refers to the practice of incorporating a narrow strip of land that connects a city to a larger area. In this case, Chicago extended its boundaries to include the land necessary for the airport, creating a "flagpole" shape. This allowed the city to have control over the airport and benefit from the economic opportunities it brought.

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  • 45. 

    What problems do metro area municipalities find it difficult to solve without regional governmental agencies?

    • A.

      Air pollution

    • B.

      Traffic congestion

    • C.

      Solid waste disposal

    • D.

      Affordable housing

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Metro area municipalities often struggle to solve problems such as air pollution, traffic congestion, solid waste disposal, and affordable housing without the assistance of regional governmental agencies. These issues are complex and require a coordinated effort among multiple municipalities to effectively address them. Regional agencies can provide the necessary resources, expertise, and coordination to develop and implement comprehensive solutions that benefit the entire metropolitan area. Without regional governmental agencies, municipalities may face challenges in coordinating their efforts, sharing resources, and implementing long-term, sustainable solutions to these pressing issues.

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  • 46. 

    The "city beautiful movement" of the ;ate 19th century was a response to

    • A.

      Over crowded inner city tenements

    • B.

      Excessive pollution during the industrial era

    • C.

      Citizens' need for urban green spaces

    • D.

      Communities' need to have clean air

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The "city beautiful movement" of the late 19th century was a response to the various issues mentioned in the options. Overcrowded inner city tenements were a major concern during this time, as they were often unsanitary and lacked proper living conditions. Excessive pollution during the industrial era was also a pressing issue that needed to be addressed. Additionally, citizens' need for urban green spaces and communities' need to have clean air were recognized as important factors for improving the overall quality of life in cities. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above" as the city beautiful movement aimed to address these multiple issues.

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  • 47. 

    Urban growth boundaries are most commonly associated with the movement known as 

    • A.

      Smart growth

    • B.

      New urbanism

    • C.

      Transit oriented development

    • D.

      Urban renewal

    • E.

      Low density development

    Correct Answer
    A. Smart growth
    Explanation
    Urban growth boundaries are most commonly associated with the movement known as smart growth. Smart growth is an urban planning and development approach that aims to create more sustainable and livable communities. Urban growth boundaries are a key tool used in smart growth strategies to control and manage the expansion of urban areas. These boundaries are established to limit urban sprawl and promote compact, walkable, and transit-oriented development within existing urban areas. By concentrating growth within these boundaries, smart growth aims to preserve open space, protect natural resources, and promote efficient land use.

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  • 48. 

    New urbanism is based upon land use trends from

    • A.

      1950s auto suburbs

    • B.

      Street-car suburbs of the 1920s

    • C.

      1990s gated communities

    • D.

      1880s urban industrial era

    • E.

      19th century tenement

    Correct Answer
    B. Street-car suburbs of the 1920s
    Explanation
    New urbanism is a planning and development approach that aims to create walkable, mixed-use neighborhoods with a strong sense of community. It emphasizes the importance of public transportation, pedestrian-friendly streets, and a diverse range of housing options. The street-car suburbs of the 1920s were known for their compact, connected street grids and mixed-use development, which aligns with the principles of new urbanism. These suburbs were designed around streetcar lines, allowing residents to easily access amenities and services without relying on cars. Therefore, the street-car suburbs of the 1920s serve as a basis for the principles and concepts of new urbanism.

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  • 49. 

    Inner city challenges fall into three basic categories, which are

    • A.

      Economic, social, and physical

    • B.

      Economic, social, and environmental

    • C.

      Economic, physical, and environmental

    • D.

      Social, environmental, and hierarchial

    • E.

      Environmental, physical, and racial

    Correct Answer
    A. Economic, social, and physical
    Explanation
    Inner city challenges can be categorized into three main areas: economic, social, and physical. Economic challenges refer to issues such as poverty, unemployment, and lack of economic opportunities in inner cities. Social challenges involve problems related to crime, violence, social inequality, and inadequate access to social services. Physical challenges encompass deteriorating infrastructure, lack of affordable housing, and environmental problems like pollution and limited green spaces. These three categories encompass the major difficulties faced by inner cities, highlighting the interconnectedness of economic, social, and physical factors in shaping urban challenges.

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  • 50. 

    Suburbs developments suffer from

    • A.

      A lack of diversity

    • B.

      Social isolation

    • C.

      A lack of green space

    • D.

      Deterioration schools

    • E.

      A and B only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and B only
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A and B only. Suburban developments often face a lack of diversity and social isolation. These areas are typically homogenous and lack a mix of different cultures, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds. This can lead to a lack of social interaction and connection among residents. Additionally, the sprawling nature of suburbs often results in a lack of green space, limiting opportunities for outdoor activities and community engagement. However, the question does not mention anything about deteriorating schools, so this option is not included in the correct answer.

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